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Schizophrenia is a complex and heterogeneous syndrome with high clinical and biological stratification. Identifying distinctive subtypes can improve diagnostic accuracy and help precise therapy. A key challenge for schizophrenia subtyping is understanding the subtype-specific biological underpinnings of clinical heterogeneity. This study aimed to investigate if the machine learning (ML)-based neuroanatomical and symptomatic subtypes of schizophrenia are associated.
A total of 314 schizophrenia patients and 257 healthy controls from four sites were recruited. Gray matter volume (GMV) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores were employed to recognize schizophrenia neuroanatomical and symptomatic subtypes using K-means and hierarchical methods, respectively.
Patients with ML-based neuroanatomical subtype-1 had focally increased GMV, and subtype-2 had widespread reduced GMV than the healthy controls based on either K-means or Hierarchical methods. In contrast, patients with symptomatic subtype-1 had severe PANSS scores than subtype-2. No differences in PANSS scores were shown between the two neuroanatomical subtypes; similarly, no GMV differences were found between the two symptomatic subtypes. Cohen’s Kappa test further demonstrated an apparent dissociation between the ML-based neuroanatomical and symptomatic subtypes (P > 0.05). The dissociation patterns were validated in four independent sites with diverse disease progressions (chronic vs. first episodes) and ancestors (Chinese vs. Western).
These findings revealed a replicable dissociation between ML-based neuroanatomical and symptomatic subtypes of schizophrenia, which provides a new viewpoint toward understanding the heterogeneity of schizophrenia.
Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) is a globally distributed noxious weed that poses a significant challenge for control due to its fast and efficient propagation through the tuber, which is the primary reproductive organ. Gibberellic acid (GA3) has proven to be crucial for tuberization in tuberous plants. Therefore, understanding the relationship between GA3 and tuber development and propagation of C. rotundus will provide valuable information for controlling this weed. This study shows that the GA3 content decreases with tuber development, which corresponds to lower expression of bioactive GA3 synthesis genes (CrGA20ox, two CrGA3ox genes) and two upregulated GA3 catabolism genes (CrGA2ox genes), indicating that GA3 is involved in tuber development. Simultaneously, the expression of two CrDELLA genes and CrGID1 declines with tuber growth and decreased GA3, and yeast two-hybrid assays confirm that the GA3 signaling is DELLA-dependent. Furthermore, exogenous application of GA3 markedly reduces the number and the width of tubers and represses the growth of the tuber chain, further confirming the negative impact that GA3 has on tuber development and propagation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that GA3 is involved in tuber development and regulated by the DELLA-dependent pathway in C. rotundus and plays a negative role in tuber development and propagation.
The Viséan–Serpukhovian boundary is poorly defined in South China, hampering regional and global stratigraphical correlations. The foraminiferal and conodont distribution of the Baping Formation in the carbonate-slope Danlu section permits the recognition of an interval from the middle Viséan to the uppermost Serpukhovian in a continuous succession. The base of the Serpukhovian in Danlu is recognized by the first occurrences of Janischewskina delicata, Howchinia subplana and questionable ‘Millerella’ tortula. At a slightly younger level, the conodont Lochriea ziegleri is first recorded. A calibration on the first occurrence of L. ziegleri in different basins at a global scale has been revised compared to auxiliary markers within the ammonoids and foraminifers. The late occurrence of L. ziegleri in the Danlu section also supports a lack of synchronicity in the global first occurrence of this taxon. This study calls for the recognition of a new base for the Serpukhovian under a far better correlation between different zonal schemes and fossil groups.
Fat deposition and lipid metabolism are closely related to the morphology, structure and function of mitochondria. The morphology of mitochondria between fusion and fission processes is mainly regulated by protein posttranslational modification. Intermittent fasting (IF) promotes high expression of Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) and induces mitochondrial fusion in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. However, the mechanism by which Sirt3 participates in mitochondrial protein acetylation during IF to regulate mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics remains unclear. This article demonstrates that IF promotes mitochondrial fusion and improves mitochondrial function in HFD mouse inguinal white adipose tissue. Proteomic sequencing revealed that IF increased protein deacetylation levels in HFD mice and significantly increased Sirt3 mRNA and protein expression. After transfecting with Sirt3 overexpression or interference vectors into adipocytes, we found that Sirt3 promoted adipocyte mitochondrial fusion and improved mitochondrial function. Furthermore, Sirt3 regulates the JNK-FIS1 pathway by deacetylating malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2) to promote mitochondrial fusion. In summary, our study indicates that IF promotes mitochondrial fusion and improves mitochondrial function by upregulating the high expression of Sirt3 in HFD mice, promoting deacetylation of MDH2 and inhibiting the JNK-FIS1 pathway. This research provides theoretical support for studies related to energy limitation and animal lipid metabolism.
