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The current study evaluated the associations between different forms and sources of Fe and breast cancer risk in Southern Chinese women.
Case–control study. We collected data on the consumption of Fe from different forms and food sources by using a validated FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression and restricted cubic spline (RCS) analysis was used to reveal potential associations between Fe intake and breast cancer risk.
A case-control study of women at three major hospitals in Guangzhou, China.
From June 2007 to March 2019, 1591 breast cancer cases and 1622 age-matched controls were recruited.
In quartile analyses, Fe from plants and Fe from white meat intake were inversely associated with breast cancer risk, with OR of 0·65 (95 % CI 0·47, 0·89, Ptrend = 0·006) and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·61, 0·96, Ptrend = 0·014), respectively, comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. No associations were observed between total dietary Fe, heme or non-heme Fe, Fe from meat or red meat and breast cancer risk. RCS analysis demonstrated J-shaped associations between total dietary Fe, non-heme Fe and breast cancer, and reverse L-shaped associations between heme Fe, Fe from meat and Fe from red meat and breast cancer.
Fe from plants and white meat were inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Significant non-linear J-shaped associations were found between total dietary Fe, non-heme Fe and breast cancer risk, and reverse L-shaped associations were found between heme Fe, Fe from meat or red meat and breast cancer risk.
Chapter 2 examines the altered body of the female mastectomy survivor. Such women may be viewed as correlates to castrati in that they too were often exoticised: the figure of the one-breasted Amazon was an erotic and ethnographic spectacle. In this guise the mastectomied woman was also, like the castrato, sexually dangerous and functionally unique, with her bodily alteration believed to confer martial advantages. Unlike castrati, however, the altered status of the Amazon body was consistently obfuscated, and was never linked to instances of medical mastectomy. This occurred in spite of the fact that mastectomy was well known as a cure for breast cancer in the early modern period; indeed, the cancerous body and the Amazonian body had troubling parallels, both being perceived as rejecting or perverting maternal function. The absolute exclusion of one-breasted bodies from the stage and from domestic narratives reveals how far the status of the altered body was determined by patriarchal social structures.
Brain metastases (BM) are common in patients with HER2-positive and triple-negative breast cancer. In this study we aim to report clinical outcomes with LINAC-based stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) for BM in patients of breast cancer.
Clinical and dosimetric records of breast cancer patients treated for BM at our institute between May, 2015 and December, 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients of previously treated or newly diagnosed breast cancer with at least a radiological diagnosis of BM; 1–4 in number, ≤3·5 cm in maximum dimension, with a Karnofsky Performance Score of ≥60 were taken up for treatment with SRS. SRT was generally considered if a tumour was >3·5 cm in diameter, near a critical or eloquent structure, or if the proximity of moderately sized tumours would lead to dose bridging in a single-fraction SRS plan. The median prescribed SRS dose was 15 Gy (range 7–24 Gy) and SRT dose was 27 Gy in 3 fractions.
Clinical assessment and MR imaging was done at 6 weeks post-SRS and then every 3 months thereafter. Intracranial progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated using Kaplan–Meier method and subgroups were compared using log rank test.
Total, 40 tumours were treated in 31 patients. The median tumour diameter was 2·3 cm (range 1·0–4·6 cm). SRS and SRT were delivered in 27 and 4 patients, respectively. SRS/SRT was given as a boost to whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) in four patients and as salvage for progression after WBRT in six patients. In general, nine patients underwent prior surgery. The median follow-up was 7·9 months (0·2–34 months). Twenty (64·5%) patients developed local recurrence, 10 (32·3%) patients developed distant intracranial relapse and 7 patients had both local and distant intracranial relapse. The estimated local control at 6 months and 1 year was 48 and 35%, respectively. Median intracranial progression free survival (PFS) was 3·73 months (range 0·2–25 months). Median intracranial PFS was 3·02 months in patients who received SRS alone or as boost after WBRT, while it was 4·27 months in those who received SRS as salvage after WBRT (p = 0·793). No difference in intracranial PFS was observed with or without prior surgery (p = 0·410). Median overall survival (OS) was 21·7 months (range 0·2–34 months) for the entire cohort. Patients who received prior WBRT had a poor OS (13·31 months) as compared to SRS alone (21·4 months; p = 0·699).
