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Prior data on long-term association between habitual legume consumption and hypertension risk remained sparse. We aimed to evaluate whether total legume and subtype intakes were prospectively related to lower hypertension incidence among 8,758 participants (aged ≥30 years) from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2004-2011. Dietary intakes were assessed by interviews combining 3-day 24-h food recalls and household food inventory weighing method at each survey round (median dietary assessment times during follow-up was three). Incident hypertension was identified by self-reports or blood pressure measurements. Multivariable Cox regression model was applied to estimate hazard ratio (HR) for hypertension across increasing categories of cumulatively averaged legume intake. For 35,990 person-years (median 6.0 years per person), we documented 944 hypertension cases. After adjustment for covariates, higher consumption of total legumes was significantly associated with a lower hypertension risk, with HR comparing extreme categories being 0.56 (95% CI 0.43-0.71; P for trend <0.001). Then we found that intakes of dried legumes (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.43-0.65; P for trend <0.001) and fresh legumes (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.55-0.81; P for trend <0.001) were both related to reduced hypertension risks. However, further classification of dried legumes revealed that the inverse association with hypertension substantially held for higher soybean (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.41-0.62; P for trend <0.001) but not non-soybean intakes. In stratified analyses, the association of interest remained similar within strata defined by gender, body mass index, physical activity, smoking and drinking status; however, significant heterogeneity of results was detected across age strata (P for interaction = 0.02). Total legume intake related to a more pronounced decrease in hypertension risk for the elderly (≥65 years [HR 0.47; 95% CI 0.30-0.73; P for trend <0.001]), in contrast to that for the non-elderly. Our findings suggest inverse associations of all kinds of legume but may not non-soybean intakes with risk of developing hypertension.
Fibronectin (FN) is a mediator molecule, which can connect cell receptors to the extracellular matrix (ECM) in tissues. This function is highly desirable for biomaterial surfaces in order to support cell adhesion. Controlling the fibronectin adsorption profile on substrates is challenging because of possible conformational changes after deposition, or due to displacement by secondary proteins from the culture medium. Here, we aim to develop a method to realize self-stabilized ECM glycoprotein layers with preserved native secondary structure on substrates. Our concept is the assembly of FN layers at the air-water (A-W) interface by spreading FN solution as droplets on the interface and transfer of the layer by the Langmuir-Schäfer (LS) method onto a substrate. It is hypothesized that 2D confinement and high local concentration at A-W interface supports FN self-interlinking to form cohesive films. Rising surface pressure with time, plateauing at 10.5 mN·m-1 (after 10 hrs), indicated that FN was self-assembling at the A-W interface. In situ polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy of the layer revealed that FN maintained its native anti-parallel β-sheet structure after adsorption at the A-W interface. FN self-interlinking and elasticity was shown by the increase in elastic modulus and loss modulus with time using interfacial rheology. A network-like structure of FN films formed at the A-W interface was confirmed by atomic force microscopy after LS transfer onto Si-wafer. FN films consisted of native, globular FN molecules self-stabilized by intermolecular interactions at the A-W interface. Therefore, the facile FN self-stabilized network-like films with native anti-parallel β-sheet structure produced here, could serve as stable ECM protein coatings to enhance cell attachment on in vitro cell culture substrates and planar implant materials.
The LiCoO2 films were directly deposited on stainless steel (SS) using medium-frequency magnetron sputtering, and the effects of annealing parameters, such as ambiences, temperatures, holding times, and heating rates, were systematically compared based on surface morphologies, crystal structures, and electrochemical properties. The results demonstrate that an aerobic atmosphere with 3.5 Pa is the most important parameter to maintain the performance of LiCoO2 films. The influence of the annealing temperature (>550 °C) ranks second because the formed (101) or (104) planes of LiCoO2 facilitate Li+ migration. A short holding time of 20 min and a moderate heating rate of 3 °C/min are selected to reduce the oxidation or inter-diffusion between the LiCoO2 films and the SS substrate. Finally, the optimal annealing process is confirmed and corresponds to the initial discharge capacity of 37.56 μA h/(cm2 μm) and the capacity retention of 83.81% at the 50th cycle.
Conventional underwater navigation and positioning methods for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) either require the installation of acoustic arrays, which make AUVs less independent, or result in cumulative errors. This paper proposes an Underwater Terrain Positioning Method (UTPM) using Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) estimation and a Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) model for highly accurate navigation by AUVs. The PCNN model is used as a secondary discriminant to effectively identify pseudo-anchor points in flat terrain feature areas and to find the true positioning point, which significantly improves the matching positioning accuracy in these areas. Simulation results show that the proposed method effectively corrects Inertial Navigation System (INS) cumulative errors and has high matching positioning accuracy, which satisfy the requirements of AUV underwater navigation and positioning.
