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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of Marandu grass (Brachiaria brizantha) haylage according to different dry matter (DM) contents in storage. The design adopted was completely randomized with four treatments and five replications. The treatments were DM contents of the plant at the moment of storage (in natura, 30–40, 40–50 and 50–60% DM). The analyses to assess the quality of the haylage were performed after 90 days of storage. The chemical composition, microbiological population, gas quantification, pH, N-NH3, volatile fatty acids, soluble carbohydrates (CHO) and the aerobic stability were evaluated. The means were compared through the Tukey's test and linear regression. The treatment with 50–60% DM presented the highest DM and CHO contents which were 563.8 and 42.0 g/kg, respectively. There was a higher presence of oxygen in the haylage of in natura material, which was 4.8%. There was no difference between treatments for the population of lactic acid bacteria; however, the treatment with 50–60% DM had the highest concentration of enterobacteria. The haylage with 30–40% DM and 50–60% DM presented high concentrations of acetic acid. There was no break in aerobic stability for any treatment within 120 h after opening the bales. There was a smaller amount of N-NH3 in treatments with 40–50% DM and 50–60% DM. The Marandu grass with a DM content of 50–60% for haylage making demonstrated better quality characterization of conserved forage.
Peach trees initiate flowering and then dense budding when the temperatures in winter are steadily low. When temperatures during the winter are high or when the chilling accumulation needs of the cultivar are not met, it is necessary to apply chemicals that stimulate flowering and budding in a uniform manner. This study aimed to evaluate alternative products for breaking the dormancy of ‘Kampai’ peach trees in a subtropical region. The experiment was conducted with ‘Kampai’ peach trees in the 2018, 2019 and 2020 production with the following treatments: (1) negative control composed only of water (control); (2) positive control composed of hydrogen cyanamide at a dose of 1.5% (commercial product Dormex®) plus 4.5% mineral oil; (3) Erger G® organomineral fertilizer supplemented with calcium nitrate at a dose of 3%; (4) potassium nitrate at a dose of 5%; and (5) copper sulphate at a dose of 0.3%. We evaluated affected budding capacity, flowering, the production cycle, peach production, the quality of peach trees and the enzymatic activities of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase. Hydrogen cyanamide and the organomineral fertilizer Erger G® promoted earlier flowering and an earlier production cycle. On the other hand, hydrogen cyanamide and copper sulphate stimulated flower opening and peach production. The chemicals used decreased catalase activity (24 h after application) and increased guaiacol peroxidase activity (6 h after application). The application of copper sulphate may be an option to break the dormancy of peach trees in the subtropics.
Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are an adverse effect of dopamine agonists (DAAs) that affects the quality of life and can lead to legal, criminal and familiar problems.
Presenting a review of the mechanisms, prevalence and factors associated with the development of an ICD due to DAA use.
Search on Pubmed database with combination of the following keywords were used: “Impulse control disorders”, “dopamine agonist” or “therapy”. We focused on data from studies published between 2015 and 2020. The articles were selected by the author according to their relevance.
DAAs are mainly indicated in the treatment of Parkinson’s Disease (PD), and are also used on symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and prolactinoma or lactation inhibition. Dopamine replacement therapy act on dopamine receptors in the nigrostriatal and the reward pathways, which plays a role in addictive behavior. The prevalence of ICDs ranged from 2.6 to 34.8% in PD patients and a lower prevalence in RLS patients. Some of the ICDs reported were pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive shopping, obsessive hobbying, punding, and compulsive medication use. The factors associated with the development include the type of DAAs, dosage, male gender, younger age, history of psychiatric symptoms, earlier onset of disease, longer disease duration, and motor complications in PD.
Further studies are needed to clarify the pathophysiology of the ICD in DAA therapy and determinate premorbid risk factors. The percentage of patients with ICDs is underrated, so it’s important to improve the patient’s evaluation, using validated and consensual assessment tools.
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by behavioral or language changes with progressive executive dysfunction. It´s subdivided into two variants, the behavioral and language variants. The phenocopy syndrome of frontotemporal dementia (phFTD) mimics the behavioral variant, but doesn´t show frontotemporal atrophy in neuroimaging and doesn´t progress to frank dementia over the years.