In patients with BM after breast cancer SRS alone, WBRT + SRS and surgery + SRS had comparable PFS and OS.
Radiotherapy is a mainstay of cancer therapy for a wide variety of anatomical areas. An unfortunate side effect of treatment can be radiation damage to the skin which can be a painful and debilitating problem. Previous experience from the experimental use of Flamigel® in two large-scale clinical studies on affected skin has proven sufficiently positive for the addition of a new product in the Flamigel® family (now commercially available in the UK as Flamigel RT®, Flen Health UK). The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the use of this new product to study how effective it is in the prevention and/or treatment of radiation-induced skin damage.
Materials and methods:
A survey was conducted among radiotherapy specialist teams in dedicated UK radiotherapy centres between 1 January 2017 and 31 October 2017. This report is of a preliminary evaluation conducted by UK-based specialists on 108 patients undergoing radiotherapy. The scoring system for skin reactions of the ‘Radiation Therapy Oncology Group’ was used.
Results show that the use of Flamigel® has the potential to soothe (p = 0·0001), reduce pain (p = 0·0001) and reduce pruritus (p = 0·004). The product met the expectations of the clinicians involved (p < 0·0001) of whom most were happy to continue use or to recommend its use to colleagues (p < 0·0001).
Flamigel® is an effective treatment in the management of radiation-induced skin reactions. Erythema was unchanged through the study period (p = 0·42). No adverse reactions were reported after the use of Flamigel from twice to six times a day.
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer in women worldwide. Clinical research indicates that BC patients are at an increased risk for thrombotic events, drastically decreasing their quality-of-life and treatment outcomes. There is ample evidence of this in the literature, but it is mainly focused on metastatic BC. Therefore, coagulopathies of nonmetastatic BC are understudied and require in-depth investigation. In this study, clot kinetics and ultrastructure were used to investigate treatment-naïve, nonmetastatic BC patients using scanning electron microscopy, Thromboelastography®, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was demonstrated that nonmetastatic BC patients exhibit minimal ultrastructural alterations of the clot components and no changes in the clot kinetics. However, BC patients presented changes to fibrinogen protein structure, compared to matched controls, using an amyloid-selective stain. Together, these findings suggest that coagulation dysfunction(s) in BC patients with early disease manifest at the microlevel, rather than the macrolevel. This study presents novel insights to a method that are more sensitive to coagulation changes in this specific patient group, emphasizing that the coagulation system may react in different forms to the disease, depending on the progression of the disease itself.
Partial breast irradiation (PBI) can reduce the volume of treatment and number of treatment sessions in low-risk breast cancer patients. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) allows the administration of high doses per fraction thereby reducing the number of fractions and reducing the dose to the surrounding tissues. The objective of this study is to review the literature on the use of SBRT in PBI using the Cyberknife® (CK) unit.
Material and methods:
In this review, we analysed the literature in PubMed and MEDLINE with articles published in the last 10 years. All citations were evaluated for relevant content and validity.
We include articles in the English language with information about PBI, SBRT in PBI, the use of the CK unit in PBI and other applications of SBRT in breast carcinoma. A total of 68 articles were found and 28 articles were selected for inclusion in this review.
The treatment of PBI using the CK unit has clear advantages in reducing the treatment volume, and therefore theoretically reducing side effects and good cosmetic results with adequate tumour control. However, the placement of fiducial markers is necessary, requiring an adequate learning curve for the placement of the markers and longer treatment times.
