To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We use three-dimensional (3-D) fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations to study the occurrence of magnetic reconnection in a simulation of decaying turbulence created by anisotropic counter-propagating low-frequency Alfvén waves consistent with critical-balance theory. We observe the formation of small-scale current-density structures such as current filaments and current sheets as well as the formation of magnetic flux ropes as part of the turbulent cascade. The large magnetic structures present in the simulation domain retain the initial anisotropy while the small-scale structures produced by the turbulent cascade are less anisotropic. To quantify the occurrence of reconnection in our simulation domain, we develop a new set of indicators based on intensity thresholds to identify reconnection events in which both ions and electrons are heated and accelerated in 3-D particle-in-cell simulations. According to the application of these indicators, we identify the occurrence of reconnection events in the simulation domain and analyse one of these events in detail. The event is related to the reconnection of two flux ropes, and the associated ion and electron exhausts exhibit a complex 3-D structure. We study the profiles of plasma and magnetic-field fluctuations recorded along artificial-spacecraft trajectories passing near and through the reconnection region. Our results suggest the presence of particle heating and acceleration related to small-scale reconnection events within magnetic flux ropes produced by the anisotropic Alfvénic turbulent cascade in the solar wind. These events are related to current structures of the order of a few ion inertial lengths in size.
This article seeks to approach the famous tenth-century account of the burial of a chieftain of the Rus, narrated by the Arab traveller Ibn Fadlan, in a new light. Placing focus on how gendered expectations have coloured the interpretation and subsequent archaeological use of this source, we argue that a new focus on the social agency of some of the central actors can open up alternative interpretations. Viewing the source in light of theories of human sacrifice in the Viking Age, we examine the promotion of culturally appropriate gendered roles, where women are often depicted as victims of male violence. In light of recent trends in theoretical approaches where gender is foregrounded, we perceive that a new focus on agency in such narratives can renew and rejuvenate important debates.
This study aimed to evaluate hearing outcomes and device safety in a large, single-surgeon experience with the totally implantable active middle-ear implants.
This was a retrospective case series review of 116 patients with moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss undergoing implantation of active middle-ear implants.
Mean baseline unaided pure tone average improved from 57.6 dB before surgery to 34.1 dB post-operatively, signifying a mean gain in pure tone average of 23.5 dB (p = 0.0002). Phonetically balanced maximum word recognition score improved slightly from 70.5 per cent to 75.8 per cent (p = 0.416), and word recognition score at a hearing level of 50 dB values increased substantially from 14.4 per cent to 70.4 per cent (p < 0.0001). Both revision and explant rates were low and dropped with increasing surgeon experience over time.
This study showed excellent post-operative hearing results with active middle-ear implants with regard to pure tone average and word recognition score at a hearing level of 50 db. Complication rates in this case series were significantly lower with increasing experience of the surgeon. Active middle-ear implants should be considered in appropriate patients with moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss who have struggled with conventional amplification and are good surgical candidates.
To assess the relationship between food insecurity, sleep quality, and days with mental and physical health issues among college students.
An online survey was administered. Food insecurity was assessed using the ten-item Adult Food Security Survey Module. Sleep was measured using the nineteen-item Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Mental health and physical health were measured using three items from the Healthy Days Core Module. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to assess the relationship between food insecurity, sleep quality, and days with poor mental and physical health.
Twenty-two higher education institutions.
College students (n 17 686) enrolled at one of twenty-two participating universities.
Compared with food-secure students, those classified as food insecure (43·4 %) had higher PSQI scores indicating poorer sleep quality (P < 0·0001) and reported more days with poor mental (P < 0·0001) and physical (P < 0·0001) health as well as days when mental and physical health prevented them from completing daily activities (P < 0·0001). Food-insecure students had higher adjusted odds of having poor sleep quality (adjusted OR (AOR): 1·13; 95 % CI 1·12, 1·14), days with poor physical health (AOR: 1·01; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·02), days with poor mental health (AOR: 1·03; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·03) and days when poor mental or physical health prevented them from completing daily activities (AOR: 1·03; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·04).
College students report high food insecurity which is associated with poor mental and physical health, and sleep quality. Multi-level policy changes and campus wellness programmes are needed to prevent food insecurity and improve student health-related outcomes.
