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Throughout the nineteenth century the relationship between the State and the Established Church of England engaged Parliament, the Church, the courts and – to an increasing degree – the people. During this period, the spectre of Disestablishment periodically loomed over these debates, in the cause – as Trollope put it – of 'the renewal of inquiry as to the connection which exists between the Crown and the Mitre'. As our own twenty-first century gathers pace, Disestablishment has still not materialised: though a very different kind of dynamic between Church and State has anyway come into being in England. Professor Evans here tells the stories of the controversies which have made such change possible – including the revival of Convocation, the Church's own parliament – as well as the many memorable characters involved. The author's lively narrative includes much valuable material about key areas of ecclesiastical law that is of relevance to the future Church of England.
Landforms and sediments on the palaeo–ice stream beds of central Alberta record glacitectonic raft production and subsequent progressive disaggregation and moulding, associated substrate ploughing, and grooving. We identify a subglacial temporal or developmental hierarchy that begins with incipient rafts, including en échelon hill-hole complexes, hill-hole pairs, and strike-slip raft complexes, all of which display patterns typical of transcurrent fault activation and pull apart. Many display jigsaw puzzle–style fragmentation, indicative of substrate displacement along shallow décollement zones and potentially related to patchy ice stream freeze-on. Their gradual fragmentation and smoothing produces ice flow-transverse ridges (ribbed moraine), hill-groove pairs, and paraxial ridge and groove associations. Initiator scarp and megafluting associations are indicative of raft dislodgement and groove ploughing, leading to the formation of murdlins, crag-and-tails, stoss-and-lee type flutings and drumlins, and Type 1 hogsback flutings. Downflow modification of rafts creates linear block trains (rubble stripes), stoss-and-lee type megaflutings, horned crag-and-tails, rubble drumlinoids, and murdlins, diagnostic of an immature palaeo–ice stream footprint. Lateral ice stream margin migration ingests disaggregated thrust masses to form ridged spindles, ladder-type morphologies, and narrow zones of ribbed terrain and Type 2 hogsback flutings, an assemblage diagnostic of ice stream shear margin moraine formation.
To characterize postextraction antibiotic prescribing patterns, predictors for antibiotic prescribing and the incidence of and risk factors for postextraction oral infection.
Retrospective analysis of a random sample of veterans who received tooth extractions from January 1, 2017 through December 31, 2017.
VA dental clinics.
Overall, 69,610 patients met inclusion criteria, of whom 404 were randomly selected for inclusion. Adjunctive antibiotics were prescribed to 154 patients (38.1%).
Patients who received or did not receive an antibiotic were compared for the occurrence of postextraction infection as documented in the electronic health record. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with antibiotic receipt.
There was no difference in the frequency of postextraction oral infection identified among patients who did and did not receive antibiotics (4.5% vs 3.2%; P = .59). Risk factors for postextraction infection could not be identified due to the low frequency of this outcome. Patients who received antibiotics were more likely to have a greater number of teeth extracted (aOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03–1.18), documentation of acute infection at time of extraction (aOR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.57–5.82), molar extraction (aOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.10–2.86) and extraction performed by an oral maxillofacial surgeon (aOR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.44–3.58) or specialty dentist (aOR, 5.77; 95% CI, 2.05–16.19).
Infectious complications occurred at a low incidence among veterans undergoing tooth extraction who did and did not receive postextraction antibiotics. These results suggest that antibiotics have a limited role in preventing postprocedural infection; however, future studies are necessary to more clearly define the role of antibiotics for this indication.