This systematic review and meta-analysis was done to review earlier publications on the association between dietary acrylamide intake and risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers. We performed a systematic search in the online databases of PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Scopus for relevant publications up to August 2020. Prospective cohort studies that considered dietary acrylamide as the exposure variable and breast, endometrial or ovarian cancer as the main outcome variable or as one of the outcome variables were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of fourteen cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. We found no significant association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of breast (relative risk (RR) 0·95; 95 % CI 0·90, 1·01), endometrial (RR 1·03; 95 % CI 0·89, 1·19) and ovarian cancers (RR 1·02; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·24). In addition, we observed no significant association between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers in different subgroup analyses by smoking status, menopausal status, BMI status and different types of breast cancer. In conclusion, no significant association was found between dietary acrylamide intake and the risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers.
To determine if specific dietary patterns are associated with breast cancer risk in Chinese women.
Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify generic dietary patterns based on daily food-frequency data.
The Chinese Wuxi Exposure and Breast Cancer Study (2013-2014).
A population-based case-control study (695 cases, 804 controls).
Four dietary patterns were identified, Prudent, Chinese traditional, Western, and Picky, the proportion in the controls and cases were 0.30/0.32/0.16/0.23 and 0.29/0.26/0.11/0.33, respectively. Women in Picky class were characterized by higher extreme probabilities of non-consumption on specific foods, the highest probabilities of consumption of pickled foods, and the lowest probabilities of consumption of cereals, soy foods, and nuts. Compared with Prudent class, Picky class was associated with a higher risk (OR=1.42, 95%CI=1.06, 1.90), while the relevant association was only in post- (OR=1.44, 95%CI=1.01, 2.05) but not premenopausal women. The Western class characterized by high-protein, -fat, and -sugar foods, the Chinese traditional class characterized by typical consumption of soy foods and white meat over red meat, both of them showed no difference in BC risk compared with Prudent class did.
LCA capture the heterogeneity of individuals embedded in the population, could be a useful approach in the study of dietary pattern and disease. Our results indicated that the Picky class might have a positive association with the risk of breast cancer.
The multidrug resistance (MDR) is a widely observed phenotype that contributed to the major obstacle of impairing the outcome of cancer chemotherapy. With the aim to reverse MDR in the breast cancer cell line, the autophagy-related 7 (ATG7) small interfering RNA (siRNA) capable of downregulating the cellular autophagy level was loaded into a cationic nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) with doxorubicin (Dox) to build a platform (NLC/D-R) for effective chemotherapy of breast cancer. Our results revealed that NLC/D-R was well-dispersed nanoparticles with satisfy protection to siRNA. In addition, NLC/D-R also exerted a sufficient drug release of both cargos under an acidic environment with high stability and biocompatibility at the physiological environment. Furthermore, NLC/D-R showed a preferable transfection profile to PEI 25k. The downregulated autophagy level in NLCF-7/Adr cells resulted in reverse of MDR and accumulated Dox retention in cells. The in vitro cytotoxicity using both cells on flat surfaces and multicellular tumor spheroid (NLCTS) model confirmed that NLC/D-R showed much elevated anticancer performance than NLC/Dox or NLC/siRNA, which suggested the synergistic effect between anti-autophagy and chemotherapy.
The aim of this study was to assess body shape trajectories in childhood and midlife in relation to subsequent risk of breast cancer (BC) in a Mediterranean cohort.
The ‘Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra’ (SUN) Project is a dynamic prospective cohort study of university graduates initiated in 1999. With a group-based modelling approach, we assessed body shape trajectories from age 5 to 40 years. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for BC after the age of 40 years according to the body shape trajectory.
City of Pamplona, in the North of Spain.
6498 women with a mean age of 40 years (sd 9).
