Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Studies on the intake of different types of carbohydrates and long-term mortality are sparse.
We examined the association of starch, total and each type of sugar, and free sugars with the risk of total and cause-specific mortality in a cohort of the general population in Japan. Study subjects were 29,079 residents from the Takayama Study, Japan, who responded to a self-administered questionnaire in 1992. Diet was assessed by a validated food-frequency questionnaire at the baseline. Mortality was ascertained during 16 years of follow-up. We noted 2,901 deaths (974 cancer-related and 775 cardiovascular-related) in men and 2,438 death (646 cancer-related and 903 cardiovascular-related) in women. In men, intake of starch was inversely associated with total mortality after controlling for covariates (the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI for the highest quartile versus lowest quartile: 0.71; 0.60-0.84; P-trend < 0.001). Intakes of total sugars, glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, and added and naturally occurring sugars were significantly positively associated with total mortality in men (HR and 95% CI for the highest versus lowest quartile of total sugar: 1.27; 1.12-1.45; P-trend < 0.0001). Similar relations were observed for cardiovascular mortality and non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality in men. In women, there was no significant association between any type of carbohydrates and mortality except that free sugars was significantly positively associated with the risk of total and non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality. Data suggest that the high intake of starch reduces mortality, whereas the high intake of sugars, including glucose, fructose, and sucrose, increase mortality in Japanese men.
The aim of this work was to use X-ray diffraction to identify substances used for adulteration of raw milk and to determine if crystallographic analysis can detect extraneous substances in milk. Two unknown substances were sent anonymously by employers linked to the dairy chain, who claimed that they were added directly in milk prior to water addition by truck drivers. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and submitted to physicochemical analysis. The first substance was identified by X-ray diffraction as sodium citrate, complying with its physicochemical attributes, such as the powerful ability to decrease the freezing point. The second substance was identified by X-ray diffraction as sucrose and this result was also in agreement with its ability to increase the density, decrease the freezing point and finally, to be positive for sucrose in the resorcinol qualitative test. To evaluate if X-ray diffraction can detect extraneous substances already mixed in milk, fresh raw milk samples tampered with urea, sodium hydroxide, sodium citrate and sucrose were freeze dried and analyzed by X-ray diffraction, with no detection of any extraneous substances at any percentage. This is the first report of attempted diagnosis of extraneous substances in milk by X-ray diffraction. However, this technique can be useful only when applied to identify substances used for adulteration prior to its dilution in milk, since the amorphous nature of milk seems to be a limitation for the accurate detection of extraneous substances.
Although polyphenols inhibit glucose absorption and transport in vitro, it is uncertain whether this activity is sufficient to attenuate glycaemic response in vivo. We examined this using orange juice, which contains high levels of hesperidin. We first used a combination of in vitro assays to evaluate the potential effect of hesperidin and other orange juice components on intestinal sugar absorption and then tested whether this translated to an effect in healthy volunteers. Hesperidin attenuated transfer of 14C-labelled glucose across differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers. The involvement of the sugar transporter GLUT2 was demonstrated by experiments carried out in the absence of Na to exclude the contribution of sodium-glucose linked transporter 1 and further explored by the use of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing human GLUT2 or GLUT5. Fructose transport was also affected by hesperidin partly by inhibition of GLUT5, while hesperidin, even at high concentration, did not inhibit rat intestinal sucrase activity. We conducted three separate crossover interventions, each on ten healthy volunteers using orange juice with different amounts of added hesperidin and water. The biggest difference in postprandial blood glucose between orange juice and control, containing equivalent amounts of glucose, fructose, sucrose, citric acid and ascorbate, was when the juice was diluted (ΔCmax=–0·5 mm, P=0·0146). The effect was less pronounced when the juice was given at regular strength. Our data indicate that hesperidin can modulate postprandial glycaemic response of orange juice by partial inhibition of intestinal GLUT, but this depends on sugar and hesperidin concentrations.
