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In this chapter, we explore whether perceptual adjustments for gender are equally strong for Japanese- and English-speaking listeners’ categorization of the sibilant fricatives /s/ and /ʃ/ in CV sequences. These stimuli were created by combining a set of eight fricatives with a set of natural vocalic bases produced by a variety of men. We hypothesized that Japanese listeners’ categorization would be more strongly influenced by gender typicality, given the overall heightened attention to gendered speech features in Japanese speakers and the greater role that vocalic features play in fricative categorization in Japanese compared to English. Some evidence is found that Japanese listeners’ categorization of fricatives is influenced more heavily on the gender typicality of men’s voices in the vocalic portion of the stimulus than is English listeners, but the effects are neither consistent nor in the direction predicted by previous research. Results point to the need for more research on how talker attributes affect the way that L2 listeners perceive L1 speech.
Accents in second language speech have multiple perceptual consequences, including breakdown in communication and undesirable judgments about accented speakers. Whereas perceived accents are likely influenced by various acoustic variables, it is not clear which acoustic variables influence the perceived accents the most and whether such important predictors of accents change as learners’ proficiency develops. Here we report a study that has examined acoustic sources of foreign accent in second language Japanese produced by American learners at different instructional levels, including beginning and intermediate late learners and early bilinguals. We collected speech samples from these learners as well as a control group of native speakers and measured 27 segmental and prosodic variables. These acoustic variables were related to accent rating scores obtained from native listeners. Confirmatory analyses showed that 24 out of 27 variables tested were reliably associated with listeners’ accentedness judgements. Exploratory analyses showed that prosodic features were most predictive of beginning to intermediate late learners’ accents, whereas vowel features were most predictive of early bilinguals’ accents. These results shed light on issues related to the acoustic sources of foreign accent and the development of second language speech.
This chapter reviews research examining the acquisition of English /r/ and /l/ by native Japanese (NJ) speakers from the perspective of the revised Speech Learning Model. The research shows that the English liquids can be learned after the end of the so-called critical period for speech learning, but that the two liquids are learned in different ways. This derives from the fact that the English /r/ is perceived to be more dissimilar phonetically from the Japanese liquid, /R/, than English /l/ is. NJ speakers who have received a substantial amount of English input produced and perceived English /r/ with high levels of accuracy due to the formation of a new phonetic category for English /r/. The lower level of accuracy observed for English /l/ is attributed to the formation of a composite Japanese /R/-English /l/ category based on the Japanese /R/ and English /l/ productions to which Japanese-English bilinguals have been exposed. The SLM-r predicts that bilinguals will continue to produce and perceive English /l/ less accurately than English /r/, regardless of how much English input they have received and that learning the English liquids will induce modifications in how NJ speakers will produce and perceive their native /R/.
Vowels are said to be less distinctive in prenasal context. The “pin/pen” merger in the Southern United States is a good example. This study attempts to investigate the effects of the postvocalic nasal on the identification and discrimination of American English vowels by native speakers of American English (NE) and Japanese (NJ). These two groups of participants identified six American English (AE) monophthongs /i, ɪ, ɛ, æ, ɑ, ʌ/ and discriminated six vowel pairs /i/-/ɪ/, /ɛ/-/ɪ/, /æ/-/ɛ/, /æ/-/ɑ/, /æ/-/ʌ /, and /ɑ/-/ʌ / in prenasal context. NJ also identified these American English vowels in terms of Japanese vowel categories. The results revealed that, overall, NE outperformed NJ in both identification and discrimination. In addition, how AE vowels were perceptually mapped to Japanese vowels predicted NJ’s discrimination. However, both groups’ performances were found to be poorer in the prenasal context when compared to their previous performances in the preplosive context, and NJ were more adversely (but differently) affected by nasalization than NE.
