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A 198.8 m deep borehole was drilled through ice to subglacial bedrock in the northwestern marginal part of Princess Elizabeth Land, ~12 km south of Zhongshan Station, in January–February 2019. Three years later, in February 2022, the borehole temperature profile was measured, and the geothermal heat flow (GHF) was estimated using a 1-D time-dependent energy-balance equation. For a depth corresponding to the base of the ice sheet, the GHF was calculated as 72.6 ± 2.3 mW m−2 and temperature −4.53 ± 0.27°C. The regional averages estimated for this area based, generally, on tectonic setting vary from 55 to 66 mW m−2. A higher GHF is interpreted to originate mostly from the occurrence of metamorphic complexes intruded by heat-producing elements in the subglacial bedrock below the drill site.
Alpine grassland and nival zones are characterized by variable environmental conditions, compressed breeding seasons, and limited resources such as food and nest site availability. As a result, high elevation habitats around the world contain an impressive diversity of unique bird species, highly specialized to thrive in challenging environmental conditions with limited breeding opportunities. In this chapter, we highlight the global diversity of alpine habitats and avifaunal communities. We first define general features of alpine and nival zones, before providing an overview of these habitats across 10 major regions around the world. Assembling a global list of alpine breeding birds, we then summarize what makes alpine avifauna unique and how communities vary regionally. Specifically, we focus on traits that characterize how species interact with their environment: i) alpine specialization and endemism, ii) nesting strategies, and iii) migration behaviour. Finally, we address some of the main eco-evolutionary drivers that shape these alpine communities, including climate, vegetation structure, food availability, and species interactions. We conclude by discussing the critical role snow dynamics play in maintaining many alpine bird communities and highlight the concerning trends associated with a rapidly changing climate that are putting pressure on alpine birds.
The deformable wing structure can change its aerodynamic shape according to the change of flight mission and flight environment, so as to obtain better lift-drag, stability and control characteristics, which is considered as one of the future research directions of aviation technology. Considering the current technology maturity and reliability, a gradient corrugated fin is designed to realise the bending deformation of the wing. The structure of the skin is optimised to keep the skin smooth during deformation. In addition, a progressive push and pull rod is proposed to drive the wing deformation, and the fluid-structure interaction simulation is carried out for the wing deformation. At the same time, the changes of wing aerodynamic characteristics under different angles of leading and trailing edges and different push rod action schemes are analysed. Finally, a dry wind tunnel simulation test of the designed progressive flexible variable bending wing is carried out. The results of fluid-structure interaction simulation and dry wind tunnel test show that the progressive flexible variable bending wing proposed in this paper has a simple and reliable structure and remarkable deformation effect. It has advantages in increasing lift and reducing drag, ensuring high lift-drag ratio and providing wing trim moment. The deformable wing dry wind tunnel test platform designed by this method is structurally reliable, easy to operate, and can accurately reflect the influence of wing deformation on its aerodynamic force, which provides a verification means for the development of the design method and the design of practical aircraft in the future.
When an immiscible oil drop is immersed in a stably stratified ethanol–water mixture, the Marangoni flow on the surface of the drop can experience an oscillatory instability, so that the drop undergoes a transition from levitating to bouncing. The onset of the instability and its mechanisms have been studied previously (Li et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 126, 2021, 124502; Li et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 932, 2022, A11), yet the bouncing motion of the drop itself, which is a completely different problem, has not yet been investigated. Here we study how the bouncing characteristics (jumping height, rising and sinking time) depend on the control parameters (drop radius, stratification strength, drop viscosity). We first record experimentally the bouncing trajectories of drops of different viscosities in different stratifications. Then a simplified dynamical analysis is performed to get the scaling relations of the jumping height and the rising and sinking times. The rising and sinking time scales are found to depend on the drag coefficient $C_D^S$ of the drop in the stratified liquid, which is determined empirically for the current parameter space (Zhang et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 875, 2019, 622–656). For low-viscosity (5 cSt) oil drops, the results on the drag coefficient match those from the literature (Yick et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 632, 2009, pp. 49–68; Candelier et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 749, 2014, pp. 184–200). For high-viscosity (100 cSt) oil drops, the parameter space had not been explored and the drag coefficients are not readily available. Numerical simulations are therefore performed to provide external verification for the drag coefficients, which well match with the experimental results.
