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The potential of Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake to reinvade cleared areas was evaluated over a 13-yr period that included two wildfires and the introduction of biological control agents. The first wildfire occurred in 1998 and was followed by a mean of 591.5 recruited seedlings m−2. Recruits from that fire were cleared 7 yr later in July 2005 for a second experiment to evaluate seedling recruitment into cleared areas. Seed rain, seedling recruitment and mortality, and sapling growth rates were measured in four plots located around individual large reproductive trees. A second natural wildfire in 2007 burned through those plots, leading to increases in seed rain followed by a pulse in recruitment of 21.04 seedlings m−2, 96.5% fewer than after the 1998 fire. Recruits in half of the plots around each tree were then treated with regular applications of an insecticide to restrict herbivory by biological control agents, while herbivory was not restricted in the other half. There was no difference in seedling mortality between treatments 1,083 d post-fire (2007) with 96.6% seedling mortality in the unrestricted herbivory treatment and 89.4% mortality in the restricted herbivory treatment. Recruits subjected to the restricted herbivory treatment grew taller than those in the unrestricted herbivory treatment, 101.3 cm versus 37.4 cm. Many of the recruits were attacked by the biological control agents, which slowed their growth. Although solitary M. quinquenervia trees retain some capacity to reinvade areas under specific circumstances, there was a downward trend in their overall invasiveness at this site, with progressively smaller recruitment cohorts due to biological control agents. Land managers should prioritize removing large reproductive trees over treating recently recruited populations, which can be left for many years for the biological control agents to suppress before any additional treatment would be needed.
We performed a prospective study of 501 patients, regardless of symptoms, admitted to the hospital, to estimate the predictive value of a negative nasopharyngeal swab for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At a positivity rate of 10.2%, the estimated negative predictive value (NPV) was 97.2% and the NPV rose as prevalence decreased during the study.
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values were measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in different regions of the brain in 27 patients with DAT. Significant correlations were found between rCBF in left parieto-temporooccipital regions and psychometric test scores. Patients with hemisphere asymmetry in SPECT performed worse on psychometric tests. SPECT did not permit prediction of or differentiation between depressive and psychotic symptoms.
Notoedric mange, caused by obligately parasitic sarcoptiform Notoedres mites, is associated with potentially fatal dermatitis with secondary systemic disease in small mammals, felids and procyonids among others, as well as an occasional zoonosis. We describe clinical spectra in non-chiropteran hosts, review risk factors and summarize ecological and epidemiological studies. The genus is disproportionately represented on rodents. Disease in felids and procyonids ranges from very mild to death. Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the mites is highly inadequate, with focal hot spots known for Notoedres cati in domestic cats and bobcats. Predisposing genetic and immunological factors are not known, except that co-infection with other parasites and anticoagulant rodenticide toxicoses may contribute to severe disease. Treatment of individual animals is typically successful with macrocytic lactones such as selamectin, but herd or wildlife population treatment has not been undertaken. Transmission requires close contact and typically is within a host species. Notoedric mange can kill half all individuals in a population and regulate host population below non-diseased density for decades, consistent with frequency-dependent transmission or spillover from other hosts. Epidemics are increasingly identified in various hosts, suggesting global change in suitable environmental conditions or increased reporting bias.
The Antarctic Treaty System requires that the effects of potential human disturbance be evaluated, such as through the development and evaluation of Initial and Comprehensive Environmental Evaluations (IEEs and CEEs), and through the implementation of Management Plans for Antarctic Specially Protected Areas (ASPAs) and Antarctic Specially Managed Areas (ASMAs). The effectiveness of these management processes hinges on the quality and transparency of the data presented, particularly because independent validation is often difficult or impossible due to the financial and logistical challenges of working in the Antarctic. In a review of these documents and their treatment of wildlife survey data, we find that the basic elements of best data practices are often not followed; biological data are often uncited or out-of-date and rarely include estimates of uncertainty that would allow any subsequent changes in the distribution or abundance of wildlife to be rigorously assessed. We propose a set of data management and use standards for Antarctic biological data to improve the transparency and quality of these evaluations and to facilitate improved assessment of both immediate and long-term impacts of human activities in the Antarctic.