Given the global water challenges, solar-driven steam generation has become a renewed topic recently as an energy-efficient way for clean water production. Here, a hybrid plasmonic structure consisting of a top layer of TiN nanoparticles (NPs) and a bottom layer of mesoporous anodized alumina membrane (AAM) was rationally designed and fabricated. The top TiN NPs with broadband light absorption acted as a plasmonic heating layer, which converted the absorbed light to heat efficiently for interfacial water heating. The AAM acted as the mechanical support layer, guaranteeing the heat isolation and continuous water replenishment. With optimized thickness of the TiN top layer, a solar steam generation efficiency of 87.7% was achieved in this study. This efficiency is comparable or even higher than prior studies. The current work proves the capability of the TiN NPs as an alternative photothermal material.
Coherent cuboidal B2 nanoprecipitation in body-centered cubic (BCC)-based high-entropy alloys (HEAs) is important for the improvement of mechanical strength. The present work primarily investigated the effect of Ti substitution for Al on the cuboidal B2 nanoprecipitates in BCC Al0.7NiCoFeCr2 HEAs. A series of (Al,Ti)0.7NiCoFeCr2 HEAs with different Al/Ti ratios were prepared by suction-cast processing, and their microstructures and mechanical properties were then characterized comprehensively. It was found that the substitution of Ti for Al can change the phase structures of ordered precipitation, from the B2-AlNi to a highly ordered L21-Ni2AlTi phase. Especially, a small amount addition of Ti (≤4.2 at.%, Al/Ti ratio ≥2/1) renders the HEAs with cuboidal L21 nanoparticles coherently precipitated into the BCC matrix, which is attributed to the moderate lattice misfit (ε = 0.5–0.6%) between BCC and L21 phases. HEAs with such coherent microstructures exhibit high compressive yield strength of about 1700–1800 MPa. When the Ti content reaches up to 6.25 at.%, the matrix of the alloy will be turned into the σ phase, rather than BCC, leading to a heavy brittleness.
Monosized spherical Cu–20% Sn (wt%) alloy particles with diameter ranging from 70.6 to 334.0 μm were prepared by the pulsated orifice ejection method (termed “POEM”). Fully dense without pores and bulk inclusions, the cross-sectional micrographs of the spherical alloy particles indicate an even distribution of Cu and Sn. These spherical Cu–Sn alloy particles exhibit a good spherical shape and a narrow size distribution, suggesting that the liquid Cu–Sn alloy can completely break the balance between the surface tension and the liquid static pressure in the crucible micropores and accurately control the volume of the droplets. Furthermore, the cooling rate of spherical Cu–20% Sn alloy particles is estimated by a Newton’s cooling model. The cooling rate of the Cu–20% Sn alloy particle decreases gradually with the particle diameter increasing. Smaller particles have higher cooling rates and when the particle diameter is less than 70 μm, the cooling rate of particles can reach more than 3.3 × 104 K/s. The secondary dendrite arm spacing has strong dependence on particle diameter which increases gradually with the increase of particle diameter. The results demonstrate that POEM is an effective route for fabrication of high-quality monosized Cu–20% Sn alloy particles.
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC), such as MoS2, WS2 have attracted attention due to their mechanical and electronic properties in their two dimensional (2D) structures. Here, we report a facile growth of monolayer TMDC using oxide source materials with the assistant of NaCl. The addition of NaCl can enhance the lateral growth and widen the growth window of TMDC. Through carefully controlling the growth parameters, large area growth of TMDC can be achieved. Two steps E-beam lithography was utilized to fabricate electrodes of TMDC. The phototransistors made from the CVD grown TMDC show strong persistent photoconductivity (PPC). It was finally shown that TMDC device capping with h-BN could have suppressed PPC effects.
In recent years, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has been increasingly recognized as a critical challenge to disease control and prevention in China. Previous studies have found that meteorological factors such as mean temperature and relative humidity were associated with HFMD. However, little is known about whether the diurnal temperature range (DTR) has any impact on HFMD. This study aimed to quantify the impact of DTR on childhood HFMD in 18 cities in Sichuan Province. A distributed lag non-linear model was adopted to explore the temporal lagged association of daily temperature with age-, gender- and pathogen-specific HFMD. A total of 290 123 HFMD cases aged 0–14 years were reported in the 18 cities in Sichuan Province. The DTR–HFMD relationships were non-linear in all subgroups. Children aged 6–14 years and male children were more vulnerable to the temperature changes. Large DTR had the higher risk estimates of HFMD incidence in cases of EV71 infection, while small DTR had the higher risk estimates of HFMD incidence in cases of CV-A16 infection. Our study suggested that DTR played an important role in the transmission of HFMD with non-linear and delayed effects.