The control of a wing-in-ground craft (WIG) usually allows for many needs, like cruising, speed, survival and stealth. Various degrees of emphasis on these requirements result in different trajectories, but there has not been a way of integrating and quantifying them yet. Moreover, most previous studies on other vehicles’ multi-objective trajectory is planned globally, lacking for local planning. For the multi-objective trajectory planning of WIGs, this paper proposes a multi-objective function in a polynomial form, in which each item represents an independent requirement and is adjusted by a linear or exponential weight. It uses the magnitude of weights to demonstrate how much attention is paid relatively to the corresponding demand. Trajectories of a virtual WIG model above the wave trough terrain are planned using reward shaping based on the introduced multi-objective function and deep reinforcement learning (DRL). Two conditions are considered globally and locally: a single scheme of weights is assigned to the whole environment, and two different schemes of weights are assigned to the two parts of the environment. Effectiveness of the multi-object reward function is analysed from the local and global perspectives. The reward function provides WIGs with a universal framework for adjusting the magnitude of weights, to meet different degrees of requirements on cruising, speed, stealth and survival, and helps WIGs guide an expected trajectory in engineering.
Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) often avoid eye contact, a behavior that is potentially related to hyperarousal. Prior studies, however, have focused on between-person associations rather than coupling of within-person changes in gaze behaviors and arousal. In addition, there is debate about whether prompts to maintain eye contact are beneficial for individuals with FXS. In a study of young females (ages 6–16), we used eye tracking to assess gaze behavior and pupil dilation during social interactions in a group with FXS (n = 32) and a developmentally similar comparison group (n = 23). Participants engaged in semi-structured conversations with a female examiner during blocks with and without verbal prompts to maintain eye contact. We identified a social–behavioral and psychophysiological profile that is specific to females with FXS; this group exhibited lower mean levels of eye contact, significantly increased mean pupil dilation during conversations that included prompts to maintain eye contact, and showed stronger positive coupling between eye contact and pupil dilation. Our findings strengthen support for the perspective that gaze aversion in FXS reflects negative reinforcement of social avoidance behavior. We also found that behavioral skills training may improve eye contact, but maintaining eye contact appears to be physiologically taxing for females with FXS.
This study aimed to assess human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectiveness (VE) against both vaccine-type and nonvaccine-type high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection, and duration of protection in United States. The study population was female participants aged 18–35 years with an HPV vaccination history and genital testing for HPV from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2016. Participants vaccinated before sexual debut were assessed against 13 nonvaccine-type hrHPV infection including 31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/68/73/82. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate VE overall, by age at diagnosis, time since vaccination and lifetime sexual partners. A total of 3866 women were included in the analysis, with 23.3% (95% CI 21.3%–25.4%) having been vaccinated (≥1 dose). VE against vaccine-type HPV18/16/11/6 infection was 58% overall, which was mainly driven by those aged 18–22 years (VE = 64%) and 23–27 years (65%). Among participants aged 18–22 years vaccinated before sexual debut, the VE was 47% (23%–64%) against 13 nonvaccine-type hrHPV and 61% (95% CI 36%–77%) against 5 selected nonvaccine-type hrHPV35/39/52/58/59. Both direct effectiveness and cross-protection maintained effective for 5–10 years post vaccination. We also found the prevalence of ever diagnosed cervical cancer among vaccinated was significantly lower (0.46%, 4/874) than that among unvaccinated participants (1.27%, 38/2992). These findings highlight the potential of significant reduction of cervical cancer following the universal HPV vaccination programme.
We experimentally investigate the evaporation of very volatile liquid droplets (Novec 7000 Engineered Fluid, chemical name hydrofluoroethers HFE-7000) in a turbulent spray. Droplets with diameters of the order of a few micrometres are produced by a spray nozzle and then injected into a purpose-built enclosed dodecahedral chamber filled with air containing various amounts of water vapour. The ambient temperature and relative humidity in the chamber are carefully controlled. We observe water condensation on the rapidly evaporating droplet, both for the spray and for a single acoustically levitated millimetric Novec 7000 droplet. We further examine the effect of humidity, and reveal that a more humid environment leads to faster evaporation of the volatile liquid, as well as more water condensation. This is explained by the much larger latent heat of water as compared with that of Novec 7000. We extend an analytical model based on Fick's law to quantitatively account for the data.
Biogeochemical analyses of organisms’ tissues provide direct proxies for diets, behaviors, and environmental interactions that have proven invaluable for studies of extant and extinct species. Applying these to Cretaceous ecosystems has at times produced anomalous results, however, as dinosaurs preserve unusually positive stable carbon isotope compositions relative to extant C3-feeding vertebrates. This has been hypothesized to be a unique property of dinosaur dietary physiology, with potential significance for our interpretations of their paleobiology. We test that hypothesis through multi-taxic stable carbon isotope analyses of a spatiotemporally constrained locality in the Late Cretaceous of Canada, and compare the results to a modern near-analogue environment in Louisiana. The stable carbon isotope anomaly is present in all sampled fossil vertebrates, dinosaur or not. This suggests another more widespread factor is responsible. Examinations of diagenetic effects suggest that, where present, they are insufficient to explain the isotope anomaly. The isotope anomaly is therefore not primarily the result of a unique dietary physiology of dinosaurs, but rather a mix of factors impacting all taxa, such as environmental and/or source-diet differences. Our study underscores the importance of multi-taxic samples from spatiotemporally constrained localities in testing hypotheses of extinct organisms and ecosystems, and in the use of modern data to “ground truth” when evaluating analogue versus non-analogue conditions in greenhouse paleoecosystems.