The control of ferromagnetic properties by external stimuli is of great interest in the electronics community. One method of producing such a control is through proximity of a ferromagnetic film with a material that has a semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT). In order for these magnetic heterostructures to be beneficial, they must consist of high-quality, crystalline films. Epitaxial films increase the reproducibility of both devices and properties. We have investigated the trend in magnetic coercivity in epitaxial nickel films on VO2. We show that not only does the interaction between the Ni and VO2 change the normal coercivity trend found in Ni M-H curves with no proximity to VO2, but that the crystalline growth mode of the Ni film also impacts the magnetic coercivity as a function of temperature.
This chapter offers an alternative to textualist models and the assumptions that underlie them by weighing other ways in which epic stories can relate to one another and by querying the very notion of an organized, integral cycle as customarily construed. Briefly stated, we advocate the concept of a ‘constellation’ rather than an anthology, basing our model on the real-life ecology of living, observable oral epic traditions. That is, we interpret the remnants of the ancient Greek Epic Cycle as reflecting a loosely related consortium of flexible narratives rather than a sequenced, textually interactive collection of artifacts. Scholars may of course choose to impose a latter-day order upon the materials at hand, an order based on sequence, influence, and other mainstay textual features, but that does not necessarily mean that those materials were in fact composed (or received) according to such an externally imposed framework.
We contend that the surviving texts – Homer's Iliad and Odyssey and all of the Cycle fragments and summaries – represent possible instances of the epic stories surrounding the Trojan War and related events, instances that at some point took shape as fixed and stable (even if partial) entities, but which once existed as malleable story-patterns that featured and fostered variation within limits. With this kind of pre-textual history behind them, overlap and even contradiction would have been natural and expectable, since the narratives were not reacting primarily to one another but were instead emerging from a multiform tradition. We ballast this proposal about the ancient Greek Epic Cycle by surveying several oral epic traditions from around the world that behave similarly, that is, which operate by generating instances that show primary allegiance to their tradition as a whole rather than to any other single story-performance in particular. Toward the close of the chapter we offer some observations on the joint model of neoanalysis and oral traditional poetics that has been gaining momentum in Cycle scholarship.
The present study is a secondary analysis of the ROLO study, a randomised control trial of a low-glycaemic index (GI) diet in pregnancy to prevent the recurrence of fetal macrosomia. The objectives of the present study were to identify which women are most likely to respond to a low-GI dietary intervention in pregnancy with respect to three outcome measures: birth weight; maternal glucose intolerance; gestational weight gain (GWG). In early pregnancy, 372 women had their mid-upper arm circumference recorded and BMI calculated. Concentrations of glucose, insulin and leptin were measured in early pregnancy and at 28 weeks. At delivery, infant birth weight was recorded and fetal glucose, C-peptide and leptin concentrations were measured in the cord blood. Women who benefited in terms of infant birth weight were shorter, with a lower education level. Those who maintained weight gain within the GWG guidelines were less overweight in both their first and second pregnancies, with no difference being observed in maternal height. Women who at 28 weeks of gestation developed glucose intolerance, despite the low-GI diet, had a higher BMI and higher glucose concentrations in early pregnancy with more insulin resistance. They also had significantly higher-interval pregnancy weight gain. For each analysis, women who responded to the intervention had lower leptin concentrations in early pregnancy than those who did not. These findings suggest that the maternal metabolic environment in early pregnancy is important in determining later risks of excessive weight gain and metabolic disturbance, whereas birth weight is mediated more by genetic factors. It highlights key areas, which warrant further interrogation before future pregnancy intervention studies, in particular, maternal education level and inter-pregnancy weight gain.