This study aimed to explore the mediation effects of one-carbon metabolism (OCM) related nutrients on the association between MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine (Hcy) were measured in the serum of 1254 pregnant women. Linear and logistic regressions were used to estimate the associations of OCM nutrients and MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism with blood glucose levels and GDM risk. Mediation analysis was applied to test the mediation effects of folate, vitamin B12 and Hcy on the association of MTHFR rs1801133 polymorphism with blood glucose concentrations and GDM. Pregnant women with MTHFR rs1801133 CC genotype had higher serum folate (10·75 v. 8·90 and 9·40 ng/ml) and lower serum Hcy (4·84 v. 4·93 and 5·20 μmol/l) than those with CT and TT genotypes. Folate concentrations were positively associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 1-h plasma glucose (1-h PG), 2-h plasma glucose (2-h PG) and GDM risk. Vitamin B12 levels were negatively correlated with FPG and GDM. Although no direct association was found between MTHFR rs1801133 genotypes and GDM, there were significant indirect effects of MTHFR rs1801133 CC genotype on FPG (β: 0·005; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·013), 1-h PG (β: 0·006; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·014), 2-h PG (β: 0·007; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·015) and GDM (β: 0·006; 95 % CI: 0·001, 0·014) via folate. In conclusion, serum folate mediates the effect of MTHFR rs1801133 on blood glucose levels and GDM. Our findings potentially provide a feasible GDM prevention strategy via individualised folate supplementation according to the MTHFR genotypes.
The impact of Strouhal number St (= 0.1–1.0), Reynolds number Re (= 50–2000) and dimensionless wavelength λ (= 0.5–2.0) on the hydrodynamic performance of a travelling wavy foil of a constant length is extensively investigated. The relationship of time-mean thrust with St, Re and λ is presented, suggesting that the propulsive force increases with increasing St, Re and λ. As such, the drag–thrust boundary advances as these parameters increase. A shorter λ makes the thrust steadier while a longer λ enhances the maximum instantaneous thrust. The latter is beneficial for prey to escape from a predator. The fluid added mass caused by the foil oscillation increases with St and λ but declines with Re (<500). Seven types of wake structures produced by the foil are identified, discussed and connected to thrust generation, showing how St, Re and λ affect the fluid dynamics, wake transition, vortex strength, wake jet, velocity, added mass, added damping, power input, efficiency and pressure profiles. The outcome of this work renders a physical basis for understanding the swimming of aquatic animals.
Blood oxygen is an essential component for numerous biological processes of mammalian animals. Milk production of ruminants largely relies on the supply of nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids and fatty acids. To define the regulatory role of blood oxygen availability in regard to milk production, seventy-five healthy Guanzhong dairy goats with similar body weight, days in milk and parities were selected. For each animal, milk yield was recorded and milk sample was collected to determine compositions. Milk vein blood was collected to determine parameters including blood gas, physio-biochemistry and haematology. Another blood sample was prepared for transcriptome and RT-qPCR. Results showed that both pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the milk vein (positively) and numbers of neutrophils in mammary vein (negatively) were associated with milk yield of the animals. To learn the role of pO2 in blood cell functionality, twelve animals (six with higher yield (H-group) and six with lower yield (L-group)) from seventy-five goats were selected. Compared with animals in L-group, goats in H-group were higher in pO2 but lower in pCO2, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase activity and neutrophil abundance in milk vein, compared with L-group. The blood transcriptome analysis suggested that compared with L-group, animals in H-group were depressed in functionality including neutrophil activation and metabolic pathways including glycolysis, NF-κB and HIF-1. Our result revealed that lower milk production could be associated with neutrophil activation responding to low pO2 in the mammary vein. In the meantime, we highlighted the potential importance of blood oxygen as a milk yield regulator.
This study aimed to investigate the organization, workload, and psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers from the domestic Medical Aid Teams (MATs) sent to Wuhan in China.
Leaders and members of MATs involved in the care for COVID-19 patients were invited to participate in a study by completing 2 separate self-report questionnaires from April 1 to 24, 2020.
