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COVID-19 has created many challenges for women in the perinatal phase. This stems from prolonged periods of lockdowns, restricted support networks and media panic, alongside altered healthcare provision.
We aimed to review the evidence regarding the psychological impact on new and expecting mothers following changes to antenatal and postnatal service provision within the UK throughout the pandemic.
We conducted a narrative literature search of major databases (PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar). The literature was critically reviewed by experts within the field of antenatal and perinatal mental health.
Changes to service provision, including the introduction of telemedicine services, attendance of antenatal appointments without partners or loved ones, and lack of support during the intrapartum period, are associated with increased stress, depression and anxiety. Encouraging women and their partners to engage with aspects of positive psychology through newly introduced digital platforms and virtual service provision has the potential to improve access to holistic care and increase mental well-being. An online course, designed by Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust in response to changes to service provision, focuses on postnatal recovery inspiration and support for motherhood (PRISM) through a 5-week programme. So far, the course has received positive feedback.
The pandemic has contributed to increased rates of mental illness among pregnant and new mothers in the UK. Although the long-term implications are largely unpredictable, it is important to anticipate increased prevalence and complexity of symptoms, which could be hugely detrimental to an already overburdened National Health Service.
Identification of evidence-based factors related to status of the clinical research professional (CRP) workforce at academic medical centers (AMCs) will provide context for National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) policy considerations and guidance. The objective of this study is to explore barriers and opportunities related to the recruitment and retention of the CRP workforce.
Materials and Methods:
Qualitative data from a series of Un-Meeting breakout sessions and open-text survey questions were analyzed to explore barriers and recommendations for improving AMC CRP recruitment, retention and diversity.
While certain institutions have established competency-based frameworks for job descriptions, standardization remains generally lacking across CTSAs. AMCs report substantial increases in unfilled CRP positions leading to operational instability. Data confirmed an urgent need for closing gaps in CRP workforce at AMCs, especially for attracting, training, retaining, and diversifying qualified personnel. Improved collaboration with human resource departments, engagement with principal investigators, and overcoming both organizational and resource challenges were suggested strategies, as well as development of outreach to universities, community colleges, and high schools raising awareness of CRP career pathways.
Based on input from 130 CRP leaders at 35 CTSAs, four National Institute of General Medical Sciences’ Institutional Development Award (IDeA) program sites, along with industry and government representatives, we identified several barriers to successful recruitment and retention of a highly trained and diverse CRP workforce. Results, including securing institutional support, champions, standardizing and adopting proven national models, improving local institutional policies to facilitate CRP hiring and job progression point to potential solutions.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Our goal is to explore and collaboratively identify the team science competencies essential for Clinical Research Professionals at all experience levels and how these competencies relate to the Joint Task Force for Clinical Translational Research Professionals Competencies. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Team science competencies for clinical research professionals are poorly defined. The JTF Clinical Trial Competencies lack sufficient emphasis on team science, though it is briefly included in two JTF competency domains: Leadership & Professionalism, and Communication & Teamwork. The competencies primarily focus on tasks related to clinical research and basic knowledge of product development; however, a conceptual model for applying the competencies using a team science lens is needed. Currently, the JTF competency figure is often thought of as sequential, given the competencies are numbered, creating the misconception that the last competencies are less important. We support a new figure showing the permeability of team science across competencies and the connectedness and equality of the competencies. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our anticipated results are to show the integral nature of team science in clinical research professional communities of practice. Once complete, we will have identified measurable team science competency-based skills essential for clinical research professionals at various levels of expertise. Understanding the multi-dimensional team science competencies will inform targeted team science education and training for clinical research professionals. Our revised competency framework provides an improved team science conceptual model for clinical translational science. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work will define team science competencies as related to clinical research professionals at all experience levels. The interdependence of teams across clinical trial activities necessitates a consideration of an improved conceptual framework for clinical translational team science competencies.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: a) Explore topics related to AMC CRP job titles, descriptions, and pre-requisites for hire b) Describe impact of COVID-19 on the AMC CRP workforce c) Discuss opportunities for improving diversity in the CRP workforce d) Discuss opportunities to enhance institutional staffing culture to retain CRP workforce METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Qualitative data from a series of workshop breakout sessions and open-text survey materials focusing on AMC CRP recruitment, retention and diversity were analyzed to inform content and recommendations for clinical research job titles and descriptions, pre-requisites, diversity, and current needs. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: While certain institutions have established competency-based frameworks for job descriptions and career ladders, standardization remains generally lacking across CTSA hubs. Significant hiring needs have reached exponential proportions across hubs, unable to meet current and projected clinical research goals. Data confirmed an urgent need for closing gaps in clinical research workforce at AMCs, especially for improving diversity and equity of personnel. Improved collaboration with human resource departments, engagement with principal investigators, and overcoming both organizational and resource challenges were suggested strategies, as well as pipeline development via outreach to universities, community colleges, and high schools to raise awareness of the professional pathways for CRPs. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on input from 130 CRP leaders at 38 CTSA hubs and 4 IDeA sites evaluating data from 23 breakout transcripts and ~92 surveys from the Collaborative Conversations Unmeeting, new opportunities emerged during the analysis. The findings will be summarized in a 2022 Synergy manuscript including best practice benchmarking recommendations.