We identified four distinct body shape trajectories (‘childhood lean-midlife increase’ (19·9 %), ‘childhood medium-midlife stable’ (53 %), ‘childhood heavy-midlife stable’ (21 %) and ‘childhood heavy-midlife increase’ (6·1 %)). Among 54 978 women-years of follow-up, we confirmed eighty-two incident cases of BC. Women in the ‘childhood lean-midlife increase’ group showed a higher risk of BC (HR = 1·84, 95 % CI 1·11, 3·04) compared with women in the ‘childhood medium-midlife stable’ category. This association was stronger for postmenopausal BC (HR = 2·42, 95 % CI 1·07, 5·48).
Our results suggest a role for lifetime adiposity in breast carcinogenesis.
This article reports on women’s experiences of career change following a breast cancer diagnosis and explores whether their illness represents the driving force to pursue previously unfulfilled career ambitions. The participants were four women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and had changed career direction after their treatment. Data were conducted through in-depth interviews and were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Four themes prominent throughout each women’s narrative were identified: (i) a pre-diagnosis, unhappiness at work, (ii) a sense of stepping off the treadmill, (iii) a sharp focus upon their “self,” and subsequently (iv) a flourishing “work-life.” Further research is needed to investigate how common these findings are among women with breast cancer.
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune bullous disease, which is usually seen in older ages. Rarely, radiotherapy (RT) has been reported as a localised trigger factor for BP.
We present a case of a 64-year-old woman who underwent radical mastectomy and radiation therapy for breast cancer. Two months after the completion of RT with adjuvant Trastuzumab, a BP eruption developed in the irradiated area, spreading thereafter to other skin areas. The patient was treated with oral corticosteroids and the lesions evolved favourably.
This case demonstrates a relatively benign skin reaction that could develop during the course of cancer treatment, which required co-management by oncologists, pathologists and dermatologists.
To compare the dosimetry and reproducibility of set-up with monoisocentric technique (MIT) and dual isocentric technique (DIT) in adjuvant breast radiotherapy (RT).
Material and methods:
Breast cancer patients treated with MIT or DIT were retrospectively studied. The organ-at-risk dose was compared between two groups. All patients underwent set-up verification with an electronic portal imaging device, and set-up time was recorded for each fraction. Treatment reproducibility was assessed in terms of systematic and random error.
Twenty patients were included (11 right and 9 left-sided tumours) and ten received whole breast RT, while the rest received chest wall RT. Overall, the mean heart dose was less with MIT (0.40 versus 0.79, p = <0.001) as well as in left-sided tumours (0.37 versus 0.98, p = 0.003). The maximum dose at the field junction was significantly higher with DIT (43 Gy, 107%, p = 0.003). The maximum total error was 1 cm in lateral for supraclavicular field and 8 mm in superior–inferior in tangents for both techniques. There was no difference in set-up errors between the two techniques.
MIT resulted in better dose homogeneity at the field junctions and reduced mean heart dose as compared to DIT. MIT is safe for implementation in clinical practice for breast cancer treatment.
This study is one of the few studies comparing MIT with DIT in terms of the dosimetry and the first one to compare set-up errors between the two techniques. The ease of set-up and better dosimetry with MIT was achieved.
Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) has gained popularity over recent years due to its impact on shortening the radiotherapy treatment time for early breast cancer. It has certainly proven effective as an exclusive treatment or when combined with whole breast irradiation (WBIR). Seroma is a common non-life-threatening complication that may delay treatment and impose challenges on radiological diagnostic follow-up.
To review and compare the occurrence of seroma in patients who received exclusive IORT or when combined with WBIR and to outline the diagnostic challenges encountered during radiological follow-up.
Materials and methods:
Based on strict selection criteria, all eligible patients who received IORT ± WBIR treatment between 2012 and 2019 in a university hospital setting were included. Demographic data, histological diagnosis, tumour size, tumour grade, lymphovascular invasion, nodal status, receptor status, treatment with neoadjuvant hormonal chemotherapy, applicator size, dose used, duration of radiotherapy treatment, timing of seroma development and duration of seroma were documented. Both clinical and radiological follow-up were exercised in all patients.
