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Creativity is crucial in design. In recent years, growing computational methods are applied to improve the creativity of design. This paper aims to explore an approach to generate creative design images with specific feature or design style. A Generative Adversarial Network model is applied in the approach to learn the specific design style. The target products will be projected into the latent space of model to transfer their styles and generate images. The generated images combine the features of the specific design style and the features of the target product. In the experiment, the approach using the generated images to inspire the human designer to generate the creative design in according styles. According to the primary verification by participants, the generated images can bring novelty and surprise to participants, which gain the positive impact on human creativity.
The medium-sized Ergu Fe–Zn polymetallic skarn deposit is located in the central Lesser Xing’an Range, NE China. The ore bodies are mainly hosted in the contact zone between granodiorite intrusions and lower Cambrian dolomitic crystalline limestones or skarns. To reveal the magmatic influence on the mineralization, resource potential and metallogenic geodynamic process of this deposit, a systematic study of the geology, petrology, zircon U–Pb dating, element geochemistry, amphibole geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotopes of the Ergu deposit intrusives was conducted. The results show the following: (1) The major rock types in the mine area are medium-grained granodiorite and porphyritic granite, and the rock related to mineralization is medium-grained granodiorite. Zircon U–Pb dating suggests that the granodiorite and porphyritic granite formed at 181.9–183.8 Ma and 182.7 Ma, respectively. Thus, an Early Jurassic magmatic event led to the formation of the Ergu deposit. (2) The granodiorite and porphyritic granite are high-K calc-alkaline I-type granites that formed by comagmatic evolution with varying degrees of fractional crystallization and were likely derived from partial melting of the lower crust. The Ergu deposit occurred in an active continental-margin tectonic setting. (3) The high water content (5.69 wt % H2O), high oxygen fugacity (ΔFMQ = +1.75 to +1.82) and intermediate-plutonic emplacement (3.13 km) of the granodioritic magma are key factors in the formation of the Ergu deposit. The porphyry granite is characterized by high water content (>4 wt % H2O), reduced oxygen fugacity (ΔFMQ = −0.47) and shallow emplacement (<3 km).
Embryos undergo chaotic division and decrease in quality on day 3 with a reduction in the rates of subsequent blastocyst formation. Disordered cleavage causes a deterioration in embryonic quality, here we assessed the relationship between an cleavage model in first mitosis and the chromosomal status of human embryos, and discuss the potential biological and clinical implications for the cleavage model as a single parameter that can be used to assess embryonic quality. Thirty-two infertile couples, with normal karyotypes and who underwent their first IVF cycle were recruited to donate one normal two-cell-stage embryo each for this study between 2019 and 2020. Twenty-eight two-cell embryos underwent preimplantation genetic testing of each blastomere, and four chaotic-division embryos were stained with Hoechst and cultured in a confocal laser-scanning microscopy incubator system. This system showed high specificity and PPV but low sensitivity and NPV using the CM in the prediction of euploidy, indicating that CM could be considered a screening method for embryo selection; additional observational studies using the CM to select transferable embryos are needed before it can be used in clinical practice.
Seasonal climate variability is an important component of Earth's climate system, and has a significant impact on ecosystems and social systems. However, the temporal resolution of most proxy-based paleoclimate records is limiting to fully understand the past seasonal changes. Here, we used high-precision monthly resolution Sr/Ca records of three Tridacna squamosa specimens from the northern South China Sea (SCS) to reconstruct the sea surface temperature (SST) seasonality during three time periods from the middle Holocene. The results suggested that SST seasonality in the northern SCS during the middle Holocene (3.21 ± 0.98°C) was smaller than that for recent decades (AD 1994–2004, 4.32 ± 0.59°C). Analysis of modern instrumental data showed that the SST seasonality in the northern SCS was dominated by the winter SST, which was deeply influenced by the intensity of East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). A strong EAWM usually resulted in cooler winter SST and a larger SST seasonality in the northern SCS. The reconstructed Holocene EAWM records showed that the EAWM strengthened from the middle to late Holocene, which was seen in our reconstruction of less SST seasonality changes during the middle Holocene in the northern SCS. This study highlighted that the Sr/Ca ratios from Tridacna shells can be used as a potential high-resolution indicator of past seasonal climate changes.
To present the clinical characteristics and dynamic changes in laboratory parameters of the COVID-19 in Guangzhou, and explore the probable early warning indicators of disease progressing.
We enrolled all the patients diagnosed as COVID-19 in the Guangzhou No. 8 People’s Hospital. The patients’ demographic, and epidemiologic data were collected, including chief complaints, lab results and imaging examination.