This chapter reports preliminary results of an acoustic analysis of fricatives in American English produced by native Japanese-speaking adults and children. The data were from 16 native Japanese (NJ) adults and 16 NJ children as well as 16 native English-speaking (NE) adults and NE children. All 64 participants were tested twice, one year apart, to study NJ adults’ and children’s learning of English. Their production of /s/ in the word ‘six’ was acoustically analyzed. Noise duration (absolute and normalized), fricative intensity, and center of gravity (CoG) were measured. For duration, the NJ adults’ /s/ was longer than the NE adults’ /s/ in both absolute duration and normalized duration. The CoG values were greater in the NE adults’ and children’s /s/ than in the NJ adults’ and children’s /s/. Noise amplitude was greater in the NE speakers’ /s/ than in the NJ speakers’ /s/. These results suggest that the NJ speakers’ /s/ was slightly more back than the NE speakers’ /s/ productions and that the NE speakers’ /s/ was more sibilant than the NJ speakers’ /s/. In addition, the noise amplitude increased significantly over the course of one year in the NJ children’s productions.
Adventure magazines constructed a version of World War II and Korea that depicted heroic men as warriors, protectors, and sexual conquerors. Here was both a friendly genre for veterans and a way for curious young men to get a glimpse of what war might be like. Many of these wartime stories were written by veterans themselves. Some wrote to honor their fallen comrades, others to deal with the traumas of war by sharing their experiences, still others to advocate for veterans’ rights and opportunities in an increasingly consumer-oriented society. The narratives were simple in construction, stories of good versus evil revolving around individual men or small groups of heroes. A militarized version of masculinity seemed an antidote to Cold War emasculation. In these storylines, tough men survived the worst of war and proved that democracy could still produce the best soldiers. Adventure magazines also demonstrated that war was meritocratic – anyone could be a hero. Yet the magazines’ stories and the vibrant artwork skirted the harsh realities of war, focusing on individual triumphs rather than the horrors of combat. By avoiding the truths of war’s ugly side, adventure mags constructed a battlefield memory that relied mostly on an imagined reality.
The influence of free sugar intake on nutrient intake remains unclear in Japanese children and adolescents with relatively low free sugar intake. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between free sugar and selected nutrient intakes using data from the 2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan, based on the WHO recommendations (<5 % or <10 % of energy (%E)) for free sugar intake. A 1-d weighed dietary record was assessed in Japanese children and adolescents (aged 1–19 years; n 2919). Mean intakes for selected nutrients and food groups were compared according to free sugar intake categories (<2·5 %E, 2·5 to <5 %E, 5 to <10 %E and ≥10 %E) with adjustment for sex, age and weight status. Inverse associations were observed between intakes of free sugars and twenty-one of twenty-four micronutrients assessed, except for vitamins A and C and Ca. Significantly reduced intakes were identified for twenty-two and fourteen micronutrients in the ≥10 %E and 5 to <0 %E categories, respectively, compared with the lower categories. Mean micronutrient intakes at the <2·5 %E category did not differ from those at the 2·5 to <5 %E category. Free sugar intake had positive associations with intakes of sugars and jams, confectioneries, fruit and vegetable juices, and soft drinks and negative associations with intakes of pulses and nuts and vegetables. This study showed that nutrient dilution was associated with higher free sugar intake among Japanese children and adolescents. The findings suggest that the WHO recommendations might help prevent nutrient dilution in Japanese children and adolescents.
The focus of this chapter is on languages of eastern Asia. Languages from several languages families are discussed and their linguistic peculiarities are illustrated, including Sino-Tibetan languages, Austro-Asiatic languages, Tai-Kadai languages, as well as Japanese and Korean. The final section describes the phenomenon of isolating morphology in more detail and delves into the processes that change the morphological framework of a given language over time, from isolating to agglutinative, from agglutinative to fusional, and from fusional back into isolating.
Recursive NPs are difficult to produce and late to emerge. We compare prosodic and syntactic abilities in Japanese-speaking five- and six-year-olds (n = 28) and adults (n = 10). It is reported that syntactic structure in Japanese is prosodically marked via downstep and metrical boost. Results of an elicited imitation task suggested that children had acquired the lexical prosody (contrast between accented and unaccented words), a pre-requisite for downstep realization. While downstep, the prosodic phrasing involved in the complex NPs in this study, was established, children showed interspeaker variation with the metrical boost, a feature that distinguishes recursively embedded NPs from non-recursive NPs. However, variability was also found in adults, indicating that, in contrast to previous results, prosodic encoding of syntax is generally unreliable in adult speech. Finally, the magnitude of metrical boost was not correlated to children's ability to produce recursive possessives, suggesting that prosody does not help bootstrap Japanese children's recursive phrases.