A total of 9 MAT leaders were involved and 464 valid questionnaires were collected from 140 doctors and 324 nurses. Mean age of the doctors and nurses were 39.34 ± 6.70 (26∼58 years old) and 31.88 ± 5.29 (21∼52 years old), with 72 (15.5%) being males. Nurses were identified as an independent risk factor (HR 1.898; P = 0.001) for a day working time in the multivariate analysis. The proportions of psychological consulting received among nurses were higher than those among doctors (49.7 vs 30.0%, P < 0.001). More than 50% of the anesthetists and emergency doctors who have received psychological consulting thought that it was effective according to self-evaluation.
This study focused on healthcare workers’ situation during the early period of the pandemic. Nurses worked longer than doctors. The effectiveness of psychological consulting depends on the physicians’ specialties and the working conditions of the nurses and psychological consulting targeting different specialties need to be improved.
The sedimentary characteristics and preservation potential of lacustrine carbonates provide fundamental information on climate change. The lacustrine carbonate deposition in the Eocene Dongying Depression was investigated using a combination of mineralogical, petrological and geochemical analyses. Micritic calcite/dolomite, granular calcite, columnar calcite, calcareous shell fragments and reworked detrital calcite were identified. Varying patterns of carbonates (VPC) including lithofacies, geochemical indicators and carbonate distribution were revealed in the Dongying Depression: (i) carbonates hardly precipitate in the nearshore area (average 12 wt %); (ii) carbonate content is high (average 53 wt %) in the shallow lake and (iii) gradually decreases to reach a minimum (average 24 wt %) in the deeper part of the lake. Comparison of VPC in four Holocene lakes (the Qinghai Lake and Barkol Lake in China, Oro Lake in Canada and Montcortès Lake in Spain) with the Dongying Depression suggests that four distinct lake stages were developed, namely the terrigenous clastic/gypsum-rich, carbonate-rich, carbonate-decreasing and carbonate-poor stages. A depositional model of lacustrine carbonates influenced by detrital influx, climate, palaeoproductivity and salinity is developed. This study contributes to the understanding of the genetic mechanisms of lacustrine carbonate deposition to reconstruct environmental changes.
Increasing evidence supports sarcopenia as an important parameter for predicting cardiometabolic risks. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, and cardiovascular risk among older community-dwelling adults.
The associations between dynapenia, sarcopenia, and Framingham risk score (FRS) were estimated by multivariate regression models.
Muscle mass is estimated by skeletal muscle mass index using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Muscle strength is measured by handgrip strength using an analogue isometric dynamometer. Physical performance is measured by gait speed using a 6-m walking distance. Dynapenia was defined as low muscle strength and/or slow gait speed presents with normal muscle mass. The diagnosis of presarcopenia and sarcopenia was based on criteria proposed by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia in 2014. The FRS was used for evaluating 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk.
Adults aged 65 years and older who attended health examinations from 2015 to 2017 were recruited.
There were totally 709 subjects enrolled in this study. Dynapenic men (n 47) had 17·70 ± 5·08 % FRS and sarcopenic women (n 74) had 7·74 ± 6·06 % FRS. Participants with presarcopenia had the lowest FRS (men: 15·41 ± 5·35 %; women: 5·25 ± 3·70 %). Men with dynapenia had higher FRS than the presarcopenia group with odds ratio (OR) of 2·52 (95 % confidence interval (CI): 1·03, 6·14). Women with sarcopenia had significantly higher FRS than the presarcopenia group with OR of 2·81 (95 % CI: 1·09, 7·27).
Older dynapenic men and older sarcopenic women had higher risks of 10-year CHD. Presarcopenic older adults had the lowest CHD risk in both genders.
T long-term effects of cognitive therapy and behavior therapy (CTBT) for menopausal symptoms are unknown, and whether the effects are different between natural menopause and treatment-induced menopause are currently unclear. Therefore, we sought to conduct an accurate estimate of the efficacy of CTBT for menopausal symptoms.
We conducted searches of Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science databases for studies from 1 January 1977 to 1 November 2021. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intervention groups to control groups for menopausal symptoms were included. Hedge's g was used as the standardized between-group effect size with a random-effects model.
We included 14 RCTs comprising 1618 patients with a mean sample size of 116. CTBT significantly outperformed control groups in terms of reducing hot flushes [g = 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23–0.55, I2 = 45], night sweats, depression (g = 0.50, 95% CI 0.34–0.66, I2 = 51), anxiety (g = 0.38, 95% CI 0.23–0.54, I2 = 49), fatigue, and quality of life. Egger's test indicated no publication bias.
CTBT is an effective psychological treatment for menopausal symptoms, with predominantly small to moderate effects. The efficacy is sustained long-term, although it declines somewhat over time. The efficacy was stronger for natural menopause symptoms, such as vasomotor symptoms, than for treatment-induced menopause symptoms. These findings provide support for treatment guidelines recommending CTBT as a treatment option for menopausal symptoms.