Perinatal exposure to sucrose or high-fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) in rats has previously been associated with altered hepatic fat content and composition post-weaning, although the effects on hepatic metabolism are unknown. The current study aimed to determine the sex-specific effects of maternal consumption of sucrose or HFCS-55 on the expression of hepatic lipogenic genes in the offspring. Liver samples were collected from offspring of albino Wistar rats provided with ad libitum access to either water (control), 10% sucrose or 10% HFCS-55 solution during pregnancy and lactation at 3 weeks (control n=16, sucrose n=22, HFCS-55 n=16) and 12 weeks (control n=16, sucrose n=10, HFCS-55 n=16) of age. Hepatic expression of the transcription factors such as carbohydrate response element-binding protein, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and downstream genes was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Sucrose-exposed offspring had higher hepatic SREBP-1c messenger RNA expression compared with control and HFCS-55 groups at both 3 weeks (P=0.01) and 12 weeks (P=0.03) of age. There were no differences in the expression of other hepatic lipogenic genes between groups at either 3 or 12 weeks. Thus, perinatal exposure to sucrose may be more detrimental to offspring hepatic metabolism compared with HFCS-55, independent of sex, and it will be important to evaluate the longer-term effects of perinatal sucrose exposure in future studies.
The excessive consumption of carbohydrates is related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in infants and adults. The effect of combining maternal malnutrition and a high carbohydrate intake on the development of NAFLD in adulthood remains unknown. We therefore hypothesized that consumption of 5% sucrose by the offspring of dams fed a low-protein diet during pregnancy promotes liver fat accumulation and oxidative damage differently in females and males. To test this, 12-month-old female and male offspring of mothers fed a Control (C) or low-protein diet (Restricted, R) were provided with either tap water or 5% sucrose for a period of 10 weeks. Livers were excised to measure the fat content and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NTyr) immunostaining; serum samples were also obtained to measure the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Data were analyzed using a non-repeated measures three-way analysis of variance to determine significant differences (P<0.05) regarding to the interaction among maternal diet, sucrose consumption and sex. Results showed that the liver fat content of females from R mothers was higher than that of their male counterpart. Hepatic 3-NTyr immunostaining and serum MDA concentrations were not affected by the interaction involving maternal diet, sucrose consumption and sex. Otherwise, liver fat content was correlated with the hepatic 3-NTyr immunostaining and serum MDA concentrations only in females. Thus, sucrose intake in adulthood increases fat content in the female but not in the male rat offspring of dams fed with a low-protein diet during pregnancy. This research emphasizes the importance of a balanced diet during pregnancy and the influence of the diet on the adult offspring.
The objective of this study was to assess the effects of bovine embryo vitrification by applying three different vitrification solutions containing ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) at different concentrations (10, 20 or 25% each) combined with 1.0 M glucose or 1.0 M sucrose, on the in vitro hatching and expansion rates. Healthy oocytes were selected for in vitro maturation and fertilization from 200 bovine ovaries, and subsequently cultured up to the blastocyst stage (n = 800). Control (n = 200) and vitrified cells (n = 100 per treatment; 600 in total) were cultured for an extra 24 or 48 h to evaluate hatching and expansion, respectively. Vitrification significantly decreased embryonic re-expansion and hatching rates independently of the tested solution when compared with control embryos, but solutions with 25% EG + 25% DMSO resulted in the highest re-expansion (75%) and hatching (70%) rates, independently of the added sugar. The addition of sucrose resulted in higher rates of re-expanded and hatched embryos when compared with glucose addition. We concluded that the combination of 25% EG + 25% DMSO and 1.0 M sucrose allowed hatching and expansion of vitrified-warmed bovine embryos produced in vitro.
