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This study aimed to identify the longitudinal association between seaweed and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the Korean population. Data from 148,404 Korean adults aged 40 years and older without a history of T2DM, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline were obtained from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study data. The participants’ seaweed intake was obtained using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and the diagnosis of T2DM was surveyed through a self-reported questionnaire during follow-up. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for T2DM were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard regression, and the dose-response relationship was analyzed using a restricted cubic spline regression. Participants had a mean follow-up period of 5 years. Participants with the highest seaweed intake had an 7% lower risk of T2DM compared to the group with the lowest intake (95% CI: 0.87-0.99). Interestingly, this association was stronger in those with normal weight (HR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.81-0.95), while no association was observed in participants with obesity. Spline regression revealed an inverse linear relationship between seaweed intake and T2DM risk in participants with normal weight, showing a trend where increased seaweed intake is related to lower instances of T2DM (p for nonlinearity = 0.48). Seaweed intake is inversely associated with the onset of T2DM in Korean adults with normal weight.
Psychotic disorders are highly heritable, yet the evidence is less clear for subclinical psychosis expression, such as psychotic experiences (PEs). We examined if PEs in parents were associated with PEs in offspring.
As part of the Danish general population Lolland-Falster Health Study, families with youths aged 11–17 years were included. Both children and parents reported PEs according to the Psychotic Like Experiences Questionnaire, counting only ‘definite’ PEs. Parents additionally reported depressive symptoms, anxiety, and mental wellbeing. The associations between parental and child PEs were estimated using generalized estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation structure to account for the clustering of observations within families, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics.
Altogether, 984 youths (mean age 14.3 years [s.d. 2.0]), 700 mothers, and 496 fathers from 766 households completed PEs-questionnaires. Offspring of parents with PEs were at an increased risk of reporting PEs themselves (mothers: adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 2.42, 95% CI 1.73–3.38; fathers: aRR 2.25, 95% CI 1.42–3.59). Other maternal problems (depression, anxiety, and poor mental well-being), but not paternal problems, were also associated with offspring PEs. In multivariate models adjusting for parental problems, PEs, but not other parental problems, were robustly associated with offspring PEs (mothers: aRR 2.25, 95% CI 1.60–3.19; fathers: aRR 2.44, 95% CI 1.50–3.96).
The current findings add novel evidence suggesting that specific psychosis vulnerability in families is expressed at the lower end of the psychosis continuum, underlining the importance of assessing youths’ needs based on psychosis vulnerability broadly within the family systems.
Romantic relationships occur within a larger social, political, and historic context. Although family historians have attended to the changing social meaning and role of romantic partnering across historical time, few scholars have considered that the psychosocial meanings individuals attribute to historic events may shape romantic relationships dynamics. In this chapter, we consider how linkages between historic events and shifts in the socio-political environment of the United States may influence romantic relationships. We begin by reviewing the work of family historians before discussing theories and concepts relevant to examining romantic partnering within a historical context. We provide illustrative examples to highlight the overlap between cohort and historic effects across relationship initiation, maintenance, and dissolution. We conclude by reflecting on the conceptual and empirical challenges and possibilities associated with examining relationships from a historical perspective.
The association between the consumption of dairy products and risk of CVD has been inconsistent. There is a lack of studies in populations with high intakes of dairy products. We aimed to examine the association between intake of dairy products and risk of incident major adverse coronary events and stroke in the Swedish Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort study. We included 26 190 participants without prevalent CVD or diabetes. Dietary habits were obtained from a modified diet history, and endpoint data were extracted from registers. Over an average of 19 years of follow-up, 3633 major adverse coronary events cases and 2643 stroke cases were reported. After adjusting for potential confounders, very high intakes of non-fermented milk (>1000 g/d) compared with low intakes (<200 g/d) were associated with 35 % (95 % CI (8, 69)) higher risk of major adverse coronary events. In contrast, moderate intakes of fermented milk (100–300 g/d) were associated with a lower risk of major adverse coronary events compared with no consumption. Intakes of cheese (only in women) and butter were inversely associated with the risk of major adverse coronary events. We observed no clear associations between any of the dairy products and stroke risk. These results highlight the importance of studying different dairy foods separately. Further studies in populations with high dairy consumption are warranted.