A comparison of computer-extracted and facility-reported counts of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients for public health reporting at 36 hospitals revealed 42% of days with matching counts between the data sources. Miscategorization of suspect cases was a primary driver of discordance. Clear reporting definitions and data validation facilitate emerging disease surveillance.
The optimal timing of blood culture (BCx) sets collection has not been evaluated with continuous BCx detection systems. The yield of BCx was similar between short intervals (median, 3 minutes) and longer intervals (median, 16 or 43 minutes) among 5,856 BCx, except for improved polymicrobial bacteremia detection with long-interval BCx.
Early reporting of atypical symptoms following a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may be an early indicator of poor prognosis. This study aimed to determine the percentage of people reporting atypical symptoms 1-month post-mTBI and explore links to recovery 12 months later in a community-dwelling mTBI sample.
Adult participants (>16 years) who had experienced a mTBI were identified from a longitudinal incidence study (BIONIC). At 1-month post-injury, 260 participants completed the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (typical symptoms) plus four atypical symptom items (hemiplegia, difficulty swallowing, digestion problems and difficulties with fine motor tasks). At 12 months post-injury, 73.9% (n = 193) rated their overall recovery on a 100-point scale. An ordinal regression explored the association between atypical symptoms at 1 month and recovery at 12 months post-injury (low = 0–80, moderate = 81–99 and complete recovery = 100), whilst controlling for age, sex, rehabilitation received, ethnicity, mental and physical comorbidities and additional injuries sustained at the time of injury.
At 1-month post-injury <1% of participants reported hemiplegia, 5.4% difficulty swallowing, 10% digestion problems and 15.4% difficulties with fine motor tasks. The ordinal regression model revealed atypical symptoms were not significant predictors of self-rated recovery at 12 months. Older age at injury and higher typical symptoms at 1 month were independently associated with poorer recovery at 12 months, p < 0.01.
Atypical symptoms on initial presentation were not linked to global self-reported recovery at 12 months. Age at injury and typical symptoms are stronger early indicators of longer-term prognosis. Further research is needed to determine if atypical symptoms predict other outcomes following mTBI.
The etiology of psychopathology is multifaceted and warrants consideration of factors at multiple levels and across developmental time. Although experiences of adversity in early life have been associated with increased risk of developing psychopathology, pathways toward maladaptation or resilience are complex and depend upon a variety of factors, including individuals’ physiological regulation and cognitive functioning. Therefore, in a longitudinal cohort of 113 mother–child dyads, we explored associations from early adverse experiences to physiological coregulation across multiple systems and subsequent variations in executive functioning. Latent profile analysis derived multisystem profiles based on children's heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, pre-ejection period, and cortisol measured during periods of rest and reactivity throughout a developmentally challenging protocol. Three distinct profiles of multisystem regulation emerged: heightened multisystem baseline activity (anticipatory arousal/ autonomic nervous system [ANS] responder), typically adaptive patterns across all systems (active copers/mobilizers), and heightened hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity (HPA axis responders). Path models revealed that children exposed to adversity before 18 months were more likely to evidence an anticipatory arousal/ANS responders response at 36 months, and children in this profile had lower executive functioning scores than the active copers/mobilizers. In sum, these findings provide important information about potential physiological associations linking early adversity to variations in children's task-based executive functioning.
In Andreas Moser's 1898 Joseph Joachim: Ein Lebensbild, co-written with Joseph Joachim, the authors asserted that in order to understand the violinist's significance to musical life in the 1890s, it was necessary to look back to the musical world that he had entered as a young musician. At that time, Paganini and Liszt had defined what it meant to be a virtuoso, and for Paganini, in particular, an identity as a sorcerer—a “Hexenmeister”—who could work the public into a state of ecstasy through his “magic arts” was crucial. An important measure of Joachim's influence, according to the biography, was that such virtuosic “magic”—along with other unsavory attributes of an earlier generation of virtuosi—had been virtually expunged from European concert culture by the end of the century. Virtuoso conjurers had been superseded by serious, responsible interpreters of music.
