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This article is a case study on the Yunnanese scholar Li Yuanyang under the background of the Ming's incorporating and sinicizing Yunnan, exploring how he views the Ming's actions and writes Yunnan's becoming a part of China. First, it retells Li's life experiences and examines the Yunnan native things and Chinese traditions in his writings. Then, after noting his emphasis of Yunnan's belonging to China, it concentrates on his comments on the Ming's military campaigns. As it analyzes, on the one hand, he justifies these campaigns against indigenous rebellions, on the other hand, he also criticizes unnecessary wars and some imperial officials' selfish deeds. Besides, he considers the constructing and reconstructing projects as a symbol of the central state's righteous governance, which should also bring benefit and benevolence to the indigenes. In a word, Li's case reflects the deep impact of the Ming's invasion on the local elites, as well as how they react to this.
The present study aimed to explore the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity obtained by reduced-rank regression (RRR) with visceral fat index (VFI) as a dependent variable and dyslipidemia in rural adults in Henan, China. A total of 29538 people aged 18–79 were selected from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. RRR analysis was used to identify dietary patterns; logistic regression analysis and restricted cubic spline regression models were applied to analyze the association between dietary patterns in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. VFI was used as a mediator to estimate the mediation effect. The dietary pattern in abdominal obesity was characterized by high carbohydrate and red meat intake and low consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, milk, etc. After full adjustment, the highest quartile of dietary pattern scores was significantly associated with an increased risk of dyslipidemia (OR: 1·33, 95 % CI 1·23–1·44, Ptrend < 0·001), there was a non-linear dose–response relationship between them (Poverall-association < 0·001, Pnon-lin-association = 0·022). The result was similar in dose-response between the dietary pattern scores and VFI. The indirect effect partially mediated by VFI was significant (OR: 1·07, 95 % CI 1·06–1·08). VIF explained approximately 53·3 % of odds of dyslipidemia related to the dietary pattern. Abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores positively affected VFI and dyslipidemia; there was a dose-response in both relationships. Dyslipidemia progression increased with higher abdominal obesity dietary pattern scores. In addition, VFI played a partial mediating role in relationship between abdominal obesity dietary pattern and dyslipidemia.
We aimed to investigate whether dietary patterns were associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or pre-diabetes in adults of rural area in Henan.
Cross-sectional study. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, while multivariate logistic regression analysis and restricted cubic spline regression models were used to analyse the association between dietary patterns and both pre-diabetes and T2DM.
Rural area of Henan province, China.
A total of 38 779 adults aged 18–79 years were recruited from the Henan rural cohort study as the subjects.
The prevalence of pre-diabetes and T2DM in rural Henan was 6·8 % and 9·4 %, respectively. A total of three dietary patterns were assessed in the present study. Dietary pattern I with a high intake of red meat and white meat; dietary pattern II with a high intake of grains, nuts, milk and eggs and dietary pattern III with a high intake of vegetables, staple food and fruits. The highest quintile (Q5) of pattern III could reduce 32·7 % risk of pre-diabetes. The Q5 of pattern II showed a 15·5 % decreased risk of T2DM, in a U-shaped dose–response manner; meanwhile, the Q5 of pattern III was significantly associated with reduced risks of T2DM (OR: 0·582, 95 % CI (0·497, 0·682)).
Pattern III is beneficial for reducing risk of pre-diabetes or T2DM. Though a higher consumption of ‘grains-nuts-egg’ may associate with a reduced risk of T2DM, excessive intakes should be avoided. This study may provide a reference for the prevention of diabetes on dietary precautions.
Renal fibrosis is common especially in the elderly population. Recently, we found that vitamin D deficiency caused prostatic hyperplasia. This study aimed to investigate whether vitamin D deficiency promotes renal fibrosis and functional impairment. All mice except controls were fed with vitamin D-deficient (VDD) diets, beginning from their early life. The absolute and relative kidney weights on postnatal week 20 were decreased in VDD diet-fed male pups but not in female pups. A mild pathological damage was observed in VDD diet-fed male pups but not in females. Further analysis showed that VDD-induced pathological damage was aggravated, accompanied by renal dysfunction in 40-week-old male pups. An obvious collagen deposition was observed in VDD diet-fed 40-week-old male pups. Moreover, renal α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), and Tgf-β mRNA were up-regulated. The in vitro experiment showed that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 alleviated transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-mediated down-regulation of E-cadherin and inhibited TGF-β1-evoked up-regulation of N-cadherin, vimentin and α-SMA in renal epithelial HK-2 cells. Moreover, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 suppressed TGF-β1-evoked Smad2/3 phosphorylation in HK-2 cells. These results provide experimental evidence that long-term vitamin D deficiency promotes renal fibrosis and functional impairment, at least partially, through aggravating TGF-β/Smad2/3-mediated EMT in middle-aged male mice.