The total number of patients treated with breast conserving surgery (BCS) and IORT was 86. Age ranged between 31 and 75 years with the median age of 51 years. Patients treated exclusively with IORT were 39 (45%) while those who received the IORT as a boost were 47 (55%). Seroma was observed in 39(45%) of both IORT and IORT\WBIR patients. Those included 15(38%) of the exclusive IORT treated patients and 24 (62%) of those treated as a boost. Duration of asymptomatic seroma ranged from 6 months to 6 years. Repeated aspiration was performed in 2 (5%) patients. Postoperative seroma occurred independent of age histological diagnosis, tumour size, tumour grade, lymphovascular invasion, nodal status, receptor status, treatment with neoadjuvant hormonal\chemotherapy, applicator size, dose used or duration of radiotherapy treatment. All reviewed patients have shown increased risk of developing seroma; however, an increased incidence of seroma in the IORT + WBIR treated patients was higher than those who received exclusive IORT treatment.
Postoperative seroma is a common non-life-threatening entity that occasionally may lead to delay in the subsequent treatment plan. IORT is a safe modality with many benefits; however, it may increase the risk of seroma formation independent of the clinical parameters. Promoting the expertise in post IORT breast imaging aids in overcoming diagnostic challenges.
Olive oil consumption has been suggested to be inversely associated with breast cancer risk, probably due to its high MUFA and polyphenol content. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between olive oil and breast cancer risk, including assessing the potential for a dose–response association. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through June 2020, identifying ten observational studies (two prospective studies and eight case–control studies) for meta-analysis. We estimated summary OR and 95 % CI for the highest v. lowest olive oil intake category across studies using random effect models and assessed the dose–response relationship between olive oil and breast cancer risk using restricted cubic splines. The summary OR comparing women with the highest intake to those with the lowest category of olive oil intake was 0·48 (95 % CI 0·09, 2·70) in prospective studies and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·54, 1·06) in case–control studies, with evidence of substantial study heterogeneity (prospective I2 = 89 %, case–control I2 = 82 %). There was no significant dose–response relationship for olive oil and breast cancer risk; the OR for a 14 g/d increment was 0·93 (95 % CI 0·83, 1·04). There may be a potential inverse association between olive oil intake and breast cancer; however, since the estimates are non-significant and the certainty level is very low, additional prospective studies with better assessment of olive oil intake are needed.
The objectives of this study are to describe patients’ experiences of family members’ reactions to diagnosis of breast cancer and investigate the role of family support in the management of breast cancer.
The study used the descriptive qualitative method in data collection and analysis. Fifteen participants, who were undergoing either radiotherapy or chemotherapy treatment at a private hospital, consented and participated in the study. Data were content analyzed under two specific themes on family members’ reactions and family support received.
The findings show that some participants reported negative reactions of some family members, and this affected them negatively. While some participants received support from their families, others did not.
Significance of findings
The findings of our study show the critical role of family support in the management of breast cancer; therefore, family members should be encouraged to give breast cancer patient the necessary support to help them manage their sick role behavior since their illness has no cure.
The time after a breast cancer diagnosis is a potential period for making positive dietary changes, but previous results are conflicting. The main aim of the present study was to study breast cancer patients’ dietary changes during the 12 months post-surgery and from 12 months pre-surgery to 12 months post-surgery with repeated administration of a 7-d pre-coded food diary and an FFQ, respectively. Women (n 506), mean age 55·3 years diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (stages I and II), were included. The dietary intake was quite stable over time, but the intake was lower for energy (0·3 and 0·4 MJ/d), alcohol (1·9 and 1·5 g/d) and vegetables (17 and 22 g/d) at 6 months than 3 weeks post-surgery (food diary) and at 12 months post-surgery than pre-surgery (FFQ), respectively. Furthermore, energy percentage (E%) from carbohydrates increased between 0·8 and 1·2 E% and E% from fat decreased between 0·6 and 0·8 E% over time, measured by both dietary assessment methods. We observed a higher intake of dairy products (11 g/d) at 6 months post-surgery (food diary), and a lower intake of dairy products (34 g/d) and red and processed meat (7·2 g/d) at 12 months post-surgery (FFQ). Moreover, 24 % of the patients claimed they made dietary changes, but mostly they did not change their diet differently compared with those patients who claimed no changes. In conclusion, breast cancer patients reported only minor dietary changes from 12 months pre-surgery and during the 12 months post-surgery.