Introduction: Oral sweet solutions have been accepted as effective pain reducing agents for neonates. However studies in the Emergency Department (ED) setting have conflicting results. The objective is to compare the efficacy of an oral sucrose solution versus placebo in reducing pain in children 1 to 3 months of age during nasopharyngeal aspiration (NPA) in the ED. Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted in a pediatric university-affiliated hospital ED. Participants from 1 to 3 months of age requiring NPA were recruited and randomly allocated to receive 2 mls of an 88% sucrose solution (SUC) or 2 mls of a placebo solution (PLA) orally, 2 mins before NPA. The primary outcome was the mean difference in pain scores at 1 min post NPA as assessed by the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability (FLACC) Pain Scale. Secondary outcomes were the difference in pain scores using the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), crying time, heart rate and adverse events. Results: 72 participants were recruited and completed the study, 37 (group SUC) and 35 (group PLA) respectively. Both groups had similar demographic and clinical characteristics and baseline FLACC and NIPS pain scores (all p=value >0.4). The mean difference in FLACC scores compared to baseline was 3.3 (2.5-4.1) (SUC) vs. 3.2 (2.3-4.1) (PLA) (p=.94) at 1 min and -1.2 (-1.7 to 0.7) (SUC) vs. -0.8 (-1.5 to -0.1) (PLA) (p=.66) at 3 mins after NPA. For the NIPS scores, it was 2.3 (1.6-3.0) (SUC) vs. 2.5 (1.8-3.2) (PLA) (p=.86) at 1 min and -1.2 (-1.6 to -0.8) (SUC) vs. -0.8 (-1.3 to 0.2) (PLA) (p=.59) 3 mins after NPA. There was no difference in the mean crying time, 114 (98-130) secs (SUC) vs. 109 (92-126) secs (PLA) (p=.81). No significant difference was found in participants’ heart rate at 1 min 174 (154-194) BPM (SUC) vs. 179 (160-198) BPM (PLA) (p=.32) and at 3 mins 165 (143-187) BPM (SUC) vs. 164 (142-186) BPM (PLA) (p=.86) after NPA. Three patients had vomiting during the procedure (2 PLA and 1 SUC), and one had an episode of chocking (PLA). Conclusion: In infants 1 to 3 months of age undergoing nasopharyngeal aspiration in the ED, administration of an oral sweet solution did not statistically decrease pain scores as measured by the FLACC and NIPS scales. Participants’ heart rate and crying time were not significantly decreased when sucrose was provided.
Associations between sugar intake and the remaining diet are poorly described in modern food environments. We aimed at exploring associations of high naturally occurring and added sugar intakes with sociodemographic characteristics, intake of macronutrients, fibre and selected food groups. Our data comprised 4842 Finnish adults aged 25–74 years, who participated in the population-based DIetary, Lifestyle and Genetic determinants of Obesity and Metabolic syndrome (DILGOM) study. Diet was assessed by a validated 131-item FFQ. The food item disaggregation approach was used to estimate sucrose and fructose intakes from natural sources (naturally occurring sugar) and all other sources (added sugar). Sex-specific trends in macronutrient, fibre and food group intakes across sugar type quartiles were determined with general linear modelling adjusting for age, energy intake, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, education and BMI. Overall, results were similar across sexes. Young age was found to be a determinant of higher added sugar and lower naturally occurring sugar intakes (P < 0·0001). High added sugar intake was associated with low fibre intake (P < 0·0001) accompanied with lower fruit (P < 0·0001 women; P = 0·022 men) and vegetable consumption (P < 0·0001) and higher wheat consumption (P = 0·0003 women; P < 0·0001 men). Opposite results were found for naturally occurring sugar. Butter consumption increased by 28–32 % (P < 0·0001) when shifting from the lowest to the highest added sugar intake quartile, while a decrease of 26–38 % (P < 0·0001) was found for naturally occurring sugar. Therefore, the associations of sugar types with dietary carbohydrate and fat quality seem opposing. Proper adjustments with dietary variables are needed when studying independent relationships between sugar and health.
Seed composition, including the protein, lipid and sucrose contents of 334 accessions of wild soybean (Glycine soja) collected in Japan, was evaluated using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) technology. The distribution of protein, lipid and sucrose contents and correlations among these three classes of seed components were determined. Protein, lipid and sucrose levels ranged in accessions from 48.6 to 57.0, 9.0 to 14.3 and 1.24 to 3.53%, respectively. Average levels of protein, lipid and sucrose in the accessions were 54, 11 and 2.5%, respectively. High negative correlations were observed between the protein and lipid contents, and the protein and sucrose contents. Mean levels of the three constituents were compared among collection sites classified by climatic conditions. The total protein content of accessions from regions with a high annual mean temperature was high. The protein content of accessions from the II-1 region was higher than those from the III-3 region, and the sucrose content from the II-1 region was lower than those from regions III-2 and IV-3. The lipid content of plants from the II-1 region was lower than those from other regions, and the accessions in region II had a higher protein content and lower sucrose and lipid contents than the other regions. These results provide diverse and wide-ranged protein, lipid and sucrose contents information of Japanese wild soybean resources according to climatic region; thus, providing a foundation for the future development and selection of new soybean varieties with desired traits in global environmental changes.