This research communication reports the results from questionnaires used to identify the impact of recent research into the disinfection of cattle foot-trimming equipment to prevent bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) transmission on (a) biosecurity knowledge and (b) hygiene practice of foot health professionals. An initial questionnaire found that more than half of participating farmers, veterinary surgeons and commercial foot-trimmers were not considering hand or hoof-knife hygiene in their working practices. The following year, after the release of a foot-trimming hygiene protocol and a comprehensive knowledge exchange programme by the University of Liverpool, a second survey showed 35/80 (43.8%) farmers, veterinary surgeons and commercial foot-trimmers sampled considered they were now more aware of the risk of spreading BDD during foot- trimming. Furthermore, 36/80 (45.0%) had enhanced their hygiene practice in the last year, impacting an estimated 1383 farms and 5130 cows trimmed each week. Participants who reported having seen both the foot-trimming hygiene protocol we developed with AHDB Dairy and other articles about foot-trimming hygiene in the farming and veterinary press, were significantly more likely to have changed their working practices. Difficulties accessing water and cleaning facilities on farms were identified as the greatest barrier to improving biosecurity practices. Participants' preferred priority for future research was continued collection of evidence for the importance and efficacy of good foot-trimming hygiene practices.
Hemiparetic walking after stroke is typically slow, asymmetric, and inefficient, significantly impacting activities of daily living. Extensive research shows that functional, intensive, and task-specific gait training is instrumental for effective gait rehabilitation, characteristics that our group aims to encourage with soft robotic exosuits. However, standard clinical assessments may lack the precision and frequency to detect subtle changes in intervention efficacy during both conventional and exosuit-assisted gait training, potentially impeding targeted therapy regimes. In this paper, we use exosuit-integrated inertial sensors to reconstruct three clinically meaningful gait metrics related to circumduction, foot clearance, and stride length. Our method corrects sensor drift using instantaneous information from both sides of the body. This approach makes our method robust to irregular walking conditions poststroke as well as usable in real-time applications, such as real-time movement monitoring, exosuit assistance control, and biofeedback. We validate our algorithm in eight people poststroke in comparison to lab-based optical motion capture. Mean errors were below 0.2 cm (9.9%) for circumduction, −0.6 cm (−3.5%) for foot clearance, and 3.8 cm (3.6%) for stride length. A single-participant case study shows our technique’s promise in daily-living environments by detecting exosuit-induced changes in gait while walking in a busy outdoor plaza.
Cultural evolutionary theory conceptualises culture as an information-transmission system whose dynamics take on evolutionary properties. Within this framework, however, innovation has been likened to random mutations, reducing its occurrence to chance or fortuitous transmission error. In introducing the special collection on children and innovation, we here place object play and play objects – especially functional miniatures – from carefully chosen archaeological contexts in a niche construction perspective. Given that play, including object play, is ubiquitous in human societies, we suggest that plaything construction, provisioning and use have, over evolutionary timescales, paid substantial selective dividends via ontogenetic niche modification. Combining findings from cognitive science, ethology and ethnography with insights into hominin early developmental life-history, we show how play objects and object play probably had decisive roles in the emergence of innovative capabilities. Importantly, we argue that closer attention to play objects can go some way towards addressing changes in innovation rates that occurred throughout human biocultural evolution and why innovations are observable within certain technological domains but not others.
Chaff lining and chaff tramlining are harvest weed seed control (HWSC) systems that involve the concentration of chaff material containing weed seed into narrow (20 to 30 cm) rows between or on the harvester wheel tracks during harvest. These lines of chaff are left intact in the fields through subsequent cropping seasons in the assumption that the chaff environment is unfavorable for weed seed survival. The chaff row environment effect on weed seed survival was examined in field studies, and chaff response studies determined the influence of increasing amounts of chaff on weed seedling emergence. The objectives of these studies were to determine the influences of (1) chaff lines on the summer–autumn seed survival of selected weed species and (2) chaff type and amount on rigid ryegrass seedling emergence. There was frequently no difference (P > 0.05) in seed survival of four weed species (rigid ryegrass, wild oat, annual sowthistle, and turnip weed) when seeds were placed beneath or beside chaff lines. In one instance, wild oat seed survival was increased (P < 0.05) when seed were placed beneath compared to beside a chaff line. The pot studies determined that increasing amounts of chaff consistently resulted in decreasing numbers of rigid ryegrass seedlings emerging through chaff material. The suppression of emergence broadly followed a linear relationship in which there was approximately a 2.0% reduction in emergence with every 1,000 kg ha–1 increase in chaff material. This relationship was consistent across wheat, barley, canola, and lupin chaff types, indicating that the physical presence of the chaff was more important than chaff type. These studies suggested that chaff lines may not affect the survival over summer–autumn of the contained weed seeds but that the subsequent emergence of weed seedlings will be restricted by high amounts of chaff (>40,000 kg ha–1).