To characterize the spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic germline variants in women from south-west Poland and west Ukraine affected with breast or ovarian cancer. Testing in women at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer in these regions is currently mainly limited to founder mutations.
Unrelated women affected with breast and/or ovarian cancer from Poland (n = 337) and Ukraine (n = 123) were screened by targeted sequencing. Excluded from targeted sequencing were 34 Polish women who had previously been identified as carrying a founder mutation in BRCA1. No prior testing had been conducted among the Ukrainian women. Thus, this study screened BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the germline DNA of 426 women in total.
We identified 31 and 18 women as carriers of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) genetic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. We observed five BRCA1 and eight BRCA2 P/LP variants (13/337, 3.9%) in the Polish women. Combined with the 34/337 (10.1%) founder variants identified prior to this study, the overall P/LP variant frequency in the Polish women was thus 14% (47/337). Among the Ukrainian women, 16/123 (13%) women were identified as carrying a founder mutation and 20/123 (16.3%) were found to carry non-founder P/LP variants (10 in BRCA1 and 10 in BRCA2).
These results indicate that genetic testing in women at high risk of breast and ovarian cancer in Poland and Ukraine should not be limited to founder mutations. Extended testing will enhance risk stratification and management for these women and their families.
Continuing to utilize healthcare as needed during an epidemic outbreak is significant, in general, and especially for cancer patients. Therefore, this study aimed to explore factors associated with health services utilization among breast cancer patients during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak.
A cross-sectional online survey was conducted among 151 women with breast cancer. Participants completed measures of perceived health status, perceived susceptibility to COVID-19, anxiety, coping resources, health services utilization (contact with healthcare professionals and cancellation of an appointment to the oncology/hematology clinic), and socio-demographic questionnaires. A multiple hierarchical regression was calculated; contact with healthcare professionals was the dependent variable. In addition, a logistic regression was calculated; cancellation of an appointment to the oncology/hematology clinic because of the COVID-19 was the dependent variable.
Breast cancer patients’ contact with healthcare professionals was lower than their contact prior to the pandemic. A higher extent of contact with healthcare professionals was related to patients’ perception of health as bad/reasonable, lower perceived susceptibility, a lower sense of mastery, and higher social support. In addition, the odds of cancelling an appointment to the oncology/hematology clinic were higher in the presence of additional chronic illnesses and a higher sense of mastery.
Significance of results
The results could provide public health agencies with a more complete picture of the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic among breast cancer patients. This is significant because, in the event that COVID-19 re-emerges, the findings of the current study could help guide public health officials and possibly prevent the future avoidance of health services’ use among this high-risk population.
This study investigated relationships among spirituality, hope, and overall quality of life in Muslim women with breast cancer in Malaysia.
A cross-sectional descriptive design with a convenience sample of 145 Malay patients was used. The mediating role of hope in the relationship between spirituality and quality of life as well as the moderating effect of education level on the spirituality hope link were examined.
Participants with higher self-reported spirituality reported more hope (b = 6.345, p < 0.001) and higher levels of quality of life (b = 1.065, p < 0.001). Higher educational attainment weakened relationships between spirituality and hope (b = −1.460, p < 0.001).
Significance of results
The role of advanced education in contributing to lessened hope in relation to spirituality emphasizes the importance of skilled and personalized spiritual counseling in the respective socio-cultural religious context.