Se is an essential trace element associated with animal growth and antioxidant and metabolic processes. However, whether Se, especially organic Se with higher bioavailability, can alleviate the adverse effects of low salinity stress on marine economic crustacean species has not been investigated. Accordingly, juvenile Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were reared in two culture conditions (low and standard salinity) fed diets supplemented with increasing levels of l-selenomethionine (0·41, 0·84 and 1·14 mg/kg Se) for 56 d, resulting in four treatments: 0·41 mg/kg under standard seawater (salinity 31) and 0·41, 0·84 and 1·14 mg/kg Se under low salinity (salinity 3). The diet containing 0·84 mg/kg Se significantly improved the survival and weight gain of shrimp under low salinity stress and enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the hepatopancreas. The increased numbers of B and R cells may be a passive change in hepatopancreas histology in the 1·14 mg/kg Se group. Transcriptomic analysis found that l-selenomethionine was involved in the regulatory pathways of energy metabolism, retinol metabolism and steroid hormones. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 0·84 mg/kg Se (twice the recommended level) effectively alleviated the effects of low salinity stress on L. vannamei by regulating antioxidant capacity, hormone regulation and energy metabolism.
Many data-driven patient risk stratification models have not been evaluated prospectively. We performed and compared the prospective and retrospective evaluations of 2 Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) risk-prediction models at 2 large academic health centers, and we discuss the models’ robustness to data-set shifts.
Mood episodes in bipolar disorder (BD) are still identified with subjective retrospective reports and scales. Digital biomarkers, such as actigraphy, heart rate variability, or ElectroDermal activity (EDA) have demonstrated their potential to objectively capture illness activity.
To identify physiological digital signatures of illness activity during acute episodes of BD compared to euthymia and healthy controls (HC) using a novel wearable device (Empatica´s E4).
A pragmatic exploratory study. The sample will include 3 independent groups totalizing 60 individuals: 36 BD inpatients admitted due to severe acute episodes of mania (N=12), depression (N=12), and mixed features (N=12), will wear the E4-device at four timepoints: the acute phase (T0), treatment response (T1), symptoms remission (T2) and during euthymia (T3; outpatient follow-up). 12 BD euthymic outpatients and 12 HC will be asked to wear the E4-device once. Data pre-processing included average downsampling, channel time-alignment in 2D segments, 3D-array stacking of segments, and random shuffling for training/validation sets. Finally, machine learning algorithms will be applied.
A total of 10 patients and 5 HC have been recruited so far. The preliminary results follow the first differences between the physiological digital biomarkers between manic and depressive episodes. 3 fully connected layers with 32 hidden units, ectified linear activation function (ReLU) activation, 25% dropout rate, significantly differentiated a manic from a depressive episode at different timepoints (T0, T1, T2).
New wearables technologies might provide objective decision-support parameters based on digital signatures of symptoms that would allow tailored treatments and early identification of symptoms.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is prevalent, often chronic, and requires ongoing monitoring of symptoms to track response to treatment and identify early indicators of relapse. Remote Measurement Technologies (RMT) provide an exciting opportunity to transform the measurement and management of MDD, via data collected from inbuilt smartphone sensors and wearable devices alongside app-based questionnaires and tasks.
To describe the amount of data collected during a multimodal longitudinal RMT study, in an MDD population.
RADAR-MDD is a multi-centre, prospective observational cohort study. People with a history of MDD were provided with a wrist-worn wearable, and several apps designed to: a) collect data from smartphone sensors; and b) deliver questionnaires, speech tasks and cognitive assessments and followed-up for a maximum of 2 years.
A total of 623 individuals with a history of MDD were enrolled in the study with 80% completion rates for primary outcome assessments across all timepoints. 79.8% of people participated for the maximum amount of time available and 20.2% withdrew prematurely. Data availability across all RMT data types varied depending on the source of data and the participant-burden for each data type. We found no evidence of an association between the severity of depression symptoms at baseline and the availability of data. 110 participants had > 50% data available across all data types, and thus able to contribute to multiparametric analyses.
RADAR-MDD is the largest multimodal RMT study in the field of mental health. Here, we have shown that collecting RMT data from a clinical population is feasible.
The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
In this prospective, longitudinal study, we examined the risk factors for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among a cohort of chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients and healthcare personnel (HCPs) over a 6-month period. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HD patients and HCPs was consistently associated with a household member having SARS-CoV-2 infection.