Previous cross-sectional and case–control studies have proposed that decreased vitamin D levels are positively correlated with the risk of suicidality in adults. However, limited studies have examined the association between vitamin D and suicidality in adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between serum vitamin D and suicidality risk among early adolescents.
Data were obtained from a Chinese early adolescent cohort. In this cohort, seventh-grade students from a middle school in Anhui Province were invited to voluntarily participate in the baseline assessments and provide peripheral blood samples (in September 2019). The participants were followed up annually (in September 2020 and September 2021). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and vitamin D–related single-nucleotide polymorphisms at baseline were measured in November 2021. Traditional observational and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were performed to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D at baseline and the risk of baseline and incident suicidality (i.e., suicidal ideation [SI], plans and attempts).
Traditional observational analysis did not reveal a significant linear or non-linear association of serum 25(OH)D concentration with the risks of baseline and 2-year incident suicidality in the total sample (P > .05 for all). Sex-stratified analysis revealed a non-linear association between the 25(OH)D concentration and the risk of baseline SI in women (Poverall = .002; Pnon-linear = .001). Moreover, the risk of baseline SI in the 25(OH) insufficiency group was lower than that in the 25(OH) deficiency group in the total sample (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51–0.92, P = .012). This difference remained significant in women (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.40–0.87, P = .008) but not in men (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.53–1.15, P = .205). Additionally, both linear and non-linear MR analyses did not support the causal effect of serum 25(OH)D concentration on the risk of baseline, 1-year and 2-year incident suicidality (P > .05 for all).
This study could not confirm the causal effect of vitamin D on suicidality risk among Chinese early adolescents. Future studies must confirm these findings with a large sample size.
This chapter establishes a basic vocabulary in measuring outcomes as the first step in getting started to measure. It then outlines the steps in getting started: 1. identifying the cohort or segment; 2) gathering baseline data (retrospectively and prospectively); and 3. identifying the outcomes that matter most to people. It also addresses where to start based on if you are a clinician or health care administrator either from a provider organization or payer organization. A table is included that describes the different types of data and data sources that can be used for baseline data gathering as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each.
Maternal Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is suggested to increase the risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in the offspring, mainly through inflammation/autoimmunity, but the association is unclear. A prospective population-based cohort study was implemented to examine the association between maternal RA and offspring ASD.
We included all children born alive in Sweden from 1995 to 2015, followed up through 2017. Diagnoses of ASD and RA were clinically ascertained from National Patient Register. We quantified the association by hazard ratios (HR) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CI), from Cox regression after detailed adjustment for potential confounders. We examined RA serostatus, etiological subgroups and the timing of exposure. To closer examine the underlying mechanism for the association, we included a negative control group for RA, arthralgia, with similar symptomology as RA but free from inflammation/autoimmunity.
Of 3629 children born to mothers with RA, 70 (1.94%) were diagnosed with ASD, compared to 28 892 (1.92%) of 1 503 908 children born to mothers without RA. Maternal RA before delivery was associated with an increased risk of offspring ASD (HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.11–1.84), especially for seronegative RA (HR = 1.61, 95% CI 1.12–2.30). No similar association was observed for paternal RA, maternal sisters with RA, or RA diagnosed after delivery. Maternal arthralgia displayed as high risks for offspring ASD as did maternal RA (HR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.24–1.60).
In Sweden, maternal RA before delivery was associated with an increased risk of offspring ASD. The comparable association between maternal arthralgia and ASD risk suggests other pathways of risk than autoimmunity/inflammation, acting jointly or independently of RA.
