Skip to main content Accessibility help

Seasonal fluctuations of carbohydrate levels in roots and crowns of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)

  • Elizabeth J. Stamm Katovich, Roger L. Becker (a1), Craig C. Sheaffer (a1) and James L. Halgerson (a1)


Field studies were conducted to characterize the predominant nonstructural carbohydrates in roots and crowns of purple loosestrife and to determine the seasonal fluctuation of root and crown carbohydrates in three Minnesota wetland habitats. Starch was the primary nonstructural carbohydrate present, and concentrations were consistently higher in roots than in crowns. Starch content decreased following shoot emergence and declined until flower bud formation, at which time levels reached seasonal lows. Following bud initiation, levels of starch increased during flowering, and this trend continued through to plant senescence in late September or October. Sucrose was the predominant soluble sugar in roots and crowns of purple loosestrife, but fructose and glucose were detected. Levels of sucrose in roots and crowns followed the same seasonal trends as starch.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author. Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108;


Hide All
Albrecht, K. A., Marten, G. C., Halgerson, J. L., and Wedin, W. F. 1987. Analysis of cell-wall carbohydrates and starch in alfalfa by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Crop Sci. 27: 586588.
Arny, A. C. 1932. Variations in the organic reserves in underground parts of five perennial weed from late April to November. Minn. Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull. 84: 128.
Becker, R. L. 1982. Perennial Weed Response to Tillage. Ph.D. thesis. Iowa State University, Ames, IA. 120 p.
Becker, R. L., Warnes, D. D., Kinkaid, B. D., and Miller, D. W. 1990. Purple loosestrife control with 1989 applications of triclopyr, and imazapyr and commercial standards, Morris, MN 1990. N. Cent. Weed Sci. Soc. Res. Rep. 47: 7576.
Blossey, B., Schroeder, D., Hight, S. D., and Malecki, R. A. 1994. Host specificity and environmental impact of two leaf beetles (Galerucella calmariensis and Gpusilla) for biological control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) . Weed Sci. 42: 134140.
Cowardin, L. M., Cartet, V., Golet, F. C., and LaRoe, E. T. 1979. Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Serv. FWS/OBS-79/31. 103 p.
Frear, D. S. 1995. Induced frost tolerance in leafy spurge roots: changes in carbohydrate metabolism. Leafy Spurge News 17: 5.
Gerhardt, F. 1929. Propagation and food translocation in the common milkweed. J. Agric. Res. 39: 837851.
Green, D. G. 1983. Soluble sugar changes occurring during cold hardening of spring wheat, fall rye and alfalfa. Can. J. Plant Sci. 63: 415420.
Hall, M. H., Sheaffer, C. C., and Heichel, G. H. 1988. Partitioning and mobilization of photoassimilate in alfalfa subjected to water deficits. Crop Sci. 28: 964969.
Hanft, J. M. and Jones, R. J. 1986. Kernal abortion in maize. I. Carbohydrate concentration patterns and acid invertase activity of maize kernels induced to abort in vitro. Plant Physiol. 81: 503510.
Hattey, J. A. and Sabbe, W. E. 1994. Nitrogen and starch analysis of cotton leaves using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 25: 18551863.
Hight, S. D., Blossey, B., Laing, J., and Declerck-Floate, R. 1995. Establishment of insect biological control agents from Europe against Lythrum salicaria in North America. Environ. Entomol. 24: 967977.
Hight, S. D. and Drea, J. J. Jr. 1991. Prospects for a classical biological control project against purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) . Nat. Areas J. 11: 151157.
Jung, G. A. and Smith, D. 1961. Trends of cold resistance and chemical changes over winter in the roots and crowns of alfalfa and medium red clover. I. Changes in certain nitrogen and carbohydrate fractions. Agron. J. 53: 359364.
Lloyd, J. E. Jr. 1993. Phenology of Adult Emergence and Response of Bronze Birch Borer and Two-Lined Chestnut Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to Pruning Wounds on Paper Birch and Red Oak in an Urban Landscape. M.S. thesis. University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. 75 p.
Loos, A. and Ragsdale, D. W. 1998. Biological Control of Loosestrife. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Extension Service Pub. FO-7080-D. 12 p.
Lym, R. G. and Messersmith, C. G. 1987. Carbohydrates in leafy spurge roots as influenced by environment. J. Range Manage. 40: 139144.
Mal, T. K., Lovett-Doust, J., Lovett-Doust, L., and Mulligan, G. A. 1992. The biology of Canadian weeds. 100. Lythrum salicaria . Can. J. Plant Sci. 72: 13051306.
Marten, G. C., Shenk, J. S., and Barten, F. E. II, eds. 1989. Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS): Analysis of Forage Quality. Agricultural Handb. 643. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 110 p.
Moore, D.R.J. and Keddy, P. A. 1989. Conservation of infertile wetlands: priorities and management. Pages 391-397 in Bardecki, M. J. and Patterson, N., eds. Wetlands: Inertia or Momentum. Proceedings of Conference, Ryerson Polytechnical Institute. Toronto: Federation of Ontario Naturalists.
Otzen, D. and Koridon, A. H. 1970. Seasonal fluctuations of organic food reserves in underground parts of Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and Tussilage farfara L. Acra Bot. Neerl. 19: 495502.
Parker, J. 1970. Effects of Defoliation and Drought on Root Food Reserves in Sugar Maple Seedlings. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Research Pap. NE-169. 8 p.
Shamsi, S.R.A. and Whitehead, F. H. 1973. Comparative eco-physiology of Epilobium hirsutum L. and Lythrum salicaria L. I. General biology, distribution and germination. J. Ecol. 62: 279290.
Shamsi, S.R.A. and Whitehead, F. H. 1974. Comparative eco-physiology of Epilobium hirsutum L. and Lythrum salicaria L. 2. Growth and development in relation to light. J. Ecol. 62: 631645.
Shenk, J. S. and Westerhaus, M. O. 1991a. Population definition, sample selection, and calibration procedures for near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Crop Sci. 31: 469474.
Shenk, J. S. and Westerhaus, M. O. 1991b. New standardization and calibration procedures for NIRS analytical systems. Crop Sci. 31: 16941696.
Skinner, L. C., Rendall, W. J., and Fuge, E. L. 1993. Minnesota's Purple Loosestrife Program: History, Findings and Management Recommendations. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Special Pub. 145. 27 p.
Thompson, D. Q., Stuckey, R. L., and Thompson, E. B. 1987. Spread, Impact and Control of Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North American Wetlands. Fish and Wildlife Res. 2. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 54 p.
Welling, C. H. and Becker, R. L. 1990. Seed bank dynamics of Lythrum salicaria L.: implications for control of this species in North America. Aquat. Bot. 38: 303309.


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Seasonal fluctuations of carbohydrate levels in roots and crowns of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)

  • Elizabeth J. Stamm Katovich, Roger L. Becker (a1), Craig C. Sheaffer (a1) and James L. Halgerson (a1)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.