Beryl from Xuebaoding, Sichuan Province, western China is known for its unusual tabular habit and W–Sn–Be paragenesis in a greisen-type deposit. The crystals are typically colourless transparent to pale blue, often with screw dislocations of hexagonal symmetry on the (0001) crystal faces. Combining electron microprobe analyses and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), correlated with Raman and micro-infrared (IR) spectroscopy and imaging, the crystal chemical characteristics are determined. The contents of Na+ (0.24–0.38 atoms per formula unit (apfu)) and Li+ up to 0.38 apfu are at the high end compared to beryl from other localities worldwide. Li+ substitution for Be2+ on the tetrahedral (T2) site is predominantly charge balanced by Na+ on the smaller channel (C2) site, with Na+ ranging from 91.5% to 99.7% (apfu) of the sum of all other alkali elements. Cs+ and minor Rb+ and K+ primarily charge balance the minor M2+ substitution for Al3+ at the A site; all iron at the A site is suggested to be trivalent. The a axis ranges from 9.2161(2) to 9.2171(4) Å, with unit-cell volume from 678.03(3) to 678.48(7) Å3. The c/a ratio of 1.0002–1.0005 is characteristic for T2-type beryl with unit-cell parameters controlled primarily by Be2+ substitution. Transmission micro-IR vibrational spectroscopy and imaging identifies coordination of one or two water molecules to Na+ (type IIs and type IId, respectively) as well as alkali free water (type I). Based on IR absorption cross section and XRD a C1 site water content of 0.4–0.5 apfu is derived, i.e. close to 50% site occupancy. Secondary crystal phases with a decrease in Fe and Mg, yet increase in Na, suggest early crystallisation of aquamarine, with goshenite being late. With similar crystal chemistry to beryl of columnar habit from other localities worldwide, the tabular habit of Xuebaoding beryl seems to be unrelated to chemical composition and alkali content.
This research communication reports the results from questionnaires used to identify the impact of recent research into the disinfection of cattle foot-trimming equipment to prevent bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) transmission on (a) biosecurity knowledge and (b) hygiene practice of foot health professionals. An initial questionnaire found that more than half of participating farmers, veterinary surgeons and commercial foot-trimmers were not considering hand or hoof-knife hygiene in their working practices. The following year, after the release of a foot-trimming hygiene protocol and a comprehensive knowledge exchange programme by the University of Liverpool, a second survey showed 35/80 (43.8%) farmers, veterinary surgeons and commercial foot-trimmers sampled considered they were now more aware of the risk of spreading BDD during foot- trimming. Furthermore, 36/80 (45.0%) had enhanced their hygiene practice in the last year, impacting an estimated 1383 farms and 5130 cows trimmed each week. Participants who reported having seen both the foot-trimming hygiene protocol we developed with AHDB Dairy and other articles about foot-trimming hygiene in the farming and veterinary press, were significantly more likely to have changed their working practices. Difficulties accessing water and cleaning facilities on farms were identified as the greatest barrier to improving biosecurity practices. Participants' preferred priority for future research was continued collection of evidence for the importance and efficacy of good foot-trimming hygiene practices.
Understanding risk factors for death from Covid-19 is key to providing good quality clinical care. We assessed the presenting characteristics of the ‘first wave’ of patients with Covid-19 at Royal Oldham Hospital, UK and undertook logistic regression modelling to investigate factors associated with death. Of 470 patients admitted, 169 (36%) died. The median age was 71 years (interquartile range 57–82), and 255 (54.3%) were men. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (n = 218, 46.4%), diabetes (n = 143, 30.4%) and chronic neurological disease (n = 123, 26.1%). The most frequent complications were acute kidney injury (AKI) (n = 157, 33.4%) and myocardial injury (n = 21, 4.5%). Forty-three (9.1%) patients required intubation and ventilation, and 39 (8.3%) received non-invasive ventilation. Independent risk factors for death were increasing age (odds ratio (OR) per 10 year increase above 40 years 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.57–2.27), hypertension (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.10–2.70), cancer (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.27–3.81), platelets <150 × 103/μl (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.13–3.30), C-reactive protein ≥100 μg/ml (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.05–2.68), >50% chest radiograph infiltrates (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.16–3.77) and AKI (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.64–4.13). There was no independent association between death and gender, ethnicity, deprivation level, fever, SpO2/FiO2, lymphopoenia or other comorbidities. These findings will inform clinical and shared decision making, including use of respiratory support and therapeutic agents.