The characteristics of the patients in Guangzhou are different from that in Wuhan. They were younger in age, female dominated, not commonly combined with other disease. 75% of patients suffered fever on admission, followed by cough occurring in 62% patients. By comparing the mild/normal and severe/critical patients, male, aged, combined with hypertension, abnormal in blood routine result, raised creatine kinase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, CRP, procalcitonin, D-dimer, fibrinogen, APTT, and positive in proteinuria can be candidate of early warning indicators to severe disease.
The patients in outside epidemic areas showed different characteristics from that in Wuhan. The abnormal laboratory parameters were markedly changed in 4 weeks after admission, and also shown different between the mild and severe patients. The highest specificity and sensitivity potential early warning indicators of severe disease need more evidence to confirm.
New zircon U–Pb ages and whole-rock chemical data from four adakitic and two non-adakitic igneous rocks as tectonic blocks in the southern West Junggar accretionary complexes, northwestern China and one gabbro enclave in adakitic block provide further constraints on the initial subduction and following rollback process of the Junggar Ocean as part of southern Palaeo-Asian Ocean. The oldest adakitic monzonite in Tangbale is intruded by the non-adakitic quartz monzonite at 549 Ma, and the youngest adakitic diorite in Tierekehuola formed at 520 Ma. The Ediacaran–Cambrian magmatism show a N-wards younger trend. The high-SiO2 adakitic rocks have high Sr (300–663 ppm) and low Y (6.68–12.2 ppm), with Sr/Y = 40–84 and Mg no. = 46–60, whereas the non-adakitic rocks have high Y (13.2–22.7 ppm) and Yb (2.32–2.92 ppm), with Mg no. = 36–40. The gabbro has high MgO (14.81–15.11 wt%), Co (45–48 ppm), Cr (1120–1360 ppm) and Ni (231–288 ppm), with Mg no. = 72–73. All the samples show similar large-ion lithophile element (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and Nb, Ta, Ti and varying Zr and Hf depletion, suggesting that they were formed in a subduction-related setting. The adakitic rocks were produced by partial melting of subducted oceanic slab, but the melts were modified by mantle wedge and slab-derived fluids; the non-adakitic rocks were likely derived from partial melts of the middle-lower arc crust; and the gabbro originated from the mantle wedge modified by slab-derived fluids. The magmatism could have been generated during the Ediacaran initial subduction and Cambrian slab rollback of the Junggar Ocean.
Bacterial dysentery (BD) brings a major disease burden to developing countries. Exploring the influence of temperature and its interaction with other meteorological factors on BD is significant for the prevention and early warning of BD in the context of climate change. Daily BD cases and meteorological data from 2008 to 2018 were collected in all nine prefecture-level cities in Jilin Province. A one-stage province-level model and a two-stage city-specific multivariate meta-pooled level distributed lag non-linear model were established to explore the correlation between temperature and BD, then the weather-stratified generalised additive model was used to test the interaction. During the study period, a total of 26 971 cases of BD were developed. The one-stage and two-stage cumulative dose-response ‘J’ curves overlapped, and results showed a positive correlation between temperature and BD with a 1–6 days lag effect. Age group ⩾5 years was found to be more sensitive to the effects. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between temperature, humidity and precipitation (P = 0.004, 0.002, respectively) on BD under high temperature (>0 °C), reminding residents and policymakers to pay attention to the prevention of BD in situations with both high temperature and humidity, high temperature and precipitation during the temperate monsoon climate.
The impact of baseline hypertension status on the BMI–mortality association is still unclear. We aimed to examine the moderation effect of hypertension on the BMI–mortality association using a rural Chinese cohort.
In this cohort study, we investigated the incident of mortality according to different BMI categories by hypertension status.
Longitudinal population-based cohort.
17 262 adults ≥18 years were recruited from July to August of 2013 and July to August of 2014 from a rural area in China.
During a median 6-year follow-up, we recorded 1109 deaths (610 with and 499 without hypertension). In adjusted models, as compared with BMI 22–24 kg/m2, with BMI ≤ 18, 18–20, 20–22, 24–26, 26–28, 28–30 and >30 kg/m2, the hazard ratios for mortality in normotensive participants were 1·92 (95% CI 1·23, 3·00), 1·44 (95% CI 1·01, 2·05), 1·14 (95% CI 0·82, 1·58), 0·96 (95% CI 0·70, 1·31), 0·96 (95% CI 0·65, 1·43), 1·32 (95% CI 0·81, 2·14) and 1·32 (95% CI 0·74, 2·35), respectively, and in hypertensive participants were 1·85 (95% CI 1·08, 3·17), 1·67 (95% CI 1·17, 2·39), 1·29 (95% CI 0·95, 1·75), 1·20 (95% CI 0·91, 1·58), 1·10 (95% CI 0·83, 1·46), 1·10 (95% CI 0·80, 1·52) and 0·61 (95% CI 0·40, 0·94), respectively. The risk of mortality was lower in individuals with hypertension with overweight or obesity v. normal weight, especially in older hypertensives (≥60 years old). Sensitivity analyses gave consistent results for both normotensive and hypertensive participants.