Representative school data on SARS-CoV-2 past-infection are scarce, and differences between pupils and staff remain ambiguous. We performed a nation-wide prospective seroprevalence study among pupils and staff over time and in relation to determinants of infection using Poisson regression and generalised estimating equations. A cluster random sample was selected with allocation by region and sociodemographic (SES) background. Surveys and saliva samples were collected in December 2020, March, and June 2021, and also in October and December 2021 for primary pupils. We recruited 885 primary and 569 secondary pupils and 799 staff in 84 schools. Cumulative seroprevalence (95% CI) among primary pupils increased from 11.0% (7.6; 15.9) at baseline to 60.4% (53.4; 68.3) in December 2021. Group estimates were similar at baseline; however, in June they were significantly higher among primary staff (38.9% (32.5; 46.4)) compared to pupils and secondary staff (24.2% (20.3; 28.8)). Infections were asymptomatic in 48–56% of pupils and 28% of staff. Seropositivity was associated with individual SES in pupils, and with school level, school SES and language network in staff in June. Associations with behavioural characteristics were inconsistent. Seroconversion rates increased two- to four-fold after self-reported high-risk contacts, especially with adults. Seroprevalence studies using non-invasive sampling can inform public health management.
Individuals with depression have an increased dementia risk, which might be due to modifiable risk factors for dementia. This study investigated the extent to which the increased risk for dementia in depression is explained by modifiable dementia risk factors.
We used data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (2008–2009 to 2018–2019), a prospective cohort study. A total of 7460 individuals were included [mean(standard deviation) age, 65.7 ± 9.4 years; 3915(54.7%) were women]. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-8 (score ≥3) or self-reported doctor's diagnosis. Ten modifiable risk factors for dementia were combined in the ‘LIfestyle for BRAin health’ (LIBRA) score. Dementia was determined by physician diagnosis, self-reported Alzheimer's disease or the shortened version of the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (average score ≥3.38). Structural equation modelling was used to test mediation of LIBRA score.
During 61 311 person-years, 306 individuals (4.1%) developed dementia. Participants aged 50–70 years with depressive symptoms had higher LIBRA scores [difference(s.e.) = 1.15(0.10)] and a 3.59 times increased dementia risk [HR(95% CI) = 3.59(2.20–5.84)], adjusted for age, sex, education, wealth and clustering at the household level. In total, 10.4% of the dementia risk was mediated by differences in LIBRA score [indirect effect: HR = 1.14(1.03–1.26)], while 89.6% was attributed to a direct effect of depressive symptoms on dementia risk [direct effect: HR = 3.14(2.20–5.84)].
Modifiable dementia risk factors can be important targets for the prevention of dementia in individuals with depressive symptoms during midlife. Yet, effect sizes are small and other aetiological pathways likely exist.
The Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative aims to decrease new HIV infections and promote test-and-treat strategies. Our aims were to establish a baseline of HIV outcomes among newly diagnosed PWH in Washington, DC (DC), a ‘hotspot’ for the HIV epidemic. We also examined sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with retention in care (RIC), antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and viral suppression (VS) among newly diagnosed PWH in the DC Cohort from 2011–2016. Among 455 newly diagnosed participants, 92% were RIC at 12 months, ART was initiated in 65% at 3 months and 91% at 12 months, VS in at least 17% at 3 months and 82% at 12 months and 55% of those with VS at 12 months had sustained VS for an additional 12 months. AIDS diagnosis was associated with RIC (aOR 2.99; 1.13–2.28), ART initiation by 3 months (aOR 2.58; 1.61–4.12) and VS by 12 months (aOR4.87; 1.69–14.03). This analysis contributes to our understanding of the HIV treatment dynamics of persons with recently diagnosed HIV infection in a city with a severe HIV epidemic.
High-quality evidence from prospective longitudinal studies in humans is essential to testing hypotheses related to the developmental origins of health and disease. In this paper, the authors draw upon their own experiences leading birth cohorts with longitudinal follow-up into adulthood to describe specific challenges and lessons learned. Challenges are substantial and grow over time. Long-term funding is essential for study operations and critical to retaining study staff, who develop relationships with participants and hold important institutional knowledge and technical skill sets. To maintain contact, we recommend that cohorts apply multiple strategies for tracking and obtain as much high-quality contact information as possible before the child’s 18th birthday. To maximize engagement, we suggest that cohorts offer flexibility in visit timing, length, location, frequency, and type. Data collection may entail multiple modalities, even at a single collection timepoint, including measures that are self-reported, research-measured, and administrative with a mix of remote and in-person collection. Many topics highly relevant for adolescent and young adult health and well-being are considered to be private in nature, and their assessment requires sensitivity. To motivate ongoing participation, cohorts must work to understand participant barriers and motivators, share scientific findings, and provide appropriate compensation for participation. It is essential for cohorts to strive for broad representation including individuals from higher risk populations, not only among the participants but also the staff. Successful longitudinal follow-up of a study population ultimately requires flexibility, adaptability, appropriate incentives, and opportunities for feedback from participants.