Previous studies have suggested that a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is positively associated with the risk of a coronary event. However, a few studies have examined the association between sucrose (the most common extrinsic sugar in Sweden) and incident coronary events. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between sucrose intake and coronary event risk and to determine whether these associations are specific to certain subgroups of the population (i.e. according to physical activity, obesity status, educational level, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, intake of fat and intake of fruits and vegetables). We performed a prospective analysis on 26 190 individuals (62 % women) free from diabetes and without a history of CVD from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Over an average of 17 years of follow-up (457 131 person-years), 2493 incident cases of coronary events were identified. Sucrose intake was obtained from an interview-based diet history method, including 7-d records of prepared meals and cold beverages and a 168-item diet questionnaire covering other foods. Participants who consumed >15 % of their energy intake (E%) from sucrose showed a 37 (95 % CI 13, 66) % increased risk of a coronary event compared with the lowest sucrose consumers (<5 E%) after adjusting for potential confounders. The association was not modified by the selected lifestyle factors. The results indicated that sucrose consumption higher than 15 E% (5 % of this population) is associated with an increased risk of a coronary event.
The most extremely osmotolerant microbial isolates are fungi from high-sugar environments that tolerate the lowest water activity (0.61) for growth yet reported. Studies of osmotolerant bacteria have focused on halotolerance rather than sucretolerance (ability to grow in high sugar concentrations). A collection of salinotolerant (≥10% NaCl or ≥50% MgSO4) bacterial isolates from the Great Salt Plains of Oklahoma and Hot Lake in Washington were screened for sucretolerance in medium supplemented with ≥50% fructose, glucose or sucrose. Tolerances significantly differed between solutes, even though water activities for saline media (0.92 and 0.85 for 10 and 20% NaCl Salt Plains media, respectively) were comparable or lower than water activities for high-sugar media (0.93 and 0.90 for 50 and 70% sucrose artificial nectar media, respectively). These specific solute effects were differentially expressed among individual isolates. Extrapolating the results of earlier food science studies with yeasts at high sugar concentrations to bacteria in salty environments with low water activity should be done with caution. Furthermore, the discussion of habitable Special Regions on Mars and the icy worlds should reflect an understanding of specific solute effects.
The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutamic acid (umami) and fatty acids are conserved between humans and pigs. In contrast, pigs show limited perception of high-intensity sweeteners and NaCl and sense a wider array of amino acids than humans. Differences on bitter taste may reflect the adaptation to ecosystems. In relation to appetite regulation, plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1 are similar in pigs and humans, while peptide YY in pigs is ten to twenty times higher and ghrelin two to five times lower than in humans. Pigs are an excellent model for human studies for vagal nerve function related to the hormonal regulation of food intake. Similarly, the study of gut barrier functions reveals conserved defence mechanisms between the two species particularly in functional permeability. However, human data are scant for some of the defence systems and nutritional programming. The pig model has been valuable for studying the changes in human microbiota following nutritional interventions. In particular, the use of human flora-associated pigs is a useful model for infants, but the long-term stability of the implanted human microbiota in pigs remains to be investigated. The similarity of the pig and human brain anatomy and development is paradigmatic. Brain explorations and therapies described in pig, when compared with available human data, highlight their value in nutritional neuroscience, particularly regarding functional neuroimaging techniques.
In contrast to the decline in mortality from many non-infectious, chronic diseases in the UK, death from liver disease has increased exponentially in men and women over the past 40 years. This is primarily because of the over consumption of alcohol, but also the increased prevalence of obesity, which is linked to early pathology through the accumulation of liver fat. Supra-physiological intakes of fructose-containing sugar can produce acute, adverse effects on lipid metabolism, and deliver excess energy that increases bodyweight and the deposition of fat in sites other than adipose tissue, including the liver. This review addresses the variable metabolic origins of liver fat, and the key importance of postprandial lipid metabolism in this respect. The effects of supra-physiological intakes of sugar are also considered in context of the real world and established threshold for the adverse effects of sugar on cardio-metabolic risk factors. The review concludes that while the average intake of sugar in the UK falls well below this critical threshold, intakes in subgroups of adults, and especially adolescents, may be cause for concern. There is also evidence to suggest that raised liver fat, acquired, in part, through an impaired removal of postprandial lipaemia, can increase sensitivity to the adverse effects of sugar at all ages.