The purpose of this article was to determine the impact of employing a telephone clinic for follow-up of patients with stable lateral skull-base tumours.
An analysis of 1515 patients in the national lateral skull-base service was performed, and 148 patients enrolled in the telephone clinic to date were identified. The length of time that patients waited for results of their follow-up scans and the travel distance saved by patients not having to attend the hospital for their results was determined.
The mean time from scan to receiving results was 30.5 ± 32 days, 14 days sooner than in the face-to-face group (p = 0.0016). The average round-trip distance travelled by patients to the hospital for results of their scans was 256 ± 131 km.
The telephone clinic led to a significant reduction in time until patients received their scan results and helped reduce travel distance and clinic numbers in traditional face-to-face clinics.
Inflammation may contribute to the high prevalence of depressive symptoms seen in lung cancer. “Sickness behavior” is a cluster of symptoms induced by inflammation that are similar but distinct from depressive symptoms. The Sickness Behavior Inventory-Revised (SBI-R) was developed to measure sickness behavior. We hypothesized that the SBI-R would demonstrate adequate psychometric properties in association with inflammation.
Participants with stage IV lung cancer (n = 92) were evaluated for sickness behavior using the SBI-R. Concomitant assessments were made of depression (Patient Hospital Questionniare-9, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and inflammation [C-reactive protein (CRP)]. Classical test theory (CTT) was applied and multivariate models were created to explain SBI-R associations with depression and inflammation. Factor Analysis was also used to identify the underlying factor structure of the hypothesized construct of sickness behavior. A longitudinal analysis was conducted for a subset of participants.
The sample mean for the 12-item SBI-R was 8.3 (6.7) with a range from 0 to 33. The SBI-R demonstrated adequate internal consistency with a Cronbach's coefficient of 0.85, which did not increase by more than 0.01 with any single-item removal. This analysis examined factor loadings onto a single factor extracted using the principle components method. Eleven items had factor loadings that exceeded 0.40. SBI-R total scores were significantly correlated with depressive symptoms (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) and CRP (r = 0.47, p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that inflammation and depressive symptoms explained 67% of SBI-R variance.
Significance of results
The SBI-R demonstrated adequate reliability and construct validity in this patient population with metastatic lung cancer. The observed findings suggest that the SBI-R can meaningfully capture the presence of sickness behavior and may facilitate a greater understanding of inflammatory depression.
The Late Triassic fauna of the Lossiemouth Sandstone Formation (LSF) from the Elgin area, Scotland, has been pivotal in expanding our understanding of Triassic terrestrial tetrapods. Frustratingly, due to their odd preservation, interpretations of the Elgin Triassic specimens have relied on destructive moulding techniques, which only provide incomplete, and potentially distorted, information. Here, we show that micro-computed tomography (μCT) could revitalise the study of this important assemblage. We describe a long-neglected specimen that was originally identified as a pseudosuchian archosaur, Ornithosuchus woodwardi. μCT scans revealed dozens of bones belonging to at least two taxa: a small-bodied pseudosuchian and a specimen of the procolophonid Leptopleuron lacertinum. The pseudosuchian skeleton possesses a combination of characters that are unique to the clade Erpetosuchidae. As a basis for investigating the phylogenetic relationships of this new specimen, we reviewed the anatomy, taxonomy and systematics of other erpetosuchid specimens from the LSF (all previously referred to Erpetosuchus). Unfortunately, due to the differing representation of the skeleton in the available Erpetosuchus specimens, we cannot determine whether the erpetosuchid specimen we describe here belongs to Erpetosuchus granti (to which we show it is closely related) or if it represents a distinct new taxon. Nevertheless, our results shed light on rarely preserved details of erpetosuchid anatomy. Finally, the unanticipated new information extracted from both previously studied and neglected specimens suggests that fossil remains may be much more widely distributed in the Elgin quarries than previously recognised, and that the richness of the LSF might have been underestimated.