Research suggests that there have been inequalities in the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and related non-pharmaceutical interventions on population mental health. We explored generational, sex, and socioeconomic inequalities during the first year of the pandemic using nationally representative cohorts from the UK.
We analysed data from 26772 participants from five longitudinal cohorts representing generations born between 1946 and 2000, collected in May 2020, September–October 2020, and February–March 2021 across all five cohorts. We used a multilevel growth curve modelling approach to investigate generational, sex, and socioeconomic differences in levels of anxiety and depressive symptomatology, loneliness, and life satisfaction (LS) over time.
Younger generations had worse levels of mental and social wellbeing throughout the first year of the pandemic. Whereas these generational inequalities narrowed between the first and last observation periods for LS [−0.33 (95% CI −0.51 to −0.15)], they became larger for anxiety [0.22 (0.10, 0.33)]. Generational inequalities in depression and loneliness did not change between the first and last observation periods, but initial depression levels of the youngest cohort were worse than expected if the generational inequalities had not accelerated. Women and those experiencing financial difficulties had worse initial mental and social wellbeing levels than men and those financially living comfortably, respectively, and these gaps did not substantially differ between the first and last observation periods.
By March 2021, mental and social wellbeing inequalities persisted in the UK adult population. Pre-existing generational inequalities may have been exacerbated with the pandemic onset. Policies aimed at protecting vulnerable groups are needed.
Psychotic experiences (PEs) frequently occur and are associated with a range of negative health outcomes. Prospective studies on PEs are scarce, and to date no study investigated PE prevalence, incidence, persistence, their risk indicators, and psychiatric comorbidity, in one dataset. Furthermore, most studies are based on self-report, and it is unclear how this compares to clinical interviews.
Data are used from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2), a psychiatric cohort study among a representative sample of adults (baseline characteristics: N = 6646; 49.6% female; 18–64 years). Results are presented for self-reported and clinically validated PEs. Associations are assessed for mental disorders, socio-demographic, vulnerability, physical health, and substance use factors.
Based on self-report, at baseline 16.5% of respondents had at least one PE in their lifetime, of those, 30.1% also reported a PE at 3-year follow-up. 4.8% had a first PE at 3-year follow up. The 3-year prevalence of PE was associated with almost all studied risk indicators. Generally, the strongest associations were found for mental health disorders. Prevalence and incidence rates were two to three times higher in self-report than in clinical interview but results on associated factors were similar.
Validated prevalence and incidence estimates of PE are substantially lower than self-reported figures but results on associated factors were similar. Therefore, future studies on associations of PEs can rely on relatively inexpensive self-reports of PEs. The associations between PE and mental disorders underline the importance of assessment of PE in general practice.
To investigate the association between folate levels and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk during the whole pregnancy.
In this retrospective cohort study of pregnant women, serum folate levels were measured before 24 gestational weeks (GW). GDM was diagnosed between 24th and 28th GW based on the criteria of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups. General linear models were performed to examine the association of serum folate with plasma glucose (i.e. linear regressions) and risk of GDM (i.e. log-binomial regressions) after controlling for confounders. Restricted cubic spline regression was conducted to test the dosage–response relationship between serum folate and the risk of GDM.
A sigle, urban hospital in Shanghai, China.
A total of 42 478 women who received antenatal care from April 2013 to March 2017 were included.
Consistent positive associations were observed between serum folate and plasma glucose levels (fasting, 1-h, 2-h). The adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95 % CI of GDM across serum folate quartiles were 1·00 (reference), 1·15 (95 % CI (1·04, 1·26)), 1·40 (95 % CI (1·27, 1·54)) and 1·54 (95 % CI (1·40, 1·69)), respectively (P-for-trend < 0·001). The positive association between serum folate and GDM remained when stratified by vitamin B12 (adequate v. deficient groups) and the GW of serum folate measurement (≤13 GW v. >13 GWs)
The findings of this study may provide important evidence for the public health and clinical guidelines of pregnancy folate supplementation in terms of GDM prevention.