Presenting a review of phenocopy syndrome of frontotemporal dementia.
Search on Pubmed® and Medscape® databases with the following keywords: “frontotemporal dementia and phenocopy” or “FTD phenocopy”. We focused on data from systematic reviews and meta-analyzes published in the last five years. The articles were selected by the authors according to their relevance.
Mutations in GRN and MAPT gens and genetic expansion of C9orf72 have been identified. The discovery of the C9orf72 expansion in psychiatric disorders (psychosis, bipolar disorder or depressive disorder), for some authors, represents that phFTD is a psychiatric pathology. In fact, there’s a higher frequency of psychiatric and psychological symptoms in phFTD compared to the variants of FTD. Usually are male patients who don´t have significant cognitive deficits, with preservation of executive functions and episodic memory. Until now, there are no definitive biomarkers of the disease. The prognosis is more benigne, unlike FTD, which has an average survival of 3 years since diagnosis.
phFTD is a clinical and scientific challenge. The neurobiological bases remain unknown, requiring further studies in this field. The identification of markers that can differentiate patients with typical FTD and phFTD can facilitate prognosis orientation and pharmacological an non-pharmacological treatment.
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by neuropsychiatric symptoms before progressing to seizures, complex movement disorder, autonomic dysfunction and hypoventilation.
Presenting a review of the psychiatric manifestations of anti-NMDAR encephalitis.
Search on Pubmed® and Medscape® databases with the following keywords: “psychiatric”, “anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis” and “anti-NMDAR encephalitis”. We focused on data from systematic reviews and meta-analyzes. The articles were selected by the authors according to their relevance.
Studies show that 77% to 95% of patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis initially present psychiatric manifestations. Age and sex distribution are young women, and the frequency of cases is lower after 40 years of age. The most common psychiatric symptoms are agitation (59%) and psychotic symptoms (54%). The psychotic symptoms more common are visual (64%), auditory (59%) hallucinations and persecutory delusions (73%). Catatonia is described in 42% of patients. Antipsychotic treatment induces an adverse drug reaction (33%), the neuroleptic malignant syndrome represents 22% of the cases. Delays in distinguishing this disease from a psychiatric disorder can have serious complications, with a mortality of up to 25% in patients receiving limited or delayed immunotherapy.
It’s important to consider anti-NMDAR encephalitis in the differential diagnosis of patients with an acute onset psychosis or unusual psychiatric symptoms. Antipsychotic treatment should be use with caution when suspected or confirmed anti-NMDAR encephalitis. Without appropriate treatment, patients may suffer a protracted course with significant long-term disability or death. A clinical index of suspicion is required to identify patients who would benefit from cerebrospinal fluid testing and immunotherapies.
To evaluate energetic contribution according to the degree of industrial food processing and its association with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics in adolescents.
Cross-sectional study (Adolescent Lifestyle Study). Food consumption was assessed using 24-h dietary recalls, with foods classified by degree of industrial progressing. The usual diet was estimated using the Multiple Source Method. In a linear regression model, the energy percentage (E %) was associated with sociodemographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical and behavioural characteristics, after adjustment for sex and age.
Juiz de Fora, Brazil.
Eight hundred and four adolescents, of both sexes, 14–19 years of age, enrolled in public schools.
The E % of unprocessed or minimally processed foods corresponded to 43·1 %, processed foods to 11·0 % and the ultraprocessed foods to 45·9 %. E % of unprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = −0·093; P = 0·032), neck circumference (adjusted β = 0·017; P = 0·049), screen time (adjusted β = −0·247; P = 0·036) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = −0·156; P = 0·003). E % of ultraprocessed foods was associated with socio-economic stratum (adjusted β = 0·118; P = 0·011), screen time (adjusted β = 0·375; P = 0·003), BMI (adjusted β = −0·029; P = 0·025), neck circumference (adjusted β = −0·017; P = 0·028) and HDL-cholesterol (adjusted β = 0·150; P = 0·002).
There was a high E % of ultraprocessed foods in the diet of the adolescents. Actions are needed to raise the awareness of adopting healthy eating habits.