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of acute respiratory infection. There is an excess of respiratory infections and deaths in schizophrenia, a condition where vitamin D deficiency is especially prevalent. This potentially offers a modifiable risk factor to reduce the risk for and the severity of respiratory infection in people with schizophrenia, although there is as yet no evidence regarding the risk of COVID-19. In this narrative review, we describe the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in schizophrenia, report the research examining the relationship between vitamin D levels and COVID-19 and discuss the associations between vitamin D deficiency and respiratory infection, including its immunomodulatory mechanism of action.
Recent technological advances have led to a novel class of microfluidic devices which can be rapidly fabricated by printing a fluid onto a solid substrate with flows generated passively via surface tension. The nonlinear dependence between flow and the heights of the conduits, however, prevent straightforward calculation of the resulting dynamics. In this paper we use matched asymptotic expansions to predict how flow through these devices can be tuned by changing their geometry. We begin with the simple ‘dumbbell’ configuration in which two fluid drops with different sizes are connected by a long, thin and narrow conduit. We calculate the time scale required for one drop to drain into the other and how this depends both on the geometry of the pinned contact line and volume of fluid deposited into the drops. Our model therefore provides the mechanistic basis to design conduits with a particular fluid flux and/or shear stress, which are often key experimental constraints. Our asymptotic predictions are shown to be in excellent agreement with numerical simulations even for moderate aspect ratios (the ratio of conduit width to length). Next, we show how our results for the simple dumbbell configuration can be extended to predict the flow through networks of conduits with multiple drops and nodes, and hence may assist in their design and implementation. This new mathematical framework has the potential to increase the use of surface tension driven microfluidics across a wide range of disciplines as it allows alternate designs to be rapidly assessed.
The Kilmaluag Formation on the Isle of Skye, Scotland, provides one of the richest Mesozoic vertebrate fossil assemblages in the UK, and is among the richest globally for Middle Jurassic tetrapods. Since its discovery in 1971, this assemblage has predominantly yielded small-bodied tetrapods, including salamanders, choristoderes, lepidosaurs, turtles, crocodylomorphs, pterosaurs, dinosaurs, non-mammalian cynodonts and mammals, alongside abundant fish and invertebrates. It is protected as a Site of Special Scientific Interest and by Nature Conservancy Order. Unlike contemporaneous localities from England, this assemblage yields associated partial skeletons, providing unprecedented new data. We present a comprehensive updated overview of the Kilmaluag Formation, including its geology and the fossil collections made to date, with evidence of several species occurrences presented here for the first time. We place the vertebrate faunal assemblage in an international context through comparisons with relevant contemporaneous localities from the UK, Europe, Africa, Asia and the US. This wealth of material reveals the Kilmaluag Formation as a vertebrate fossil assemblage of global significance, both in terms of understanding Middle Jurassic faunal composition and the completeness of specimens, with implications for the early evolutionary histories of mammals, squamates and amphibians.
We sought to explore whether obstetric complications (OCs) are more likely to occur in the presence of familial/genetic susceptibility for schizophrenia or whether they themselves represent an independent environmental risk factor for schizophrenia.
The presence of OCs was assessed through maternal interview on 216 subjects, comprising 36 patients with schizophrenia from multiply affected families, 38 of their unaffected siblings, 31 schizophrenic patients with no family history of psychosis, 51 of their unaffected siblings and 60 normal comparison subjects. We examined the familiality of OCs and whether OCs were commoner in the patient and sibling groups than in the control group.
OCs tended to cluster within families, especially in multiply affected families. Patients with schizophrenia, especially those from multiply affected families, had a significantly higher rate of OCs compared to normal comparison subjects, but there was no evidence for an elevated rate of OCs in unaffected siblings.