The present study aimed to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a thirteen-item FFQ regarding identification of dietary conditions in a rural population in China.
A reproducibility study repeated the first FFQ (FFQ1) approximately 4 weeks later (FFQ2). A validity study evaluated the mean of three consecutive 24 h diet recalls as the reference measure.
Residents of a rural area in Henan Province, which is located in the central region of China.
A total of 295 individuals participated in the reproducibility study. In addition, 123 people agreed to participate in the validity study. Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the two FFQ ranged from 0·06 (vegetables) to 0·58 (eggs). Spearman’s correlation coefficients between the two methods of collection ranged from 0·01 for cereal to 0·49 for staple foods. The mean of the intraclass correlation coefficients of the two FFQ (FFQ1 v. FFQ2) was 0·19. Bland–Altman analysis indicated good agreement for most food groups across the range of intake for the two studies.
The study demonstrated that our FFQ design could be used as a representative tool to conduct a dietary evaluation of a rural population.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo degradation mechanism and the mechanical properties of poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/beta-tricalcium phosphate (PLGA/β-TCP) composite anchors. Anchors composed of PLGA and β-TCP were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous tissue of beagle dogs for 6, 12, 16, and 26 weeks. The degradation of the materials was evaluated by measuring the changes in thermal behavior, crystallinity, and mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to observe the surface and longitudinal section of the material. The evaluation of mechanical strength retention and degradation properties suggest that the addition of β-TCP particles efficiently enhances their mechanical properties and thermal characteristics and delays their degradation rate. By analyzing the results of SEM, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry, we can infer that after 12 weeks, the connection between β-TCP and PLGA becomes less compact, which accelerates the decline of mechanical strength.
We study numerically the dynamics of an insoluble surfactant-laden droplet in a simple shear flow taking surface viscosity into account. The rheology of drop surface is modelled via a Boussinesq–Scriven constitutive law with both surface tension and surface viscosity depending strongly on the surface concentration of the surfactant. Our results show that the surface viscosity exhibits non-trivial effects on the surfactant transport on the deforming drop surface. Specifically, both dilatational and shear surface viscosity tend to eliminate the non-uniformity of surfactant concentration over the drop surface. However, their underlying mechanisms are entirely different; that is, the shear surface viscosity inhibits local convection due to its suppression on drop surface motion, while the dilatational surface viscosity inhibits local dilution due to its suppression on local surface dilatation. By comparing with previous studies of droplets with surface viscosity but with no surfactant transport, we find that the coupling between surface viscosity and surfactant transport induces non-negligible deviations in the dynamics of the whole droplet. More particularly, we demonstrate that the dependence of surface viscosity on local surfactant concentration has remarkable influences on the drop deformation. Besides, we analyse the full three-dimensional shape of surfactant-laden droplets in simple shear flow and observe that the drop shape can be approximated as an ellipsoid. More importantly, this ellipsoidal shape can be described by a standard ellipsoidal equation with only one unknown owing to the finding of an unexpected relationship among the drop’s three principal axes. Moreover, this relationship remains the same for both clean and surfactant-laden droplets with or without surface viscosity.
Gamma-ray observations for Supernova remnant (SNR)-molecular cloud (MC) association systems play an important role in the research on the acceleration and propagation of cosmic-ray protons. Through the analysis of 5.6 years of Fermi-Large Area Telescope observation data, here we report on the detection of a gamma-ray emission source near the SNR Kesteven 41 with a significance of 24σ in 0.2–300 GeV. The best-fit location of the gamma-ray source is consistent with the MC with which the SNR interacts. Several hypotheses including both leptonic and hadronic scenarios are considered to investigate the origin of these gamma-rays. The gamma-ray emission can be naturally explained by the decay of neutral pions produced via the collision between high energy protons accelerated by the shock of Kesteven 41 and the adjacent MC. The electron energy budget would be too high for the SNR if the gamma-rays were produced via inverse Compton (IC) scattering off the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons.