The COVID-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns were predicted to have a major impact on mental health, however current studies have produced contradictory findings with limited longitudinal data.
Nine years of linked, individual-level administrative data were used to examine changes in psychotropic medication uptake before and during the pandemic.
Medication data from a population-wide prescribing database were linked to demographic and socioeconomic indicators from healthcare registration records (n = 1 801 860). Monthly prescription uptake was split (pre-restrictions: January 2012 to February 2020 and during restrictions: March to October 2020). Auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were trained in R taking into consideration trends and seasonal effects. Forecast (‘expected’) monthly values were compared with ‘actual’ values, stratified by demographic factors.
Over the study period 38.5% of the study population were in receipt of ≥1 psychotropic medication. Uptake of these medications have been following a strong upward trend since January 2012. In March 2020 uptake of all medications increased beyond expected values, returning to expected trends from May 2020 for antidepressants, anxiolytics and antipsychotics. In the 8 months during restrictions uptake of hypnotic medication was 12% higher than expected among those <18 years, and anxiolytic medication higher than expected in those >65 years.
Results suggest an initial ‘stockpiling’ of medications in March 2020 before trends mostly returned to expected levels. The anticipated tsunami of mental ill health is not yet manifest in psychotropic medication uptake. There are indications of increased anxiety and sleep difficulties in some subgroups, although these conditions may resolve as we emerge from the pandemic without need for psychiatric intervention.
Early life exposures and growth patterns may affect long-term risk of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD). We followed up in adolescence two Zambian cohorts (n 322) recruited in infancy to investigate how two early exposures – maternal HIV exposure without HIV infection (HEU) and early growth profile – were associated with later anthropometry, body composition, blood lipids, Hb and HbA1c, blood pressure and grip strength. Although in analyses controlled for age and sex, HEU children were thinner, but not shorter, than HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) children, with further control for socio-demographic factors, these differences were not significant. HEU children had higher HDL-cholesterol than HUU children and marginally lower HbA1c but no other biochemical or clinical differences. We identified three early growth profiles – adequate growth, declining and malnourished – which tracked into adolescence when differences in anthropometry and body fat were still seen. In adolescence, the early malnourished group, compared with the adequate group, had lower blood TAG and higher HDL, lower grip strength (difference: −1·87 kg, 95 % CI −3·47, −0·27; P = 0·02) and higher HbA1c (difference: 0·5 %, 95 % CI 0·2, 0·9; P = 0·005). Lower grip strength and higher HbA1c suggest the early malnourished children could be at increased risk of NCD in later life. Including early growth profile in analyses of HIV exposure reduced the associations between HIV and outcomes. The results suggest that perinatal HIV exposure may have no long-term effects unless accompanied by poor early growth. Reducing the risk of young child malnutrition may lessen children’s risk of later NCD.
Worldwide, there are limited data on the prevalence of postpartum anaemia and iron status. The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of anaemia and iron deficiency (ID) by three iron indicators 14 weeks postpartum, their relations to haemoglobin (Hb) and associations with ethnicity and clinical factors in a multi-ethnic population. We conducted a population-based cohort study of 573 women followed from early pregnancy. The prevalence of postpartum anaemia (Hb <12·0 g/dl) was 25 %. ID prevalence varied from 39 % by serum ferritin (SF <15 μg/l), to 19 % by soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR >4·4 mg/l) and 22 % by total body iron (TBI < 0 mg/kg). The mean Hb concentration was 12·8 g/dl in women with no ID, 12·6 g/dl in those with ID by SF only and 11·6 g/dl in those with ID by SF, sTfR and TBI. ID by sTfR and TBI defined by the current threshold values probably identified a more severe iron-deficient population compared with ID assessed by SF. Compared with Western Europeans, the prevalence of anaemia was at least the double in ethnic minorities (26–40 % v. 14 %; P < 0·01–0·05), and the prevalence of ID by sTfR and TBI, but not of ID by SF < 15 μg/l, was significantly higher in some minority groups. After adjustment for covariates, only South Asians had lower Hb and higher sTfR concentration. Insufficient iron intake, gestational anaemia or ID, and postpartum haemorrhage were associated with lower postpartum Hb concentration and poorer iron status.