African trypanosomes are early divergent protozoan parasites responsible for high mortality and morbidity as well as a great economic burden among the world's poorest populations. Trypanosomes undergo antigenic variation in their mammalian hosts, a highly sophisticated immune evasion mechanism. Their nuclear organization and mechanisms for gene expression control present several conventional features but also a number of striking differences to the mammalian counterparts. Some of these unorthodox characteristics, such as lack of controlled transcription initiation or enhancer sequences, render their monogenic antigen transcription, which is critical for successful antigenic variation, even more enigmatic. Recent technological developments have advanced our understanding of nuclear organization and gene expression control in trypanosomes, opening novel research avenues. This review is focused on Trypanosoma brucei nuclear organization and how it impacts gene expression, with an emphasis on antigen expression. It highlights several dedicated sub-nuclear bodies that compartmentalize specific functions, whilst outlining similarities and differences to more complex eukaryotes. Notably, understanding the mechanisms underpinning antigen as well as general gene expression control is of great importance, as it might help designing effective control strategies against these organisms.
Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected disease and endemic in Brazil. In the Brazilian Northeast Region, it affects millions of people. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the spatiotemporal trends of CD mortality in the Northeast of Brazil. This ecological study was designed, in which the unit of analysis was the municipality of the Brazilian northeast. The data source was the Information System of Mortality. It was calculated relative risk from socioeconomic characteristics. Mortality rates were smoothed by the Local Empirical Bayes method. Spatial dependency was analysed by the Global and Local Moran Index. Scan spatial statistics were also used. A total of 11 287 deaths by CD were notified in the study. An expressive parcel of this number was observed among 70-year-olds or more (n = 4381; 38.8%), no schooling (n = 4381; 38.8%), mixed-race (n = 4381; 62.3%), male (n = 6875; 60.9%). It was observed positive spatial autocorrelation, mostly in municipalities of the state of Bahia, Piauí (with high-high clusters), and Maranhão (with low-low clusters). The spatial scan statistics has presented a risk of mortality in 24 purely spatial clusters (P < 0.05). The study has identified the spatial pattern of CD mortality mostly in Bahia and Piauí, highlighting priority areas in planning and control strategies of the health services.
Inga vera subsp. affinis (Fabaceae) is a tree species native to riparian forests in Southeast Brazil and is key for the restoration of deforested areas. The species produce seeds that are highly recalcitrant. Extreme sensitivity to desiccation as well as vivipary are commonly observed in mature seeds, which also tend towards polyembryony. Past research has shown that typical strategies to store seeds are inapplicable to Inga vera as viability is completely lost when seeds are either dried to around 28% water content (wet basis) or stored at 5°C for a few weeks. Here, we examine the feasibility of storing the seeds under hydrated conditions but at reduced water potential. Freshly collected seeds were kept under conventional storage conditions (plastic bags in cold chamber, 5°C) and in polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions (−1.6 and −2.4 MPa) at 10°C. Seed germination was assessed after various intervals of time, until all seeds had lost viability. Before storage, seeds attained 100% germination and produced an average of 1.8 normal seedlings per seed (due to polyembryony). Storage in PEG at −1.6 MPa maintained 90% germination (radicle protrusion) and one normal seedling per seed on average for more than 200 d. Osmotic storage likely slowed down metabolism within the seed and hence consumption of food reserves. The storage time achieved has practical applications for in situ restoration, but cannot address ex situ germplasm conservation. Extending shelf life for an additional 6 months allows tree nurseries to optimize the production of seedlings so that they can be planted during the wet season.
To investigate the association between body image disorders and the lifestyle and body composition of female adolescents.
The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Silhouette Scale and Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 were used to evaluate the participants’ body image. Body composition was evaluated by a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry equipment, and lifestyles were identified by latent class analysis (LCA) using the poLCA package for R.
Female adolescents aged 14–19 years old, in the city of Viçosa-MG, Brazil.