Students in rural China are dropping out of secondary school at troubling rates. While there is considerable quantitative research on this issue, no systematic effort has been made to assess the deeper reasons behind student decision making through a mixed-methods approach. This article seeks to explore the prevalence, correlates and potential reasons for rural dropout throughout the secondary education process. It brings together results from eight large-scale survey studies covering 24,931 rural secondary students across four provinces, as well as analysis of extensive interviews with 52 students from these same study sites. The results show that the cumulative dropout rate across all windows of secondary education may be as high as 63 per cent. Dropping out is significantly correlated with low academic performance, high opportunity cost, low socio-economic status and poor mental health. A model is developed to suggest that rural dropout is primarily driven by two mechanisms: rational cost-benefit analysis or impulsive, stress-induced decision making.
Water deficit is an environmental factor that constrains crops to express their ecophysiological potential and causes crop yield reduction. Eruca vesicaria has been reported to be one of the most drought-tolerant species in Cruciferae. In this study, polyethylene glycol-simulated drought tolerance was evaluated in one line of Brassica carinata, one line of Brassica napus and 249 Eruca lines based on the principal component analysis (PCA) and unweighted pair-group arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis. The PCA based on eight drought tolerance indices indicated that the first three components accounted for 85.46% of the total variation, with principal component (PC) 1 accounting for 43.89%, PC2 for 27.85% and PC3 for 13.73% of the total variation. The UPGMA cluster analysis indicated that B. napus cultivar Zhongshuang 9 and Eruca lines could be clustered into five major groups, with group 1 being, in general, drought sensitive, group 2 being slightly–medium drought tolerant, group 3 being drought tolerant, group 4 being highly drought sensitive and group 5 being highly drought tolerant. B. carinata cultivar XB1, as an outstander, showed high drought sensitivity. The UPGMA cluster dendrogram provides a good representation of the similarity matrix (r= 0.68). The drought-tolerant Eruca materials obtained in this study will be valuable for genetic improvement not only in Eruca itself, but also in Brassica crops since they are drought-tolerant lines from a drought-tolerant species.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHCY; total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) concentration >15 μmol/l) and its major determinants in healthy Chinese northerners. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in Shaanxi Province, China. The study sample included 2645 participants (1042 men and 1603 women) aged >20 years. Demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors were assessed via questionnaire interviews and physical examination. Plasma levels of homocysteine and folate and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphism were determined according to standard methods. The prevalence of HHCY was 67·7 % (81·4 % in men and 58·8 % in women). The geometric mean of tHcy concentration was 19·1 μmol/l. The OR of HHCY were 0·44 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·57) for women v. men; 1·95 (95 % CI 1·41, 2·70), 1·41 (95 % CI 1·05, 1·88) and 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·89) for participants with smoking and alcohol drinking cessation and improved physical activity levels, respectively; 0·25 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·38), 0·33 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·49) and 0·56 (95 % CI 0·36, 0·88) for participants with an education level of elementary school, secondary school and university v. illiterate, respectively; 1·41 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·75) and 3·05 (95 % CI 2·35, 3·97) for participants with CT and TT v. CC genotype at MTHFR 677C → T polymorphism, respectively. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of HHCY is considerably high in Chinese northerners, especially in TT subjects, suggesting that implementation of tHcy-lowering strategies, such as lifestyle changes, is necessary.
The mutualism between fig trees and their wasp pollinators is a model system for many ecological and evolutionary studies. However, the immature stages of pollinating fig wasps have rarely been studied. We monitored developing fig wasps of known ages and performed a series of dissections at 24 h intervals to identify key developmental traits of Ceratosolen solmsi marchali Mayr (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae), a pollinator of Ficus hispida L. (Moraceae). We identified where in the Ficus ovary eggs were deposited and time to hatch. We were also able to identify the timing and key underlying characters of five larval instars, three sub-pupal stages, and a single prepupal stage. We provide detailed morphological descriptions for the key stages and report some behavioral observations of the wasps in the several developmental stages we recorded. Scanning electron microscope images were taken.
A novel pulsed rapid thermal processing (PRTP) method has been used for realizing the solid-phase crystallization of amorphous silicon films prepared by PECVD. The microstructure and surface morphology of the crystallized films are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results indicate that this PRTP is a suitable postcrystallization technique for fabricating large-area polycrystalline silicon films with good structural qualities such as large grain size, small lattice microstain and smooth surface morphology on low-cost substrate.
High quality hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films have been prepared by a simple “uninterrupted growth/annealing” plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique, combined with a subtle boron-compensated doping. These a-Si:H films possess a high photosensitivity over 106, and exhibit no degradation in photoconductivity and a low light-induced defect density after prolonged illumination. The central idea is to control the growth conditions adjacent to the critical point of phase transition from amorphous to crystalline state, and yet to locate the Fermi level close to the midgap. Our results show that the improved stability and photosensitivity of a-Si:H films prepared by this method can be mainly attributed to the formation of a more robust network structure and reduction in the precursors density of light-induced metastable defects.