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) is a naturally stress-tolerant plant, a major reserve crop and a model for panicoid grasses. The recent completion of the S. italica genome facilitates identification and characterization of WRKY transcription factor family proteins that are important regulators of major plant processes, including growth, development and stress response. The present study identified 103 WRKY transcription factor-encoding genes in the S. italica genome. The genes were named SiWRKY1–SiWRKY103 according to their order on the chromosomes. A comprehensive expression analysis of SiWRKY genes among four different tissues was performed using publicly available RNA sequencing data. Eighty-four SiWRKY genes were more highly expressed in root tissue than in other tissues and nine genes were only expressed in roots. Additionally, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to comprehensively analyse the expression of all SiWRKY genes in response to dehydration. Results indicated that most SiWRKY genes (over 0.8) were up-regulated by drought stress. In conclusion, genome-wide identification and expression profiling of SiWRKY genes provided a set of candidates for cloning and functional analyses in plants’ response to drought stress.
In this paper, the recent studies of laboratory astrophysics with strong magnetic fields in China have been reviewed. On the Shenguang-II laser facility of the National Laboratory on High-Power Lasers and Physics, a laser-driven strong magnetic field up to 200 T has been achieved. The experiment was performed to model the interaction of solar wind with dayside magnetosphere. Also the low beta plasma magnetic reconnection (MR) has been studied. Theoretically, the model has been developed to deal with the atomic structures and processes in strong magnetic field. Also the study of shock wave generation in the magnetized counter-streaming plasmas is introduced.
Many studies have suggested that folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients may play a role in certain cancer risks, but few studies have assessed their associations with the risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we investigated the association between four folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients (folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine) and NPC risk in Chinese adults. A total of 600 patients newly diagnosed (within 3 months) with NPC were individually matched with 600 hospital-based controls by age, sex and household type (urban v. rural). Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intakes were measured using a validated seventy-eight-item FFQ. A higher dietary folate or vitamin B6 intake was associated with a lower NPC risk after adjusting for potential confounders. The adjusted OR of NPC for quartiles 2–4 (v. 1) were 0·66 (95 % CI 0·48, 0·91), 0·52 (95 % CI 0·37, 0·74) and 0·34 (95 % CI 0·23, 0·50) (Ptrend<0·001) for folate and 0·72 (95 % CI 0·52, 1·00), 0·55 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·78) and 0·44 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·63) (Ptrend<0·001) for vitamin B6. No significant association with NPC risk was observed for dietary vitamin B12 or methionine intake. The risk for NPC with dietary folate intake was more evident in the participants who were not exposed to toxic substances than in those who were exposed (Pinteraction=0·014). This study suggests that dietary folate and vitamin B6 may be protective for NPC in a high-risk population.
In recent decades, in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME), and toxicity (T) modelling as a tool for rational drug design has received considerable attention from pharmaceutical scientists, and various ADME/T-related prediction models have been reported. The high-throughput and low-cost nature of these models permits a more streamlined drug development process in which the identification of hits or their structural optimization can be guided based on a parallel investigation of bioavailability and safety, along with activity. However, the effectiveness of these tools is highly dependent on their capacity to cope with needs at different stages, e.g. their use in candidate selection has been limited due to their lack of the required predictability. For some events or endpoints involving more complex mechanisms, the current in silico approaches still need further improvement. In this review, we will briefly introduce the development of in silico models for some physicochemical parameters, ADME properties and toxicity evaluation, with an emphasis on the modelling approaches thereof, their application in drug discovery, and the potential merits or deficiencies of these models. Finally, the outlook for future ADME/T modelling based on big data analysis and systems sciences will be discussed.
Nanobelt-like precipitates in an Al–Si–Mg–Hf alloy were studied using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and focused ion beam (FIB) scanning electron microscopy techniques. One grain of the Al matrix with a near  normal direction was identified by EBSD and the three-dimensional (3D) microstructure of nanobelt-like precipitates in this grain was studied using 3D-FIB. Ten growth directions of the nanobelt-like precipitates in the grain were identified.
The erosion–corrosion properties and interface microstructure of a Fe–B alloy that contains 3.5 wt% B in flowing liquid zinc have been investigated by electron backscattered diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy to clarify the flowing effect of liquid zinc on erosion performance using a rotating-disk technique. The Fe–B alloy erodes at a low and steady rate in flowing liquid zinc. Flowing liquid zinc can accelerate the iron and zinc mass transfer to form Fe–Zn compounds and promote the removal of loose FeZn13. Much residual corrosion-resistant Fe2B and some erosion products coexist at the erosion interface because of the chemical and micromechanical effects that are created by flowing liquid zinc. The failure of the Fe2B corrosion-resistant skeleton in flowing liquid zinc occurs because of the loss of supporting matrix and also the formation and spread of microcracks during erosion.