Moser and Joachim's biographical account is compatible with the standard historiography of nineteenth-century performance. By the end of the century, there were numerous reasons for insisting on performance as a form of expertise that maintained a respectable distance from virtuosic enchantments. These included the effect of a strong work concept on the role of the performer, the rise of a museum culture in music focused on the preservation of canonic works of the past, and the influence of bourgeois Protestant values of sobriety, reason, self-control, and service to a higher calling. Furthermore, over the course of Joachim's career, the new discipline of music analysis grew integral to performance pedagogy, instructive editions educated aspiring performers on the correct interpretation of masterworks, Musikwissenschaft attained a respected status in German universities, and professional training increasingly occurred in conservatories (some of them, such as Berlin's Hochschule für Musik, where Joachim served as director, state-affiliated) with standard curricula. In this way, the history of nineteenth-century musical performance may seem an apt illustration of Max Weber's concept of the progressive disenchantment of modernity, in which the “mysterious incalculable forces” of earlier times inexorably give way to rationalized modern epistemologies.
The metabolic syndrome is common in older adults and may be modified by the diet. The aim of this study was to examine associations between a posteriori dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome in an older New Zealand population. The REACH study (Researching Eating, Activity, and Cognitive Health) included 366 participants (aged 65–74 years, 36 % male) living independently in Auckland, New Zealand. Dietary data were collected using a 109-item FFQ with demonstrated validity and reproducibility for assessing dietary patterns using principal component analysis. The metabolic syndrome was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Associations between dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome, adjusted for age, sex, index of multiple deprivation, physical activity, and energy intake were analysed using logistic regression analysis. Three dietary patterns explained 18 % of dietary intake variation – ‘Mediterranean style’ (salad/leafy cruciferous/other vegetables, avocados/olives, alliums, nuts/seeds, shellfish and white/oily fish, berries), ‘prudent’ (dried/fresh/frozen legumes, soya-based foods, whole grains and carrots) and ‘Western’ (processed meat/fish, sauces/condiments, cakes/biscuits/puddings and meat pies/hot chips). No associations were seen between ‘Mediterranean style’ (OR = 0·75 (95 % CI 0·53, 1·06), P = 0·11) or ‘prudent’ (OR = 1·17 (95 % CI 0·83, 1·59), P = 0·35) patterns and the metabolic syndrome after co-variate adjustment. The ‘Western’ pattern was positively associated with the metabolic syndrome (OR = 1·67 (95 % CI 1·08, 2·63), P = 0·02). There was also a small association between an index of multiple deprivation (OR = 1·04 (95 % CI 1·02, 1·06), P < 0·001) and the metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study provides further support for a Western dietary pattern being a risk factor for the metabolic syndrome in an older population.
This article describes the social care funding and delivery arrangements of a varied selection of developed countries, focusing on long-term care of older people. International evidence and latest reforms can inform the debate as countries struggle economically. Some have opted for mandatory social insurance that provides universal coverage. A premium is paid and if the insured individual or relatives require support, they are entitled to it. Others opted for a similar universal system but with earmarked taxation, while others fund their social care entirely from general taxation. Many chose a safety-net system in which benefits are means-tested leaving wealthier individuals to secure private arrangements of care. Within the UK, the level of support varies as Scotland provides personal care free of charge, being more generous than England, Wales and Northern Ireland. There is no “one solution”, but understanding different options can help in the discussion of current and future reforms.
To understand the emergence of symptoms in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we need to identify the mechanisms that underpin the development of core social skills. Mounting evidence indicates that young children with later ASD attend less to other people, which could compromise learning opportunities with cascading effects. Passive looking behaviour does not tell us about engagement with visual information, but measures of physiological arousal can provide information on the depth of engagement. In the current study, we use heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) to measure engagement with social dynamic stimuli in ASD.
Sixty-seven preschoolers with ASD and 65 typical developing preschoolers between 2 and 4 years of age participated in a study where HR was measured during viewing of social and non-social videos. Using latent profile analyses, more homogeneous subgroups of children were created based on phenotype and physiology.