To develop a greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) database for Japanese foods using three different approaches, compare the results of estimated diet-related GHGE and determine major food contributors among Japanese adults.
Cross-sectional. Three GHGE databases were developed: (1) a literature-based method including a literature review of life cycle assessment studies of Japanese foods and (2) production- and (3) consumption-based input–output tables (IOT)-applied methods using the Japanese IOT. All databases were linked to the Japanese food composition table and food consumption data. Diet-related GHGE was estimated based on each database and the 4-d dietary record data. Diet-related GHGE were compared in both total and food group level between the databases.
392 healthy adults aged 20–69 years.
The mean diet-related GHGE significantly differed according to the calculation methods: 4145 g CO2-equivalent (CO2-eq)/d by the literature-based method, 4031 g CO2-eq/d by the production-based method and 7392 g CO2-eq/d by the consumption-based IOT-applied methods. It significantly differed in food group level as well. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between three methods ranged from 0·82 to 0·86. Irrespective of the methods, the top contributor to GHGE was meat (19·7–28·8 %) followed by fish and seafood (13·8–18·3 %).
Although the identified major food contributors to GHGE were comparable between the three methods, the estimated GHGE values significantly differed by calculation methods. This finding suggested that caution must be taken when interpreting the estimated diet-related GHGE values obtained using the different calculation methods of GHGE.
This chapter examines the ways teachers in a Japanese-as-heritage-language classroom in the United States prepare children to receive a preschool graduation certificate to be held at the end of the school year. It shows ways this preparation entails children learning an elaborate sequence of embodied moves that have to be imitated and performed in a fixed way (e.g., receiving the certificate from the school principal with both hands, taking a step back and then bowing deeply). It identifies various stages of this instruction, including modeling and demonstration by teachers of explicitly articulated “good”/“correct” and “bad”/“incorrect” examples followed by individual one-on-one rehearsal that entails an abundant amount of verbal and embodied correction of each child’s embodied moves. The chapter argues that teachers’ verbal and embodied practices during this preparation are rooted within an ideology of “correctness” of form (kata) that permeates many of the activities observed in this preschool classroom (e.g., learning to write Japanese, doing origami) in ways that prepare the children for Japanese society, in which attention to details of prescribed form is highly valued.
Over two decades ago, it was observed that the linguistic affinity of the language spoken by a particular population tended to correlate with the predominant paternal, i.e. Y-chromosomal, lineage found in that population. Such correlations were found to be ubiquitous but not universal, and the striking exceptions to such conspicuous patterns of correlation between linguistic and genetic phylogeography elicit particular interest and beg for clarification. Within the Austroasiatic language family, the Munda languages are a clear-cut case of father tongues, whereas Japanese and Korean are manifestly not. In this study, the cases of Munda and Japanese are juxtaposed. A holistic understanding of these contrasting cases of ethnolinguistic prehistory with respect to the father tongue correlation will first necessitate a brief exposition of the phylogeography of the Y chromosomal lineage O. Then triangulation discloses some contours and particulars of both long lost episodes of ethnolinguistic prehistory.
Previous studies on the acquisition of semantics in the aspectual domain have suggested that a difficult case for achieving a targetlike representation in a second language arises when learners need to preempt a first language (L1) option (Gabriele, 2009). This study investigates this issue by focusing on a learning scenario where predicate-level variability exists in the L1 input. We investigate whether Japanese learners of English can learn to invalidate event cancellation readings (Tsujimura, 2003) in English and how such knowledge develops with increasing English proficiency. We address these questions by examining how Japanese learners of English interpret accomplishment predicates that allow an event cancellation reading in Japanese but not in English. A truth-value judgment task was administered to 60 beginner, 96 intermediate, and 40 advanced Japanese learners of English as well as 20 L1 English and 20 L1 Japanese speakers. Our results showed that Japanese learners of English progressed toward a targetlike representation of aspectual entailment. We argue that such progress follows two parallel routes: a grammatical route rooted in the learners’ growing awareness of the English determiner and number morphology combined with a statistical route rooted in the learners’ inferences based on missing data.