Subthreshold/attenuated syndromes are established precursors of full-threshold mood and psychotic disorders. Less is known about the individual symptoms that may precede the development of subthreshold syndromes and associated social/functional outcomes among emerging adults.
We modeled two dynamic Bayesian networks (DBN) to investigate associations among self-rated phenomenology and personal/lifestyle factors (role impairment, low social support, and alcohol and substance use) across the 19Up and 25Up waves of the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study. We examined whether symptoms and personal/lifestyle factors at 19Up were associated with (a) themselves or different items at 25Up, and (b) onset of a depression-like, hypo-manic-like, or psychotic-like subthreshold syndrome (STS) at 25Up.
The first DBN identified 11 items that when endorsed at 19Up were more likely to be reendorsed at 25Up (e.g., hypersomnia, impaired concentration, impaired sleep quality) and seven items that when endorsed at 19Up were associated with different items being endorsed at 25Up (e.g., earlier fatigue and later role impairment; earlier anergia and later somatic pain). In the second DBN, no arcs met our a priori threshold for inclusion. In an exploratory model with no threshold, >20 items at 19Up were associated with progression to an STS at 25Up (with lower statistical confidence); the top five arcs were: feeling threatened by others and a later psychotic-like STS; increased activity and a later hypo-manic-like STS; and anergia, impaired sleep quality, and/or hypersomnia and a later depression-like STS.
These probabilistic models identify symptoms and personal/lifestyle factors that might prove useful targets for indicated preventative strategies.
Previous research has found varied effects of informal care provision on the carer's health status. Few studies have, however, examined this relationship dynamically. This paper is the first to analyse trajectories of care among men and women in mid-life and their impact on health outcomes using a nationally representative prospective cohort study. Data from three waves of the United Kingdom (UK) National Child Development Study (N = 7,465), when the respondents were aged 46, 50 and 55, are used to derive care trajectories capturing the dynamics of care provision and its intensity. Logistic regression investigates the impact of caring between the ages of 46 and 55 on the carers' report of depression and poor health at age 55. At age 46, 9 per cent of men and 16 per cent of women provided some level of informal care; rising to 60 per cent for both genders at ages 50 and 55. Just 7 per cent of women and 4 per cent of men provided care at all observation points, with the most common trajectory being ‘starting to care’ at ages 50 or 55. New carers experienced a lower risk of depression at age 55, reflecting that they may not have experienced the caring role long enough to have an adverse impact on their wellbeing. The findings highlight that the majority of individuals with surviving parents experience caring at some point during mid-life, underlining the need for further longitudinal research to better understand the complex relationships between care-giving and health for different groups of cares.
Dietary inflammatory potential assessed by the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) has been associated with health outcomes. However, longitudinal changes in the DII in relation to health outcomes rarely have been studied. This study aimed to examine change in the DII score over 10 years and its association with subsequent mortality in the Multiethnic Cohort. The analysis included 56 263 African American, Japanese American, Latino, Native Hawaiian and White participants who completed baseline (45–75 years) and 10-year follow-up surveys, including a FFQ. Mean energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) decreased over 10 years in men (from −0·85 to −1·61) and women (from −1·80 to −2·47), reflecting changes towards a more anti-inflammatory diet. During an average follow-up of 13·0 years, 16 363 deaths were identified. In multivariable Cox models, compared with anti-inflammatory stable individuals, risk of all-cause mortality was increased with pro-inflammatory change in men (hazard ratio (HR) = 1·13, 95 % CI 1·03, 1·23) and women (HR = 1·22, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·32). Per one-point increase in E-DII score over time, HR was 1·02 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·03) for men and 1·06 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·07) for women (P for heterogeneity < 0·001). While no heterogeneity by race and ethnicity was observed for men, the increased risk per one-point increase among women was stronger in non-Whites than in Whites (P for heterogeneity = 0·004). Our findings suggest that a change towards a more pro-inflammatory diet is associated with an increased risk of mortality both in men and women, and that the association is stronger in women, especially non-White women, than in men.