Low BMI was significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality regardless of hypertension status in rural Chinese adults, but high BMI decreased the mortality risk among individuals with hypertension, especially in older hypertensives.
Hexangulaconulariids (Cambrian stages 1–2) are an extinct group of medusozoan polyps having a biradially symmetrical, fan-shaped periderm that is distinct from those of medusozoan polyps showing three-, four-, five-, or six-fold radial symmetry. Hexangulaconulariids exhibit substantial variation in gross morphology, including variation in the number of faces on each of the two major sides of the periderm. An intermediate taxon of hexangulaconulariids with ten faces (five on each major side) was expected. Here we describe a new hexangulaconulariid, Decimoconularia isofacialis new genus new species from Bed 5 of the Yanjiahe Formation (Cambrian Stage 2) in the Three Gorges area of Hubei Province, China. The new taxon differs from other hexangulaconulariids (Arthrochites, Hexaconularia, and Septuconularia) mainly in possessing a total of ten faces. The two lateral margins are each marked by a ridge in about the apertural half of the periderm and by a collinear furrow in about the apical half, while the five faces on each major side are bounded by a furrow in about the apertural half and by a collinear ridge in about the apical half. Among hexangulaconulariids, Decimoconularia and Septuconularia may be more closely related to each other than either genus is to Arthrochites or Hexaconularia.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: This study will provide the essential characterization of intrinsic neural activity in human brain organoids, both at the single cell and network levels, to harness for translational purposes. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Brain organoids are 3D, stem cell-derived neural tissues that recapitulate neurodevelopment. However, to levy their full translational potential, a deeper understanding of their intrinsic neural activity is essential. Here, we present our preliminary analysis of maturing neural activity in human forebrain organoids. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Forebrain organoids were generated from human iPSC lines derived from healthy volunteers. Linear microelectrode probes were employed to record spontaneous electrical activity from day 77, 100, and 130 organoids. Single unit recordings were collected during hour-long recordings, involving baseline recordings followed by glutamatergic blockade. Subsequently, tetrodotoxin, was used to abolish action potential firing. Single units were identified via spike sorting, and the spatiotemporal evolution of baseline neural properties and network dynamics was characterized. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Nine organoids were recorded successfully (n=3 per timepoint). A significant difference in number of units was seen across age groups (F (2,6) = 6.4178, p = 0.0323). Post hoc comparisons by the Tukey HSD test showed significantly more units in day 130 (51.67 ±14.15) than day 77 (16.33 ±14.98) organoids. Mean firing rates were significantly different in organoids based on age, with drug condition also trending toward significance (F (6,12) = 9.97; p = 0.0028 and p = 0.08 respectively). Post hoc comparisons showed a higher baseline firing rate in day 130 (0.99Hz ±0.30) organoids than their day 77 counterparts at baseline (0.31Hz ±0.066) and glutamate blockade (0.31Hz ±0.045). Preliminary network analysis showed no modularity or small-world features; however, these features are expected to emerge as organoids mature. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: Initial analysis of brain organoid activity demonstrates changes in single unit properties as they mature. Additional work in this area, as well as further network analyses, will confer better sense of how to rationally utilize brain organoids for translational purposes.
Plastic film (PF) mulching is widely applied in agriculture to improve water-use efficiency (WUE) and crop production. However, without efficient recovery, the residual plastic fragments in arable land threaten soil health and food security. Degradable films are generally considered as alternatives to conventional PF to mitigate PF pollution. A 2-year field experiment was conducted in 2016 and 2017 to evaluate the effects of various film mulching treatments (conventional PF mulching, transparent degradable film (TDF) mulching, and black degradable film (BDF) mulching, and no mulching) on soil water availability and summer maize yield in the North China Plain (NCP). Soil moisture, soil water storage, water use, and grain yield were recorded. Below 20 cm depth, soil moisture and soil water storage were higher in film mulching than in no mulching. Conventional PF mulching yielded the best water conservation, especially from sowing to jointing. TDF and BDF were similar in their regulation of soil moisture. Comparing to no mulching, conventional PF and degradable transparent film significantly reduced maize grain yield by 15.4 and 8.0% (average over 2 years), and reduced WUE by 9.4 and 7.8% (average 2 years), respectively. The observed reduction of grain yield in transparent film mulching might be caused by excessive soil temperature, especially at vegetative stages, which potentially accelerates crop senescence. Black film mulching reduced the soil cumulative temperature and prevent crops from being overheated. As consequence, grain yield and WUE of summer maize under BDF covering were significantly increased by 11.1 and 15.6%, respectively, over the 2 years. Therefore, we suggest that BDF can be used to replace conventional plastics to improve crop yield and control environmental pollution in the NCP.