Autonomous docking is a focus of research in the field of self-assembly robots. Navigation is a significant stage in the process of autonomous docking between two robotic modules; it determines the efficiency of docking and even the success and failure of the docking task. In most cases, it is too difficult to simultaneously satisfy both linear and angular displacement constraints in a single dynamic numerical computation process. In the present paper, the navigation process is divided into two stages: first, the angular displacement constraint is satisfied, and then the linear displacement condition is fulfilled. In this way, the constraints are loosened and the difficulty of numerical computation is thereby effectively reduced. This two-stage docking navigation model is the main contribution of the present work. By taking the non-holonomic nature of the navigation behavior into consideration, both kinematic and dynamic analyses are performed, and the voltage data of the DC motors required by the two-stage docking navigation are obtained. Finally, docking navigation experiments are completed on a self-assembly modular robot named Sambot. It is verified that the present two-stage strategy is effective in controlling the docking navigation process.
It is well known that extracellular signal-regulated kinase 8 (ERK8) plays pivotal roles in various mitotic events. But its physiological roles in oocyte meiotic maturation remain unclear. In this study, we found that although no specific ERK8 signal was detected in oocyte at the germinal vesicle stage, ERK8 began to migrate to the periphery of chromosomes shortly after germinal vesicle breakdown. At prometaphase I, metaphase I (MI), anaphase I, telophase I, and metaphase II (MII) stages, ERK8 was stably detected at the spindles. By taxol treatment, we clarified that the ERK8 signal was stained on the spindle fibers as well as microtubule asters in MI and MII oocytes. In fertilized eggs, the ERK8 signal was not observed in the two pronuclei stages. At prometaphase, metaphase, and anaphase of the first mitosis, ERK8 was detected on the mitotic spindle. ERK8 knock down by antibody microinjection and specific siRNA caused abnormal spindles, failed chromosome congression, and decreased first polar body extrusion. Taken together, our results suggest that ERK8 plays an important role in spindle organization during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and early embryo cleavage.
Introduction. The Chinese jujube
tree always presents some unfavorable performances because its vegetative
growth is very vigorous. Our study was conducted to apply root pruning to
test whether it can effectively inhibit the vigorous vegetative growth
by regulating the competitive ability of the root system for water
and nutrients. Materials and methods. For our experiment,
roots were cut at three different distances from the trunk (light,
moderate and severe root pruning) on both inter-row sides of jujube
trees to the depth of 20 cm. Roots of control jujube trees were
not pruned. Then we determined for three years the competitive indicators
of Chinese jujube trees including the length, number and thickness
of primary branches; photosynthetic characteristics and nutrient
concentrations of leaves; hormone contents in the jujube head, flower
number and fruiting percentage, yield, and fruit quality. Results
and discussion. In the early stage after root treatment,
root pruning decreased lots of indicators such as concentrations
of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in leaves, photosynthesis, transpiration,
stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration
of leaves, relative to the same indicators as the control group. With
the gradual emergence of new roots, these indexes appeared to have adverse
patterns with respect to those in the early stage after root pruning. Compared
with the control, root pruning significantly decreased the length
and number of primary branches and flower number, but thickened
primary branches, enhanced fruiting percentage and increased the amount
of ethylene release of the jujube head in the whole experiment.
Fruit quality was improved with root pruning, as indicated by increases
in vitamin C and total sugar and a decrease in titrable acidity.
No effects of root pruning were noticed on yield. From our results,
we conclude that the removal of the root system at a distance of
three times the trunk diameter (severe pruning) from the trunk is
the most effective in regulating the competitive ability of the
Chinese jujube tree.
Let Tn+1(R) be the algebra of all upper triangular n+1 by n+1 matrices over a 2-torsionfree commutative ring R with identity. In this paper, we give a complete description of the Jordan automorphisms of Tn+1(R), proving that every Jordan automorphism of Tn+1(R) can be written in a unique way as a product of a graph automorphism, an inner automorphism and a diagonal automorphism for n ≥ 1.
To verify its antibacterial activity, recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) was extracted from the milk of transgenic mice (Mus musculus) (PCL25 and AP) by gel filtration chromatography and analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, its bacteriostatic properties were tested using the agar disc diffusion method. ELISA analysis showed that the concentration of rhLF in the milk of transgenic mice ranged from 7 to 8 mg/ml, and the recombinant protein expressed in the milk had the same molecular weight as the native protein (~78 kDa), indicating that the rhLFs had a strong antibacterial activity on Escherichia coli and Salmonella.