In total, 405 girls participated in the study. Almost half of the participants were dissatisfied with their current physical appearance (51·4 %), presented body perception distortions (52·9 %). 47·3 % of the adolescents were dissatisfied with their body according to the BSQ, and another 8 % severely so. Subjects with an ‘Inactive and Sedentary’ latent lifestyle were 1·71 times as likely to feel dissatisfied as those with active and sedentary or inactive and non-sedentary lifestyles (95 % CI 1·08, 2·90, P = 0·047). Body image disorders showed an association with decreased amounts of moderate and vigorous physical activity, high screen time, increased alcohol consumption and excess body fat.
Particular patterns of lifestyle and body composition seem to be associated in female adolescents with dissatisfaction with, distortion of and excessive concern about appearance. Specifically, physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour, alcohol consumption and high body fat percentage may be strongly linked to body image disorders.
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) generally has a presenile onset, behavioral manifestations dominate the clinical picture during which cognitive functions are still relatively intact. Therefore, particularly in the early stages of FTD it is difficult to differentiate this type of dementia from other types of dementia and psychiatric disorders.
Although most patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) present with neuropsychiatric symptoms, the frequency of psychotic symptoms, assumed to be rare, is still unclear possibly due to limited temporal-limbic involvement in this disorder. We report the case of a 48-year old man admitted in a psychiatric ward with delusions and hallucinations.
Significant behavior impairment was present related to social isolation and personality changes. Structural and functional neuroimaging methods disclosed asymmetric frontal and bitemporal damage, mainly on the left. Differential diagnosis consisted of psychotic disorders as well as one of the subtypes of the frontotemporal lobar degeneration group.
First described by Sigbert Ganser in 1987, Ganser syndrome consists in a rare condition, characterized by the following four clinical features: approximate answers, dulling of consciousness, conversion symptoms and hallucinations.
To present a case suggestive of Ganser Syndrome and to review the literature with particular regard to the aetiology of this condition.
Literature review, using computerized databases (MEDLINE®, Medscape®). Articles were selected based on the content of their abstract and their relevance.
A 58-year-old woman was admitted to a Psychiatric Unit of a General Hospital for presenting behavioural abnormalities of acute onset. During hospitalization, the patient displayed indifference, incoherent speech with approximate answers, motor abnormalities and auditory psedudohallucinations. The patient was evaluated by a neurologist and various exams were performed (blood tests, CT, MRI, EEG) that showed no significant abnormalities. Pharmacological treatment consisted of antidepressant and antipsychotic medications. During the follow-up, there was a slow but gradual improvement of symptoms. Six months after hospitalization the patient decide to end up the follow-up.
Little is still known about Ganser Syndrome. The four aetiological perspectives consider: hysterical origin, malingering or factitious disorder, psychotic origin and organic origin. The lack of reports and information about Ganser syndrome made it worthwhile reporting this case.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The prediction of seed longevity (P50) is traditionally performed by the use of the Probit model. However, due to the fact that the survival data are of binary origin (0,1), the fit of the model can be compromised by the non-normality of the residues. Consequently, this leads to prediction losses, despite the data being partially smoothed by Probit and Logit models. A possibility to reduce the effect of non-normality of the data would be to apply the principles of the central limit theorem, which states that non-normal residues tend to be normal as the n sample is increased. The Logit and Probit models differ in their normal and logistic distribution. Therefore, we developed a new estimation procedure by using a small increase of the n sample and tested it in the Probit and Logit functions to improve the prediction of P50. The results showed that the calculation of P50 by increasing the n samples from 4 to 6 replicates improved the index of correctness of the prediction. The Logit model presented better performance when compared with the Probit model, indicating that the estimation of P50 is more adequate when the adjustment of the data is performed by the Logit function.
Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a worldwide neglected disease caused by Taenia solium metacestode and responsible for various complications and neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the use of specific immunoglobulin Y (IgY) produced by laying hens immunized with a hydrophobic fraction of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes (hFTc) in NCC diagnosis. Egg yolk IgY antibodies were fractionated, purified and characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to evaluate the production kinetics and avidity maturation of anti-hFTc IgY antibodies throughout the IgY obtention process. Antigen recognition tests were carried out by Western blotting and immunofluorescence antibody test using purified and specific anti-hFTc IgY antibodies for detection of parasitic antigens of T. crassiceps and T. solium metacestodes. Sandwich ELISA was performed to detect circulating immune complexes formed by IgG and parasitic antigens in human sera. The results showed high diagnostic values (93.2% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity) for immune complexes detection in human sera with confirmed NCC. In conclusion, specific IgY antibodies produced from immunized hens with hFTc antigens were efficient to detect T. solium immune complexes in human sera, being an innovative and potential tool for NCC immunodiagnosis.