GBF1 [Golgi brefeldin A (BFA) resistance factor 1] is a member of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors Arf family. GBF1 localizes at the cis-Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment where it participates in ER-Golgi traffic by assisting in the recruitment of the coat protein COPI. However, the roles of GBF1 in oocyte meiotic maturation are still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory functions of GBF1 in mouse oocyte organelle dynamics. In our results, GBF1 was stably expressed during oocyte maturation, and GBF1 localized at the spindle periphery during metaphase I. Inhibiting GBF1 activity led to aberrant accumulation of the Golgi apparatus around the spindle. This may be due to the effects of GBF1 on the localization of GM130, as GBF1 co-localized with GM130 and inhibiting GBF1 induced condensation of GM130. Moreover, the loss of GBF1 activity affected the ER distribution and induced ER stress, as shown by increased GRP78 expression. Mitochondrial localization and functions were affected, as the mitochondrial membrane potential was altered. Taken together, these results suggest that GBF1 has wide-ranging effects on the distribution and functions of Golgi apparatus, ER, and mitochondria as well as normal polar body formation in mouse oocytes.
It was reported that about 10% of people suffer from painful knee arthritis, and a quarter of them were severely disabled. The core activities of daily living were severely limited by knee osteoarthritis (KOA). In order to reduce knee pain and prolong the life of the knee joint, there has been an increasing demand on the development of exoskeletons, for prevention and treatment. The course of KOA was closely related to the biomechanics of knee joint, and the pathogenesis was summarized based on the biomechanics of knee joint. For the prevention and clinical treatment, exoskeletons are classified into three categories: prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation after the operation. Furthermore, the design concepts, actuators, sensors, control strategies, and evaluation criteria were presented. Finally, the shortcomings and limitations were summarized. It is useful for researchers to develop suitable exoskeletons in the future.
A study was conducted to identify whether composted manure and straw amendments (replacement of a portion of chemical fertilizer [50% of the total nitrogen application] with composted pig manure, and straw return [all straw from the previous rice crop] combined with chemical fertilizer) compared with no fertilization and chemical fertilizer only would change the dominant species of wheat-associated weeds as well as influence their growth and seed yield in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)–wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system. The study was initiated in 2010, and the treatment effects on the species, density, plant height, shoot biomass, seed yield of dominant weeds, and wheat yields were assessed in 2017 and 2018. Fertilization significantly increased the height, density, and yield of wheat, as well as the shoot biomass of wheat-associated weeds, but decreased the weed species number. A total of 17 and 14 weed species were recorded in the experimental wheat fields in 2017 and 2018, respectively. The most dominant weed species were American sloughgrass [Beckmannia syzigachne (Steud.) Fernald] and catchweed bedstraw (Galium aparine L.), which made up more than 64% of the weed community in all treatments. When the chemical fertilizer application was amended with pig manure compost and straw return, the relative abundance of B. syzigachne significantly decreased, while the relative abundance of G. aparine significantly increased. The application of the chemical fertilizer-only treatment resulted in increases in the density, shoot biomass, and seed yield of B. syzigachne, while the composted manure and straw amendments applied together with chemical fertilizer led to significant increases in the density, shoot biomass, and seed yield of G. aparine. Consequently, further research on ways to promote greater cropping system diversity will be needed to prevent the selection of weed species that are adapted to a limited suite of crop management practices.
The prognostic factor for in-hospital mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) care remains unclear. Therefore, a retrospective study was conducted aiming to estimate the in-hospital mortality rate and the risk factors for mortality in a high-burden setting. All patients with culture-confirmed TB that were admitted to the ICU of the hospital between March 2012 and April 2019 were identified retrospectively. Data, such as demographic characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory measures and mortality, were obtained from medical records. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify prognostic factors that influence in-hospital mortality. A total of 82 ICU patients with confirmed TB were included in the analysis, and 22 deaths were observed during the hospital stay, 21 patients died in the ICU. In the multivariable model adjusted for sex and age, the levels of serum albumin and white blood cell (WBC) count were significantly associated with mortality in TB patients requiring ICU care (all P < 0.01), the hazard ratios were 0.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7–0.9) per 1 g/l and 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.2) per 1 × 109/l, respectively. In conclusion, in-hospital mortality remains high in TB patients requiring ICU care. Low serum albumin level and high WBC count significantly impact the risk of mortality in these TB patients in China.