Gravitational waves from coalescing neutron stars encode information about nuclear matter at extreme densities, inaccessible by laboratory experiments. The late inspiral is influenced by the presence of tides, which depend on the neutron star equation of state. Neutron star mergers are expected to often produce rapidly rotating remnant neutron stars that emit gravitational waves. These will provide clues to the extremely hot post-merger environment. This signature of nuclear matter in gravitational waves contains most information in the 2–4 kHz frequency band, which is outside of the most sensitive band of current detectors. We present the design concept and science case for a Neutron Star Extreme Matter Observatory (NEMO): a gravitational-wave interferometer optimised to study nuclear physics with merging neutron stars. The concept uses high-circulating laser power, quantum squeezing, and a detector topology specifically designed to achieve the high-frequency sensitivity necessary to probe nuclear matter using gravitational waves. Above 1 kHz, the proposed strain sensitivity is comparable to full third-generation detectors at a fraction of the cost. Such sensitivity changes expected event rates for detection of post-merger remnants from approximately one per few decades with two A+ detectors to a few per year and potentially allow for the first gravitational-wave observations of supernovae, isolated neutron stars, and other exotica.
Potential effectiveness of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems depends upon seed shatter of the target weed species at crop maturity, enabling its collection and processing at crop harvest. However, seed retention likely is influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed-shatter phenology in 13 economically important broadleaf weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after physiological maturity at multiple sites spread across 14 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. Greater proportions of seeds were retained by weeds in southern latitudes and shatter rate increased at northern latitudes. Amaranthus spp. seed shatter was low (0% to 2%), whereas shatter varied widely in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) (2% to 90%) over the weeks following soybean physiological maturity. Overall, the broadleaf species studied shattered less than 10% of their seeds by soybean harvest. Our results suggest that some of the broadleaf species with greater seed retention rates in the weeks following soybean physiological maturity may be good candidates for HWSC.
Seed shatter is an important weediness trait on which the efficacy of harvest weed seed control (HWSC) depends. The level of seed shatter in a species is likely influenced by agroecological and environmental factors. In 2016 and 2017, we assessed seed shatter of eight economically important grass weed species in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] from crop physiological maturity to 4 wk after maturity at multiple sites spread across 11 states in the southern, northern, and mid-Atlantic United States. From soybean maturity to 4 wk after maturity, cumulative percent seed shatter was lowest in the southern U.S. regions and increased moving north through the states. At soybean maturity, the percent of seed shatter ranged from 1% to 70%. That range had shifted to 5% to 100% (mean: 42%) by 25 d after soybean maturity. There were considerable differences in seed-shatter onset and rate of progression between sites and years in some species that could impact their susceptibility to HWSC. Our results suggest that many summer annual grass species are likely not ideal candidates for HWSC, although HWSC could substantially reduce their seed output during certain years.
Indium tin oxide (ITO) has become a very useful plasmonic and nonlinear optical material because of its highly tunable electrical and optical properties and strong optical nonlinearity. In this work, the authors conducted detailed fabrication process studies by using high-temperature reactive sputtering to finely tune the optical properties of ITO thin films, particularly the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) wavelength in the near and mid-IR spectrum. Sputtered ITO thin films are characterized by using spectroscopic ellipsometry, surface profilometry, Hall measurements, and 4-point probe testing. Additionally, the effect of post-deposition annealing of ITO films is also investigated.
Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection. 5-Nitroimidazoles [metronidazole (MTZ) and tinidazole (TDZ)] are FDA-approved treatments. To better understand treatment failure, we conducted a systematic review on mechanisms of 5-nitroimidazole resistance.
PubMed, ScienceDirect and EMBASE databases were searched using keywords Trichomonas vaginalis, trichomoniasis, 5-nitroimidazole, metronidazole, tinidazole and drug resistance. Non-English language articles and articles on other treatments were excluded.