Improved understanding of the pattern of white matter changes in early and prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) states such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is necessary to support earlier preclinical detection of AD, and debate remains whether white matter changes in MCI are secondary to gray matter changes. We applied neuropsychologically based MCI criteria to a sample of normally aging older adults; 32 participants met criteria for MCI and 81 participants were classified as normal control (NC) subjects. Whole-head high resolution T1 and diffusion tensor imaging scans were completed. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was applied and a priori selected regions of interest were extracted. Hippocampal volume and cortical thickness averaged across regions with known vulnerability to AD were derived. Controlling for cortical thickness, the MCI group showed decreased average fractional anisotropy (FA) and decreased FA in parietal white matter and in white matter underlying the entorhinal and posterior cingulate cortices relative to the NC group. Statistically controlling for cortical thickness, medial temporal FA was related to memory and parietal FA was related to executive functioning. These results provide further support for the potential role of white matter integrity as an early biomarker for individuals at risk for AD and highlight that changes in white matter may be independent of gray matter changes. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–13)
Palliative sedation is a last resort medical act aimed at relieving intolerable suffering induced by intractable symptoms in patients at the end-of-life. This act is generally accepted as being medically indicated under certain circumstances. A controversy remains in the literature as to its ethical validity. There is a certain vagueness in the literature regarding the legitimacy of palliative sedation in cases of non-physical refractory symptoms, especially “existential suffering.” This pilot study aims to measure the influence of two independent variables (short/long prognosis and physical/existential suffering) on the physicians' attitudes toward palliative sedation (dependent variable).
We used a 2 × 2 experimental design as described by Blondeau et al. Four clinical vignettes were developed (vignette 1: short prognosis/existential suffering; vignette 2: long prognosis/existential suffering; vignette 3: short prognosis/physical suffering; vignette 4: long prognosis/physical suffering). Each vignette presented a terminally ill patient with a summary description of his physical and psychological condition, medication, and family situation. The respondents' attitude towards sedation was assessed with a six-point Likert scale. A total of 240 vignettes were sent to selected Swiss physicians.
74 vignettes were completed (36%). The means scores for attitudes were 2.62 ± 2.06 (v1), 1.88 ± 1.54 (v2), 4.54 ± 1.67 (v3), and 4.75 ± 1.71 (v4). General linear model analyses indicated that only the type of suffering had a significant impact on the attitude towards sedation (F = 33.92, df = 1, p = 0.000).
Significance of the results:
The French Swiss physicians' attitude toward palliative sedation is more favorable in case of physical suffering than in existential suffering. These results are in line with those found in the study of Blondeau et al. with Canadian physicians and will be discussed in light of the arguments given by physicians to explain their decisions.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-behavioural disorder characterised by early onset of persistent inattention–disorganisation and hyperactivity–impulsivity. Symptoms causing significant impairment in psychosocial function commence in childhood and heighten the risk for early substance experimentation and potential development of substance-use disorders (SUD). The research aimed to estimate the occurrence of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in new treatment cases of adults attending addiction treatment services.
The Adult ADHD Symptoms Rating Scale (ASRS) self-administered questionnaire was administered on entry and 2 weeks later for first admissions to inpatient and outpatient addiction treatment settings The ASRS is a validated and reliable 18-item self-report scale derived from the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for ADHD, comprising nine items on inattention and nine items on hyperactivity/impulsivity.
A total of 47 new treatment cases took part in the study. The occurrence of ADHD among SUDs in this sample was 13% (n = 6). Four of the participants were being treated for Problem Poly Substance use, whereas two participants were being treated for Problem Drug use. None of the participants screening positive for ADHD were being treated for Problem Alcohol use. Of the positively screened cases, all were male, predominantly single and unemployed.
The ASRS screening instrument may be a useful tool to detect ADHD co-morbidity in SUD treatment-seeking cases. More research is needed to appropriately develop the SUD treatment pathways for adolescent and adult ADHD sufferers in Ireland.
Background: This study applies the updated HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) diagnostic algorithm.
Methods: Participants were 210 HIV-infected-adults, classified using proposed HAND criteria: HIV-Associated Dementia (HAD), Mild Neurocognitive Disorder (MND), Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment (ANI).
Results: The algorithm yielded: normal = 32.8%, ANI = 21.4%, MND = 34.3%, and HAD = 11.4%. Normal participants performed superior to HAND-defined participants on cognition, and HAD participants performed more poorly on global cognition and executive functioning. Two distinct subgroups of interest emerged: (1) functional decline without cognitive impairment; (2) severe cognitive impairment and minimal functional compromise.
Conclusions: The algorithm discriminates between HIV-infected cognitively impaired individuals. Diagnosis yields two unique profiles requiring further investigation. Findings largely support the algorithm's utility for diagnosing HIV-cognitive-impairment, but suggest distinct subsets of individuals with discrepant cognitive/functional performances that may not be readily apparent by conventional application of HAND diagnosis.