Preschool-aged children with ASD, regardless of their non-verbal, verbal and social competencies, do not differ in overall HR or HRV compared to TD children. However, the ASD group showed a larger increase in HR (more disengagement) than the TD group to later-presented social stimuli. Phenotypic and physiological profiles showed this was primarily the case for children with below average verbal and non-verbal skills, but not necessarily those with more ASD symptoms.
Children with ASD, especially a subgroup showing moderate cognitive delays, show an increase in HR to social stimuli over time; this may reflect difficulties re-engaging with social information when attention is waning.
Five international consensus statements on concussion in sports have been published. This commentary argues that there is a strong need for a new approach to them that foregrounds public health expertise and patient-centered guidance. Doing so will help players, parents and practitioners keep perspective about these potentially life-altering injuries especially when they recur.
This chapter explores the rise of the twin ideals of authenticity and self-expression in Romantic musical aesthetics. Abandoning earlier aesthetic paradigms of mimesis and rhetoric, Romantic musicians were exhorted to bring forth music from the depths of their inner experience. Authentic expression, in this context, depended on the composer maintaining complete autonomy and renouncing the objective of affecting or pleasing an audience. After examining philosophical, social, and economic developments behind this shift in priorities, the chapter argues that expressive authenticity functioned less as a stable quality than as a regulative concept in nineteenth-century musical life. As such, it was often evoked as a way of conferring aesthetic legitimacy and prestige, but was employed in ways that were inconsistent and complex. As examples from nineteenth-century discourses on orchestral timbre, virtuosity, and identity in music show, the ideal of expressive authenticity could function as an effective tool in the creation and reinforcement of hierarchies of power and authority.
We used a Zoom Un-meeting as an educational approach to provide experienced clinical research professional (CRP) adult learners a collaborative learning space to learn more about current issues for academic medical center (AMC) clinical research workforce development and collaborate on solution finding. CRPs operationalize the conduct of clinical trials and represent a significant brain trust for the Clinical and Translational Science (CTSA) consortium hubs with their vast knowledge base, extensive experience, understanding of relevant institutional policy, organizational culture, and clinical research operations. Un-meetings are an intentionally organized and coordinated group activity that encourages participants to focus on a topic and incorporate an open flow of ideas through brainstorming and an open discussion format, setting the stage for future collaborative action. We divided topics into a series of six consecutive monthly Un-meeting Zoom workshops. Ultimately, one resulting output from the meeting was the Center for Leading Innovation and Collaborations (CLIC) synergy paper award to support continued collaborative work. Currently, work teams have emerged to analyze qualitative data from brainstorming and breakout session recordings and to identify small-group activities. We describe this adult learning tool as valuable for exploring issues of AMC CRP professional development. This approach encouraged creative/critical thinking and opportunities for leadership, team science, and problem-solving among participants.
Patients with serious mental health illnesses die on average 15–20 years before the rest of the general population. Anti-psychotic medication, lifestyle and difficulty accessing healthcare services all have a detrimental effect on their life expectancy. To improve outcomes for these patients the Lester Tool; a method to assess the cardiovascular health of patients and implement change, was developed. Including the Lester Tool information in discharge letters allows transfer of information to other care providers (mainly GP's) who can implement and monitor any interventions made, improving outcomes for our patients. With this in mind, discharge documents should contain all of the information listed in the Lester Tool.
We aimed to check if 100% of data required by the Lester Tool is included in discharge documents of the inpatients at Foss Park Hospital.
20 patients from each of the male and female wards at Foss Park hospital, discharged in September or October 2020, were identified. A review of the discharge documents established whether the smoking status, BMI, ECG, blood pressure and blood results of each patient were recorded.
Of the 40 discharges, none had 100% compliance. On average across both wards; only 23% of the Lester tool information was included in the documents. On the female ward, 40% had none of data recorded, while on the male ward, 15% had none of the data recorded. Across both wards, not a single patient had details about their cholesterol ratio recorded, only 50% of BMI's were recorded and only 27% had a smoking status included.
Our results have shown that compliance with the Lester Tool falls short of what is expected. As a result, information about the physical health of our patients is not being communicated effectively with other care providers. This in turn can prevent patients being offered interventions needed to improve their cardiovascular health.
Identifying this shortcoming in the transfer of information will allow us to educate the staff in our organisation and ensure that all the necessary physical health details will be included in future discharge documents. The result being improved outcomes and longer life expectancy of patients with serious mental illnesses, satisfying the purpose of the Lester Tool.