The search yielded 606 articles, of which 550 were excluded, leaving 58 articles. Trichomonas vaginalis resistance varies and is higher with MTZ (2.2–9.6%) than TDZ (0–2%). Resistance can be aerobic or anaerobic and is relative rather than absolute. Differential expression of enzymes involved in trichomonad energy production and antioxidant defenses affects 5-nitroimidazole drug activation; reduced expression of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, ferredoxin, nitroreductase, hydrogenase, thioredoxin reductase and flavin reductase are implicated in drug resistance. Trichomonas vaginalis infection with Mycoplasma hominis or T. vaginalis virus has also been associated with resistance. Trichomonas vaginalis has two genotypes, with greater resistance seen in type 2 (vs type 1) populations.
5-Nitroimidazole resistance results from differential expression of enzymes involved in energy production or antioxidant defenses, along with genetic mutations in the T. vaginalis genome. Alternative treatments outside of the 5-nitroimidazole class are needed.
Hydrogen lithography has been used to template phosphine-based surface chemistry to fabricate atomic-scale devices, a process we abbreviate as atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM). Here, we use mid-infrared variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (IR-VASE) to characterize single-nanometer thickness phosphorus dopant layers (δ-layers) in silicon made using APAM compatible processes. A large Drude response is directly attributable to the δ-layer and can be used for nondestructive monitoring of the condition of the APAM layer when integrating additional processing steps. The carrier density and mobility extracted from our room temperature IR-VASE measurements are consistent with cryogenic magneto-transport measurements, showing that APAM δ-layers function at room temperature. Finally, the permittivity extracted from these measurements shows that the doping in the APAM δ-layers is so large that their low-frequency in-plane response is reminiscent of a silicide. However, there is no indication of a plasma resonance, likely due to reduced dimensionality and/or low scattering lifetime.
At present, analysis of diet and bladder cancer (BC) is mostly based on the intake of individual foods. The examination of food combinations provides a scope to deal with the complexity and unpredictability of the diet and aims to overcome the limitations of the study of nutrients and foods in isolation. This article aims to demonstrate the usability of supervised data mining methods to extract the food groups related to BC. In order to derive key food groups associated with BC risk, we applied the data mining technique C5.0 with 10-fold cross-validation in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants study, including data from eighteen case–control and one nested case–cohort study, compromising 8320 BC cases out of 31 551 participants. Dietary data, on the eleven main food groups of the Eurocode 2 Core classification codebook, and relevant non-diet data (i.e. sex, age and smoking status) were available. Primarily, five key food groups were extracted; in order of importance, beverages (non-milk); grains and grain products; vegetables and vegetable products; fats, oils and their products; meats and meat products were associated with BC risk. Since these food groups are corresponded with previously proposed BC-related dietary factors, data mining seems to be a promising technique in the field of nutritional epidemiology and deserves further examination.
Despite the perception that doctors should be ‘invincible’, mental illness is common in this population. Doctors and medical students have low levels of help-seeking for their own mental health problems often only presenting to mental health services once a crisis arises. Fear of exposure to stigmatization is a crucial factor to symptom concealment.
‘The Wounded Healer’ is an anti-stigma intervention that has been described as an innovative method of pedagogy that blends science with the humanities. The Wounded Healer has been delivered to more than 5000 medical students and doctors in countries all over the world.
We conducted a cross-sectional, mixed methods study. Immediately following the intervention we distributed paper questionnaires to participants who attended the Wounded Healer that contained stigma constructs. Answers were on a Likert-type scale and there was also space for free-text comments.
303/378 (80%) of participants recruited for the study responded. 246/303 (81%) of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that the talk made them more accepting of medics suffering from psychopathology. 223/303 (73%) of respondents either agreed or strongly agreed that they were more aware of the importance of engaging in help-seeking behavior when under mental distress.
Many respondents reported in the free-text comments that the Wounded Healer was inspirational and that every medical student should receive this intervention.
A majority of respondents responded positively to the stigma constructs. This may have implications for medical students and doctors in mental distress by helping to reduce stigma and by encouraging help-seeking behavior.