The bovine appeasing substance (BAS) is expected to have calming effects in cattle experiencing stressful situations. Therefore, this study investigated the impacts of BAS administration during two of the most stressful events within beef production systems: weaning and feedlot entry. In experiment 1, 186 Bos indicus-influenced calves (73 heifers, 113 bulls) were weaned at 211 ± 1 days of age (day 0). At weaning, calves were ranked by sex and BW, and assigned to receive BAS (Nutricorp, Araras, SP, Brazil; n = 94) or water (CON; n = 92). Treatments (5 ml) were topically applied to the nuchal skin area of each animal. Calf BW was recorded and samples of blood and tail-switch hair were collected on days 0, 15 and 45. Calves that received BAS had greater (P < 0.01) BW gain from day 0 to 15 compared with CON. Overall BW gain (days 0 to 45) and BW on days 15 and 45 were also greater (P ≤ 0.03) in BAS v. CON. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was less (P < 0.01) in BAS v. CON on day 15, whereas cortisol concentrations in plasma and tail-switch hair did not differ between treatments (P ≥ 0.13). In experiment 2, 140 B. indicus-influenced bulls (∼27 months of age) from 2 different pasture-based systems (70 bulls/origin) were transported to a commercial feedlot (≤ 200-km transport; day -1). On day 0, bulls were ranked by source and BW, and assigned to receive BAS (n = 70) or CON (n = 70) and the same sampling procedures as in experiment 1. Bulls receiving BAS had greater (P = 0.04) BW gain from day 0 to 15, but less (P < 0.01) BW gain from day 15 to 45 compared to CON. No other treatment effects were detected (P > 0.14). Therefore, BAS administration to beef calves alleviated the haptoglobin response associated with weaning, and improved calf growth during the subsequent 45 days. Administration of BAS to beef bulls at feedlot entry improved BW gain during the initial 15 days, but these benefits were not sustained throughout the 45-day experiment.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS) are currently promoted agricultural production systems that aim to use better resources through production integration and intensification. While this system reduces some risks, it adds complexity and new risks to businesses due to interdependence between the agricultural modules. To deal with these issues, integrated risk management is required to reduce the effects of risks and to take advantage of the opportunities of an ICLS. Generically, enterprise risk management (ERM) meets this need by proposing comprehensive and coherent risk management, instead of managing agricultural module risks individually. However, there is a need to customize the ERM approach to ICLS. Therefore, the current study aims to develop a method to manage risks for ICLS based on ERM, integrating the management of risks and aligning risk management with the strategic objectives. A literature review, a pilot study, interviews with experts, four case studies and 20 practitioners supported the method development and evaluation through three versions. As a result, the method identifies and relates risks through process mapping with a qualitative and quantitative analysis of their impacts, determines risk responses based on willingness to take risks, and helps identify processes to control, communicate and monitor the risks. The method also stimulates the implementation of ICLS in market-oriented farms, providing an approach to increase the chances of ICLS success. The main difference from previous research lies in the integrative management of multiple risks, the alignment of risks with strategy and the consideration that a risk might be considered an opportunity.
A growing number of infectious pathogens are spreading among geographic regions. Some pathogens that were previously not considered to pose a general threat to human health have emerged at regional and global scales, such as Zika and Ebola Virus Disease. Other pathogens, such as yellow fever virus, were previously thought to be under control but have recently re-emerged, causing new challenges to public health organisations. A wide array of new modelling techniques, aided by increased computing capabilities, novel diagnostic tools, and the increased speed and availability of genomic sequencing allow researchers to identify new pathogens more rapidly, assess the likelihood of geographic spread, and quantify the speed of human-to-human transmission. Despite some initial successes in predicting the spread of acute viral infections, the practicalities and sustainability of such approaches will need to be evaluated in the context of public health responses.