The population history of Japan has been one of the most intensively studied anthropological questions anywhere in the world, with a huge literature dating back to the nineteenth century and before. A growing consensus over the 1980s that the modern Japanese comprise an admixture of a Neolithic population with Bronze Age migrants from the Korean peninsula was crystallised in Kazurō Hanihara's influential ‘dual structure hypothesis’ published in 1991. Here, we use recent research in biological anthropology, historical linguistics and archaeology to evaluate this hypothesis after three decades. Although the major assumptions of Hanihara's model have been supported by recent work, we discuss areas where new findings have led to a re-evaluation of aspects of the hypothesis and emphasise the need for further research in key areas including ancient DNA and archaeology.
This article reports findings on the effects of processing resources and learning context on the perceptual learning of lexical pitch accent in beginning nonnative Japanese learners. Native English speakers in at-home and study-abroad contexts were tested twice during a semester of Japanese study on their ability to judge the correctness of and categorize nouns by their pitch pattern. Regression analyses indicated that the ability to store nonnative-like sound sequences in phonological short-term memory (PSTM), as well as auditory processing ability, predicted a significant degree of perceptual gains made over a 12-week interval. However, these predictors were task specific in that PSTM capacity predicted correctness judgment gains, while auditory processing accounted for variation in categorization. Furthermore, despite learners in the at-home context performing slightly better overall, processing resources adhered to the same predictive pattern when context was taken into account. The results suggest that (a) neither increased input during study-abroad nor targeted instruction is sufficient for most learners to acquire lexical accent; (b) processing resources support the acquisition of lexical prosody, but these may depend on how learning is assessed; and (c) PSTM operates across learning contexts, suggesting it to be a domain-general capacity in early-stage nonnative language acquisition.
Although several studies in Western countries show that higher socioeconomic status is associated with higher diet quality, no study has observed this association in Japan. In the current study, we examined the association between diet quality and the combinations of age, sex, and household income, and also compared the dietary intake between diet quality levels according to household income.
National Health and Nutrition Survey, Japan in 2014.
2785 men and 3215 women.
Higher Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top scores (better diet quality) were observed in older women, especially those with higher household income, whereas lower scores were observed in younger men with lower household income. Those having low quality diet, especially in low income households, had higher odds of not meeting the recommended amounts of the Japanese dietary guidelines, than those having high quality diet.
Diet quality in Japanese adults differed by age and sex as well as by household income level. A different approach to diet quality improvement is needed according to population characteristics including not only age and sex but also social economic status.
Studies on the intake of different types of carbohydrates and long-term mortality are sparse. We examined the association of starch, total and each type of sugar and free sugars with the risk of total and cause-specific mortality in a cohort of the general population in Japan. Study subjects were 29 079 residents from the Takayama Study, Japan, who responded to a self-administered questionnaire in 1992. Diet was assessed by a validated FFQ at the baseline. Mortality was ascertained during 16 years of follow-up. We noted 2901 deaths (974 cancer related and 775 cardiovascular related) in men and 2438 death (646 cancer related and 903 cardiovascular related) in women. In men, intake of starch was inversely associated with total mortality after controlling for covariates (hazard ratio (HR) for the highest quartile v. lowest quartile: 0·71; 95 % CI 0·60, 0·84; Ptrend < 0·001). Intakes of total sugars, glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose and free and naturally occurring sugars were significantly positively associated with total mortality in men (HR for the highest v. lowest quartile of total sugar: 1·27; 95 % CI 1·12, 1·45; Ptrend < 0·0001). Similar relations were observed for cardiovascular mortality and non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality in men. In women, there was no significant association between any type of carbohydrates and mortality except that intake of free sugars was significantly positively associated with total and non-cancer, non-cardiovascular mortality. Data suggest that the high intake of starch reduces mortality, whereas the high intake of sugars, including glucose, fructose and sucrose, increases mortality in Japanese men.