The workhouse remains a totemic institution for social historians, yet we still know very little about the day-to-day experiences of the indoor poor. Nowhere is this clearer than in discussions about workhouse clothing, which remain overwhelmingly negative in the literature and consistent with the predominant view of the workhouse as a place of suffering and humiliation. Yet more often than not, this view is based on relatively shallow empirical foundations and tends to rely on anecdotal evidence or on the uncritical use of subjective sources such as photographs, newspaper editorials and other cultural products. This article takes a different approach by looking again at the whole range of meanings that workhouse clothing held for paupers and those who oversaw its allocation, and at the practical and symbolic usages to which it was put by them. On the basis of this evidence the authors argue that, contrary to the orthodox view, workhouse clothing was rarely intended to be degrading or stigmatising; that it would have held very different meanings for different classes of paupers; and that, far from being a source of unbridled misery, paupers often found it to be a source of great strategic and practical value.
In 2020 a group of U.S. healthcare leaders formed the National Organization to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (NOHAP) to issue a call to action to address non–ventilator-associated hospital-acquired pneumonia (NVHAP). NVHAP is one of the most common and morbid healthcare-associated infections, but it is not tracked, reported, or actively prevented by most hospitals. This national call to action includes (1) launching a national healthcare conversation about NVHAP prevention; (2) adding NVHAP prevention measures to education for patients, healthcare professionals, and students; (3) challenging healthcare systems and insurers to implement and support NVHAP prevention; and (4) encouraging researchers to develop new strategies for NVHAP surveillance and prevention. The purpose of this document is to outline research needs to support the NVHAP call to action. Primary needs include the development of better models to estimate the economic cost of NVHAP, to elucidate the pathophysiology of NVHAP and identify the most promising pathways for prevention, to develop objective and efficient surveillance methods to track NVHAP, to rigorously test the impact of prevention strategies proposed to prevent NVHAP, and to identify the policy levers that will best engage hospitals in NVHAP surveillance and prevention. A joint task force developed this document including stakeholders from the Veterans’ Health Administration (VHA), the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), The Joint Commission, the American Dental Association, the Patient Safety Movement Foundation, Oral Health Nursing Education and Practice (OHNEP), Teaching Oral-Systemic Health (TOSH), industry partners and academia.
Background:Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is one of the most common laboratory-identified (LabID) healthcare-associated events reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). CDI prevention remains a national priority, and efforts to reduce infection burden and improve antibiotic stewardship continue to expand across the healthcare spectrum. Beginning in 2013, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) required acute-care hospitals participating in CMS’ Inpatient Quality Reporting program to report CDI LabID data to NHSN and, in 2015, extended this reporting requirement to emergency departments (ED) and 24-hour observation units. To assess national progress, we evaluated changes in hospital onset CDI (HO-CDI) incidence during 2010–2018. Methods: Cases of HO-CDI were reported to NHSN by hospitals using the NHSN’s LabID criteria. Generalized linear mixed-effects modeling was used to assess trends of HO-CDI by treating the hospital as a random intercept to account for the correlation of the repeated responses over time. The data were summarized at the quarterly level, the main effect was time, and the covariates of interest were the following: CDI test type, inpatient community-onset (CO) infection rate, hospital type, average length of stay, medical school affiliation, number of beds, number of ICU beds, number of infection control professionals, presence of an ED or observation unit , and an indicator for 2015 to account for CDI protocol changes that required hospitals to conduct surveillance in both inpatient and ED or observation unit setting. Results: During 2010–2013, the number of hospitals reporting CDI increased and then stabilized after 2013 (Table 1). Crude HO-CDI rates decreased over time, except for an increase in 2015 and steeper reduction thereafter. (Table 2). During 2010–2014, the adjusted quarterly rate of change was −0.45% (95% CI, −0.57% to −0.33%; P < .0001). The rate of reduction was smaller in 2010–2014 compared to those of 2015–2018 (−2.82%; 95% CI, −3.10% to −2.54%; P < .0001). Compared to 2014, the adjusted rate in 2015 increased by 79.14% (95% CI, 72.42%–86.11%; P < .0001). Conclusions: The number of hospitals reporting CDI LabID data grew substantially in 2013 as a result of the CMS requirement for reporting. Adjusted HO-CDI rates decreased over time, with a rate hike in the year of 2015 and a rapid decrease thereafter. The increase in 2015 may be explained by changes in the NHSN CDI surveillance protocol and better test type classification in later years. Overall decreases in HO-CDI rates may be influenced by prevention strategies.