Our data provides little evidence for a link between OCs and genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia. If high rates of OCs are related to schizophrenia genes, this relationship is weak and will only be detected by very large sample sizes.
Results of a co-morbid insomnia and depression study of eszopiclone and fluoxetine demonstrated that co-therapy produced greater improvements in sleep and depression than fluoxetine monotherapy. To determine if changes in the HAMD17 were due to sleep, individual HAMD17 items were evaluated.
Patients met DSM-IV criteria for MDD and insomnia, with screening HAMD17 >14. All patients received fluoxetine QAM for 10 weeks, and randomly received double-blind eszopiclone 3mg or placebo QHS for 8 weeks, followed by a single-blind placebo 2-week run-out. HAMD17 was completed at Weeks 4, 8, and 10. Individual items were compared with ANCOVA using an LOCF approach.
Mean baseline HAMD17 scores were 22 for each group. At Week 4, differences were noted between treatment groups in the total score, and the individual items of insight, the three insomnia items (p<0.02 vs monotherapy), with a trend for guilt (p=0.07). At Week 8, significant differences between groups were noted in total score (p=0.0005), in the clinician-administered Bech subscale (p<0.001), in the three insomnia items (p<0.001), guilt, work/activities, and anxiety psychic (p<0.05). At Week 10, the total score, guilt, the three insomnia items, work/activities, retardation, agitation, anxiety psychic, general somatic symptoms, and hypochondriasis demonstrated significant improvements (p<0.05 vs monotherapy) despite discontinuation of eszopiclone.
Eszopiclone/fluoxetine co-therapy resulted in significant improvements in the insomnia items of the HAMD17. In addition, several items related to core depressive symptoms were also improved with co-therapy compared with monotherapy.
The aim of the study was to assess the experiences of discrimination as reported by people with mental health problems and to explore the impact of hospitalisation.
306 people with mental health problems provided sociodemographic data and data on discrimination using the discrimination and stigma scale version 12 (DISC-12) with the domains negative experienced discrimination, anticipated discrimination, overcoming stigma and discrimination, and positive experienced discrimination. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the impact of hospitalisation on discrimination, controlled for age, gender, education, employment, diagnosis and having been prescribed medication.
Hospitalisation had a major impact on negative discrimination: People were more likely to be treated unfairly in making or keeping friends, in marriage or divorce, by people in their neighbourhood, in social life, by mental health staff and in terms of privacy, if they had been hospitalised. They were also more likely to be avoided or shunned by people who knew about the mental health problem. People with a history of hospitalisation also reported more anticipated discrimination: They had stopped themselves more often from having a close personal relationship and concealed their mental health problem from others more often than those without a history of hospitalisation. However, people who had been hospitalised also experienced more positive discrimination in terms of being treated more positively in getting welfare benefits or disability pensions and in housing.
Findings suggest that treatment in hospital contributed to a higher extent to experienced discrimination than treatment in the community.
The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated neural changes in relation to mood biased processing in depression, before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) using an emotional Stroop task.
Sixteen unmedicated patients (mean age 40 years), fulfilling DSM-IV diagnosis for unipolar major depression underwent fMRI, prior to and after 16 once-weekly sessions of CBT. Sixteen matched healthy volunteers were scanned at similar time intervals. In an emotional Stroop task negative and neutral words were presented in various colors and volunteers had to name the color of words. Latencies were recorded to determine behavioral emotional interference effects. MRI images were acquired using clustered image acquisition. Whole-brain and region of interest analysis examined the neural basis of interference and mood biased processing.
At baseline patients displayed increased latencies during color naming negative words, in comparison to neutral words and in relation to healthy volunteers. After treatment, latencies did not significantly differ between groups. With regard to neural activity, depressed patients showed increased activation at baseline in amygdala, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), which normalized after CBT. Additionally, hyperactivation in the rostral anterior cingulate at baseline was positively correlated with symptom reduction after CBT.
Evidence was found for an emotional interference effect during acute states of depression which improved following CBT. The neural basis is associated with increased activity in the amygdala, DLPFC and VLPFC which normalized after treatment. CBT seems to affect behavioral biases and neural circuits involved in processing negative information.