Our aim was to evaluate the role of sucrose and the role of smell, taste and touch in the selection and consumption of fruit in wild spider monkeys. We recorded the feeding bouts of 14 adults for 9 mo in the Otoch Ma’ax Yetel Kooh Reserve, Punta Laguna, Yucatan, Mexico. For each of 2346 inspections on fruits of six species the consumption or rejection and the use of touch, smell and taste was recorded. Ten fruit samples (five ripe and five unripe) from each species were collected and the sucrose concentration was determined with a refractometer. As expected, sucrose concentrations were higher in ripe than unripe fruits. The difference in sucrose concentration between ripe and unripe fruits was positively associated with the proportion of inspections on ripe fruits and the proportion of consumed ripe fruits. Furthermore, the senses of touch and taste were used more often when fruits were ripe, whereas the sense of smell was used more often when fruits were unripe. The results suggest that sensory cues and sucrose concentration play important roles in fruit selection in spider monkeys.
Excess consumption of added sugars, including sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS-55), have been implicated in the global epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate and compare the impact of maternal consumption of sucrose or HFCS-55 during pregnancy and lactation on the metabolic health of the dam and her offspring at birth. Female Albino Wistar rats were given access to chow and water, in addition to a sucrose or HFCS-55 beverage (10% w/v) before, and during pregnancy and lactation. Maternal glucose tolerance was determined throughout the study, and a postmortem was conducted on dams following lactation, and on offspring within 24 h of birth. Sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased total energy intake compared with controls, however the increase from sucrose consumption was accompanied by a compensatory decrease in chow consumption. There was no effect of sucrose or HFCS-55 consumption on body weight, however sucrose consumption resulted in increased adiposity and elevated total plasma cholesterol in the dam, while HFCS-55 consumption resulted in increased plasma insulin and decreased plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). Maternal HFCS-55 consumption was associated with decreased relative liver weight and plasma NEFA in the offspring at birth. There was no effect of either treatment on pup weight at birth. These findings suggest that both sucrose and HFCS-55 consumption during pregnancy and lactation have the potential to impact negatively on maternal metabolic health, which may have adverse consequences for the long-term health of the offspring.
In addition to a yet-to-be published study showing arabinose to have an inhibiting effect on maltase, in vitro studies have shown l-arabinose to exert an inhibiting effect on small-intestinal sucrase and maltase and the consumption of a sucrose-rich drink containing l-arabinose to exert positive effects on postprandial blood glucose, insulin and C-peptide responses in humans. However, the effects of adding l-arabinose to mixed meals on the indices of glucose control are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the positive effects of l-arabinose added to a sugar drink could be reproduced in subjects consuming a mixed meal containing sucrose and/or starch from wheat flour. A total of seventeen healthy men participated in study 1, a randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial. In this study, the subjects consumed two different breakfast meals containing sucrose and starch from wheat flour (meal A) or starch from wheat flour (meal B) supplemented with 0, 5 and 10 % l-arabinose by weight after a 12 h fast. A total of six healthy men participated in study 2, a randomised, double-blind, cross-over trial. In this study, the subjects also consumed meal B served in two different textures and a liquid meal with maltose supplemented with 0 and 20 % l-arabinose. In addition, 1·5 g of paracetamol was chosen as an indirect marker to assess gastric emptying. Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide concentrations were measured regularly for 3 h. The results of the present study showed that the peak plasma concentration, time to reach peak plasma concentration or AUC values of glucose, insulin and C-peptide were not altered after consumption of the test meals. Overall, it was not possible to reproduce the beneficial effects of l-arabinose added to sucrose drinks when l-arabinose was mixed in a solid or semi-solid mixed meal.
Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. The objective of the present study was to elucidate acute haemodynamic and microcirculatory responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks made from sucrose, glucose or fructose at concentrations similar to those often found in commercial soft drinks. In a randomised cross-over study design, twelve young healthy human subjects (seven men) ingested 500 ml tap water in which was dissolved 60 g of either sucrose, glucose or fructose, or an amount of fructose equivalent to that present in sucrose (i.e. 30 g fructose). Continuous cardiovascular monitoring was performed for 30 min before and at 60 min after ingestion of sugary drinks, and measurements included beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) and impedance cardiography. Additionally, microvascular endothelial function testing was performed after iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside using laser Doppler flowmetry. Ingestion of fructose (60 or 30 g) increased diastolic and mean BP to a greater extent than the ingestion of 60 g of either glucose or sucrose (P< 0·05). Ingestion of sucrose and glucose increased cardiac output (CO; P< 0·05), index of contractility (P< 0·05) and stroke volume (P< 0·05), but reduced total peripheral resistance (TPR; P< 0·05), which contrasts with the tendency of fructose (60 and 30 g) to increase resistance. Microvascular endothelial function did not differ in response to the ingestion of various sugary drinks. In conclusion, ingestion of fructose, but not sucrose, increases BP in healthy human subjects. Although sucrose comprises glucose and fructose, its changes in TPR and CO are more related to glucose than to fructose.
Carbohydrate-rich foods are an essential component of the diet, providing the glucose that is continuously required by the nervous system and some other cells and tissues in the body for normal function. There is some concern that too much carbohydrate or certain types of carbohydrate such as fructose or the high glycaemic index carbohydrate foods that produce large, rapid increases in blood glucose may be detrimental to health. This review considers these issues and also summarises the public health advice currently available in Europe and the USA concerning dietary carbohydrates. The UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition is currently reviewing carbohydrates and health, and the subsequent report should help clarify some of the concerns regarding carbohydrates and health.
To investigate whether obese women can compensate for sucrose added to the diet
when it is given blind, rather than gaining weight or exhibiting dysfunctional
regulation of intake, in the present study, forty-one healthy obese (BMI
30–35 kg/m2) women (age 20–50
years), not currently dieting, were randomly assigned to consume sucrose
(n 20) or aspartame (n 21) drinks over 4
weeks in a parallel single-blind design. Over the 4 weeks, one group
consumed 4 × 250 ml sucrose drinks
(total 1800 kJ/d) and the other group consumed
4 × 250 ml aspartame drinks. During
the baseline week and experimental weeks, body weight and other biometric data
were measured and steps per day, food intake using 7 d unweighed food
diaries, and mood using ten- or seven-point Likert scales four times a day were
recorded. At the end of the experiment, the participants weighed 1·72
(se 0·47) kg less than the value predicted by
the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
model; the predicted body weight accounted for 94·3 % of
the variance in the observed body weight and experimental group accounted for a
further 1·1 % of the variance in the observed body weight,
showing that women consuming sucrose drinks gained significantly less weight
than predicted. The reported daily energy intake did not increase significantly,
and sucrose supplements significantly reduced the reported voluntary sugar,
starch and fat intake compared with aspartame. There were no effects on appetite
or mood. Over 4 weeks, as part of everyday eating, sucrose given blind in soft
drinks was partially compensated for by obese women, as in previous experiments
with healthy and overweight participants.
Although the sperm cryopreservation of freshwater and marine teleosts has been feasible for years, the cryopreservation of some fish embryos still remains elusive. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to analyze the embryo morphology after freezing and thawing 40 embryos of Piaractus mesopotamicus immersed into methanol and ethylene glycol, both at 7, 10 and 13% plus 0.1 M sucrose for 10 min. Soon after thawing, three embryos were treated with historesin, stained with hematoxylin–eosin and analyzed under an optical microscope. From every treatment, one palette containing embryos was thawed and incubated, but none of the eggs hatched. Samples containing two embryos were immersed into 10% methanol or 10% ethylene glycol both in association with sucrose, and embryos immersed into only water or sucrose solution were frozen, processed and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In both cases, the control group was immersed into only water. Although the embryos had the chorion, vitello, yolk syncytial layer and blastoderm, all of them were found altered under the optical microscope and by SEM. The chorion was irregular and injured; there was no individuality in the yolk granules; the yolk syncytial layer had an irregular shape, thickness and size; the blastoderm showed injuries in the nucleus shape and sometimes was absent; the blastoderm was located in atypical areas and absent in some embryos. In conclusion, no treatment was effective in preserving the embryos, and none of the embryos avoided injury from intracellular ice formation. These morphological injuries during the freezing process made the P. mesopotamicus embryos unfeasible for hatching.