Gain-parameter-dependent transfer functions and phase-noise performances in a mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser are measured in this study. It is discovered that the corner frequency in the amplitude and phase domains is determined by the absorption coefficient of the gain fiber, when the total absorption and other cavity parameters are fixed. This shows that an oscillator using gain fiber with higher dopant concentration accumulates more phase noise. Furthermore, we present net cavity dispersion-dependent transfer functions to verify the effect of dispersion management on the frequency response. We derive a guideline for optimizing mode-locked fiber laser design to achieve low phase noise and timing jitter.
Although the progression of invasive aspergillosis (IA) shares some risk factors in the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), however, the prevalence of IA in suspected PTB remains unclear. During a period of 1 year (from January 2016 to December 2016), consecutive patients with suspected PTB were included in a referral TB hospital. Data, including demographic information and underlying diseases, were collected from medical records. PTB were all confirmed by mycobacterial culture (Lowenstein–Jensen medium). IA were diagnosed as proven or probable according to the criteria of the 2008 EORTC/MSG definitions. A descriptive analysis was performed to estimate the corresponding prevalence. During the study year, 1507 patients have a positive mycobacterial culture, with a mean age of 45.6 (s.d. 19.9) years old and a female:male ratio of 1:4. Among the 82 patients with non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases, two patients (2.44%, 95% CI 0.67–8.46%) were diagnosed as IA (one proven and one probable); two probable IA patients (0.15%, 95% CI 0.04–0.55%) were diagnosed in PTB patients (n = 1315), and all were retreatment cases. In addition, all four IA patients (100%) exhibited cavities in both lobes on radiograph. In China, the prevalence of IA is low in active PTB patients. However, when high-risk factors for IA are encountered in PTB patients, further investigations are required and empirically treatment for IA might be warranted.
The present study aimed to investigate the association of the Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) and its 6-year change with hypertension risk and compare the ability of CVAI and other obesity indices to predict hypertension based on the Rural Chinese Cohort Study. Study participants were randomly recruited by a cluster sampling procedure, and 10 304 participants ≥18 years were included. Modified Poisson regression was used to derive adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI. We identified 2072 hypertension cases during a median of 6·03 years of follow-up. The RR for the highest v. lowest CVAI quartile were 1·29 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·59) for men and 1·53 (95 % CI 1·22, 1·91) for women. Per-sd increase in CVAI was associated with hypertension for both men (RR 1·09, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·16) and women (RR 1·14, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·22). Also, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value for hypertension was higher for CVAI than the four other obesity indices for both sexes (all P < 0·05). Finally, per-sd increase in CVAI change was associated with hypertension for both men (RR 1·26, 95 % CI 1·16, 1·36) and women (RR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·15, 1·30). Similar results were observed in sensitivity analyses. CVAI and its 6-year change are positively associated with hypertension risk. CVAI has better performance in predicting hypertension than other visceral obesity indices for both sexes. The current findings suggest CVAI as a reliable and applicable predictor of hypertension in rural Chinese adults.
The upsurge in the number of people affected by the COVID-19 is likely to lead to increased rates of emotional trauma and mental illnesses. This article systematically reviewed the available data on the benefits of interventions to reduce adverse mental health sequelae of infectious disease outbreaks, and to offer guidance for mental health service responses to infectious disease pandemic. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, PsycINFO, WHO Global Research Database on infectious disease, and the preprint server medRxiv were searched. Of 4278 reports identified, 32 were included in this review. Most articles of psychological interventions were implemented to address the impact of COVID-19 pandemic, followed by Ebola, SARS, and MERS for multiple vulnerable populations. Increasing mental health literacy of the public is vital to prevent the mental health crisis under the COVID-19 pandemic. Group-based cognitive behavioral therapy, psychological first aid, community-based psychosocial arts program, and other culturally adapted interventions were reported as being effective against the mental health impacts of COVID-19, Ebola, and SARS. Culturally-adapted, cost-effective, and accessible strategies integrated into the public health emergency response and established medical systems at the local and national levels are likely to be an effective option to enhance mental health response capacity for the current and for future infectious disease outbreaks. Tele-mental healthcare services were key central components of stepped care for both infectious disease outbreak management and routine support; however, the usefulness and limitations of remote health delivery should also be recognized.