The grain boundary misorientation distribution of 203 grain boundaries in bulk processed high Tc superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-δ with five processing conditions, was studied. Two complementary analytical approaches, Grain Boundary Misorientation Distribution (GBMD) from the random description, using a hypothesis test and X2 analysis, and Grain Boundary Character Distribution (GBCD), using the Coincidence Site Lattice (CSL) model, were applied. The GBMD and GBCD both showed grain boundary evolution departing from a random distribution above 935°C processing temperature. The GBCD analyses indicated an approximately linear increase in the population of CSL-related boundaries, among which the tetragonal CSL (c/a ≠ 3) boundaries grew in the same trend while orthorombic boundaries (c/a = 3) became stagnated. The results from comparing the corresponding GBCD and volume averaged Jc for each batch indicated that the tetragonal CSL boundaries were oxygen deficient and accounted for, among other current limiting factors, lower current carrying ability.
VO2 is a material with reversible thermo-chromic properties. The reversible phase transition of a strain-free single-crystalline VO2, at a transition temperature (Tt) 68°C, is accompanied with changes in crystal structure, optical and electrical properties. With different processing conditions during thin film deposition, different transmittance loops will be resulted upon thermal cycling. The residual stress of the thin films with poor crystallinity, as determined from X-ray diffractometry, is found to be an important factor responsible for the Tt that increases with increasing residual stress. Residual stress affects the hysteresis span of the transmittance loop. The relationship between residual stress of as-deposited VO2 films and the relative positions between vanadium and oxygen under the residual stress are also delineated.
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in blind separation of non-negative sources, known as simply non-negative blind source separation (nBSS). Potential applications of nBSS include biomedical imaging, multi/hyper-spectral imaging, and analytical chemistry. In this chapter, we describe a rather new endeavor of nBSS, where convex geometry is utilized to analyze the nBSS problem. Called convex analysis of mixtures of non-negative sources (CAMNS), the framework described here makes use of a very special assumption called local dominance, which is a reasonable assumption for source signals exhibiting sparsity or high contrast. Under the locally dominant and some usual nBSS assumptions, we show that the source signals can be perfectly identified by finding the extreme points of an observation-constructed polyhedral set. Two methods for practically locating the extreme points are also derived. One is analysis-based with some appealing theoretical guarantees, while the other is heuristic in comparison, but is intuitively expected to provide better robustness against model mismatches. Both are based on linear programming and thus can be effectively implemented. Simulation results on several data sets are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the CAMNS-based methods over several other reported nBSS methods.
Blind source separation (BSS) is a signal-processing technique, the purpose of which is to separate source signals from observations, without information of how the source signals are mixed in the observations. BSS presents a technically very challenging topic to the signal processing community, but it has stimulated significant interest for many years due to its relevance to a wide variety of applications.
The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of authoritative parenting and corporal punishment to Chinese first and second graders' effortful control (EC), impulsivity, ego resilience, and maladjustment, as well as mediating relations. A parent and teacher reported on children's EC, impulsivity, and ego resilience; parents reported on children's internalizing symptoms and their own parenting, and teachers and peers reported on children's externalizing symptoms. Authoritative parenting and low corporal punishment predicted high EC, and EC mediated the relation between parenting and externalizing problems. In addition, impulsivity mediated the relation of corporal punishment to externalizing problems. The relation of parenting to children's ego resilience was mediated by EC and/or impulsivity, and ego resilience mediated the relations of EC and impulsivity to internalizing problems.
The purpose of the study was to examine the zero-order and unique
relations of effortful attentional and behavioral regulation, reactive
impulsivity, and anger/frustration to Chinese first and second
graders' internalizing and externalizing symptoms, as well as the
prediction of adjustment from the interaction of anger/frustration and
effortful control or impulsivity. A parent and teacher reported on
children's anger/frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity.
Parents reported on children's internalizing symptoms, and teachers
and peers reported on children's externalizing symptoms. Children
were classified as relatively high on externalizing (or comorbid),
internalizing, or nondisordered. High impulsivity and teacher-reported
anger/frustration, and low effortful control, were associated with
externalizing problems, whereas low effortful control and high
parent-reported anger were predictive of internalizing problems. Unique
prediction from effortful and reactive control was obtained and these
predictors (especially when reported by teachers) often interacted with
anger/frustration when predicting problem behavior classification.This research was supported by a grant from the
National Institutes of Mental Health (2 R01 MH60838) to Nancy Eisenberg
and an Earmarked Research Grant (CUHK4620/05H) of the Research Grants
Council, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China, to Lei