Fluidization represents an important particulate and multiphase operation, featuring dynamic interactions between a continuum fluid and a discrete phase. It is typically realized in a vertical column or pipe. Various fluidization regimes occur, depending on the property of the fluidizing particles, flow rate, and external field force applied. This chapter describes gas–solid fluidization represented by dense-phase fluidized beds and circulating fluidized beds. Fluidization under the gas–liquid–solid flow conditions is also illustrated with the inclusion of its limiting condition of two-phase flows. Basic topics of fluidization include the fluidization regime classification and characteristics, phase-interaction mechanisms in the dense and dilute phase fluidization as well as nanoparticle fluidization, fluidized bed systems, and multiscaled transport phenomena, such as clustering, agglomeration, breakup, and coalescence of dispersed particles or bubbles. For the numerical modeling of fluidization systems, the Eulerian–Eulerian modeling is extensively used and often coupled with the DEM models or kinetic theory models for collision-induced transport in the dispersed phase.
Multiphase pipe flows are represented by gas–solid pneumatic transport and solid–liquid slurry transport in pipes, and gas–liquid pipe flows with either gas or liquid as the continuous phase. Fully developed multiphase pipe flows can be characterized by several transport regimes with distinctively different flow patterns and phase interactions dominated by factors such as mass flow ratio of phases, density ratio of phases, pipe orientation relative to gravity direction, transport velocity of continuum phase, and sizes of pipe and particles. Basic topics include the regime classification and flow characteristics in each regime for gas–solid pneumatic transport, solid–liquid slurry transport, and gas–liquid pipe flows, critical transport conditions such as saltation and pickup velocities, mechanisms dominating the pressure drop, suspended flow characteristics in straight pipes and effects of particle loading, electrostatic charges and pipe orientation, characteristics of flow over a bend, such as roping phenomena and bend erosion, and stratified multiphase pipe flow with wavy interfaces.
The phase separation of a multiphase flow is primarily achieved with an application of a specific mechanism that can lead to a distinctively different dynamic response of each phase in a multiphase medium. Such mechanisms include the gravitational settling (e.g., solids in fluids, droplets in immiscible fluids, bubbles in liquids or slurries), flow-induced alternation of phase inertia (e.g., centrifugal acceleration by flow rotation, jet dispersion, impaction on a surface), selective interception or blockage of phase transport (e.g., sieving; filtration), and separation using externally controlled field forces (e.g., electrostatic precipitation). A separation system or method can be developed by using one or a combination of these mechanisms. High separation efficiency and low mechanical energy loss are among the most important objectives for system design or selection. Actual separation of multiphase flows involves complicated phase transport, flow regimes, particle size distributions, and system geometries. Thus, aside from numerical modeling, much simplified analytical models with empirical correlations are still popular in practice.
Chapter 7 introduces the basic algorithms used to solve the governing equations of multiphase flows. The algorithms for incompressible, isothermal single-phase Newtonian fluid flow form the basis for more complex multiphase flow algorithms. Numerical techniques for the microscopic descriptions of fluid–particle interactions are focused on the discrete particle phase with rigid or nonrigid surfaces. Such methods are associated with the direct numerical simulation and can be categorized into the conformal mesh technique and the nonconformal mesh technique. Numerical techniques for the macroscopic descriptions of multiphase flow include the Eulerian–Lagrangian algorithm for continuum-discrete modeling, and the Eulerian–Eulerian algorithm for continuum modeling. The lattice Boltzmann method is a unique numerical technique for flow simulation. It is based on the discrete Boltzmann equation, rather than the typical Navier–Stokes equation in other CFD techniques. Its computational efficiency and some special treatment for multiphase models make it a suitable tool for flows with complex phase interactions.
Chapter 1 provides an overview of the concepts and exemplified applications of multiphase flows. It illustrates the distinctly different transport patterns or phenomena of individual phase in a multiphase flow, which have either naturally caused or intentionally designed consequences.
The chapter conveys the basic definitions of a multiphase flow, the phase interactions, and the associated modeling approaches, which include the difference between a multiphase flow and a multicomponent single-phase flow, the difference between a dilute-phase multiphase flow and a dense-phase multiphase flow, the difference between a continuum phase and a discrete phase in describing the flow regimes, and the difference in Eulerian–Lagrangian modeling and Eulerian–Eulerian modeling. Some interesting and unique phenomena of multiphase flows are discussed by case studies.