Japanese has two types of two-place motion verbs whose ‘objects’ can be marked as either accusative or oblique (accusative–oblique alternations). The accusative–goal verbs mark their objects with accusative case -o or the goal marker -ni, and the accusative–source verbs mark their objects with accusative -o or the source marker -kara. Previous studies describe systematic differences in the interpretation of the arguments of these verbs and the events they denote between the two structures. This study argues that these alternating verbs are variable behavior verbs that are linked to two distinct syntactic structures. The core evidence for this claim comes from the results of two acceptability judgment experiments with Japanese native speakers that examined: (i) selectional restrictions on the subjects of the alternating verbs and (ii) the ability of their subjects to license ‘floating’ numeral quantifiers. The results of the experiments demonstrate that the accusative–source verbs alternate between the transitive and unaccusative structures, whereas the accusative–goal verbs consistently behave like transitive verbs but assign two different structural cases to their objects. Thus, the study shows that there are multiple ways in which two-place motion verbs are mapped onto distinctive syntactic structures, whereby the core meaning of the verbs and their syntactic structures together determine their interpretation.
To estimate the consumption of ultra-processed foods and determine its association with dietary quality among middle-aged Japanese adults.
Cross-sectional study using data from the Saitama Prefecture Health and Nutrition Survey 2011. Dietary intake was assessed using one- or two-day dietary records. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were obtained via self-administered questionnaire. Food items were classified according to the NOVA system into four groups: unprocessed or minimally processed foods; processed culinary ingredients; processed foods; and ultra-processed foods. The dietary share of each NOVA food group and their subgroups was calculated in relation to total energy intake, and the average dietary content of key nutrients was determined across tertiles of the dietary energy share of ultra-processed foods (low, middle and high intake).
Saitama Prefecture in Japan.
Community-dwelling adults aged 30–59 years (256 men, 361 women).
Consumption of unprocessed or minimally processed foods, processed culinary ingredients, processed foods and ultra-processed foods contributed 44·9 (se 0·8) %, 5·5 (se 0·2) %, 11·3 (se 0·4) % and 38·2 (se 0·9) % of total daily energy intake, respectively. A positive and statistically significant linear trend was found between the dietary share of ultra-processed foods (tertiles) and the dietary content of total and saturated fat, while an inverse relationship was observed for protein, vitamin K, vitamin B6, dietary fibre, magnesium, phosphorus and iron.
Our findings show that higher consumption of ultra-processed foods was associated with decreased dietary quality among Japanese adults.
Recent studies have shown that micronutrients are involved in the pathology of type 2 diabetes. Antioxidant effects of vitamins C and B2 and homocysteine-lowering effects of vitamins B6, folate and B12 may have protective roles. However, a few reports have investigated the association between dietary water-soluble vitamin intakes and risk of diabetes. In a prospective study encompassing 19 168 healthy Japanese men and women aged 40–79 years, we examined the associations between dietary intakes of water-soluble vitamins, determined by a validated self-administered FFQ, with the risk of 5-year cumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes by using the logistic regression model. Within the 5-year period, there were 494 self-reported new cases of diabetes. Higher dietary intakes of vitamins C, B2 and folate were associated with lower risk of incident diabetes only in women, whereas no associations of dietary intakes of vitamins B1, B3, B5, B6 and B12 were observed in either sex. The multivariable OR in the highest v. the lowest quartile of intakes among women were 0·61 (95 % CI 0·44, 0·94; P-trend = 0·04) for vitamin C, 0·56 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·93; P-trend = 0·03) for vitamin B2 and 0·70 (95 % CI 0·46, 0·98; P-trend = 0·03) for folate. Other than that for sex (P < 0·05), the P-interactions with age, BMI, smoking status or having a family history of diabetes were >0·10. In conclusion, higher dietary intakes of vitamins C, B2 and folate, but not other water-soluble vitamins, were associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese women.