The unprecedented growth, availability and accessibility of sophisticated image analysis algorithms and powerful computational resources led to the idea of developing web-based computational infrastructures that could meet users’ new requirements. On the other hand the gap between the pace of data generation and the capability to extract clinically or scientifically relevant information is rapidly widening.
Integration of the power of sophisticated mathematical models, efficient computational algorithms and advanced hardware infrastructure provides the necessary sensitivity to detect, extract and analyze subtle, dynamic and distributed patterns distinguishing one brain from another, and a diseased brain from a normal brain.
neuGRID is the leading e-Infrastructure where neuroscientists can find core services and resources for brain image analysis. The neuGRID platform makes use of grid services and computing, and was developed with the final aim of overcoming the hurdles that the average scientist meets when trying to set up advanced experiments in computational neuroimaging, thereby empowering a larger base of scientists. Although originally built for neuroscientists working in the field of AD, the infrastructure is designed to be expandable to services from other medical fields (e.g. multiple sclerosis, psychiatric conditions).
“neuGRID for Users” will provide an e-Science environment by further developing and deploying the neuGRID infrastructure to deliver a Virtual Laboratory offering neuroscientists access to a wide range of datasets and algorithm pipelines, access to computational resources, services, and support. Information from this abstract is intended to make aware researchers working with neuroimaging of all possibilities when it comes to resources.
This article was first conceived as a commemorative address for the centenary of the extinction of the Habsburg monarchy, which occurred in November 1918. It seeks to take a correspondingly broad view, geographically and chronologically, of the factors that occasioned that collapse. It addresses three main themes, structured loosely around three classic historiographical analyses of the monarchy as a whole. The great irony of the last phase of Habsburg rule in Central Europe is that it was undermined by precisely those elements in the politics and society of the region that seemed, on the face of things, to derive most advantage from it. The article concentrates on the long-term dysfunctionality caused by the evolution of the Hungarian and German problems, and by the progressive enfeeblement of dynastic institutions. It also engages more briefly with a countervailing phenomenon, that some of those interests most conspicuously spurned by central government might have been the readiest to rescue it. On the argument presented here, World War I, which finally brought the monarchy low, was a catalyst rather than an independent determiner of that outcome.
This note reflects on my collaborations with Nick Martin and the GenEpi group over the past 20 years. Over the past two decades, our work together has focused on gene mapping and understanding the genetic architecture of a wide range of traits with particular foci on migraine and common baldness. Our migraine research has included latent class and twin analyses cumulating in genome-wide association analyses which had identified 44 (34 new) risk variants for migraine. Leveraging these results through polygenic risk score analyses identified subgroups of patients likely to respond to triptans (an acute migraine drug), providing the first step toward precision medicine in migraine [Kogelman et al. (2019) Neurology Genetics, 5, e364].
Twins, data and emails. Some of the words that first come to mind when I think of Nick. Lots of twins. With lots of data. And short single-finger-typed emails. And great wine. Well, it works, there is no doubt. That’s how I ended up in Australia, working on asthma genetics.
Nick Martin is a pioneer in recognizing the need for large sample size to study the complex, heterogeneous and polygenic disorders of common mental disorders. In the predigital era, questionnaires were mailed to thousands of twin pairs around Australia. Always quick to adopt new technology, Nick’s studies progressed to phone interviews and then online. Moreover, Nick was early to recognize the value of collecting DNA samples. As genotyping technologies improved over the years, these twin and family cohorts were used for linkage, candidate gene and genome-wide association studies. These cohorts have underpinned many analyses to disentangle the complex web of genetic and lifestyle factors associated with mental health. With characteristic foresight, Nick is chief investigator of our Australian Genetics of Depression Study, which has recruited 16,000 people with self-reported depression (plus DNA samples) over a time frame of a few months — analyses are currently ongoing. The mantra of sample size, sample size, sample size has guided Nick’s research over the last 30 years and continues to do so.