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To introduce some questionnaires related to family environment such as FAD-GFS (The General Functioning Scale of the MacMaster Family Activity Device), SLE (stressful life events), FSQ (Family Stresses Questionnaire), FLQ (Family Life Questionnaire), EFQ (Everyday Feelings Questionnaire) and evaluate their validity and reliability.
Using cross-sectional design. The general questionnaire, FAD-GFS, SLE, FSQ, FLQ, EFQ were used to collect information about family environment from 504 parents of only children FACESII-CV and Index of General Affect were used as scale of criteria related.
The reliability and validity of FAD-GFS, SLE, FSQ, FLQ, EFQ is: Cronbach coefficient were 0.695 to 0.749; re-test reliability were 0.712 to 0.901; The scores of the scale in those questionnaires were correlated with each factor significantly and the coefficient of correlation is more than those between each factor of those scales. The correlation between the scores of FSQ, EFQ and the scores of Index of General Affect was-0.192, 0.539; The correlation between the scores of FAD-GFS, FLQ the score of total and three factor differently and the scores of family cohesion scores (FACESII-CV) was -0.423, 0.237, 0.514, 0.302, 0.210.
FAD-GFS, SLE, FSQ, FLQ, EFQ has good reliability and validity, in line with requirements of psychometric and is useful as a tool to evaluate the family environment.
To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of PSDQ Parenting Styles And Dimensions Questionnaire, PSDQ.
443 parents whose children aged 6 to 16 who lived in Chongqing were selected. 52 of them were retested 6 weeks later in order to assess the retest reliability. Determination of reliability include:internal consistency: to calculate Cronbach coefficient; coefficient of retest reliability: to calculate Person correlation of results of the results in every subscale in twice measurements of 52 parents. Determination of validity: content validity, structural validity, discriminant validity, confirmatory factor analysis.
For each subscale and factor, the values of kappa for inter - rater reliability were 0.625 to 0.884 (p < 0. 05); retest reliability were 0.537 to 0.832 (p < 0. 05) ; The scores of the subscale in the PSDQ were correlated with each factor significantly (coefficient of correlation: 0.732 to 0.951,p < 0. 05) and the coefficient of correlation is more than those between each factor of this subscale(coefficient of correlation: 0.382-0.834,p < 0. 05). Maker of confirmatory factor analysis show met the criteria standard for adequacy of fit. CMIN/df: 2.218-3.745; TLI: 0.808-0.920; RMSEA: 0.052-0.079; MECVI of default model is very close to that of saturated model, most of proliferation index are more than 0.8.
Parenting Styles And Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) has good reliability and validity, in line with requirements of Psychometric is useful as a tool to evaluate the parenting styles from parents.
In the livestock husbandry compensatory growth may be explored as a means to improve nutrient utilization, to reduce gut health problems due to excess protein intake, to simplify feeding strategies and thus to improve production efficiencies. This study investigated the effects of early protein restriction (EPR) and early antibiotic intervention (EAI) on growth performance, intestinal morphology, colonic bacteria, metabolites and mucosal gene expressions during the restriction phase and re-alimentation phase. A total of 64 piglets (10.04 ± 0.73 kg) were randomly divided into four treatment groups according to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with two levels of proteins (14% v. 20%) and two levels of antibiotics (0 v. 50 mg/kg kitasamycin and 20 mg/kg colistin sulphate). After a 30-day restriction phase with four kinds of diets, all groups were fed the same diets for another 74 days. The results showed that EPR decreased BW, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake in the restriction phase (P < 0.01) and increased ADG on days 66 to 104 of the late re-alimentation phase. Early protein restriction could decrease the villus height in the jejunum (P < 0.05), while shifting to the same diets restored the villus height. Meanwhile, during the re-alimentation phase, pigs in the protein restriction groups had increased concentrations of total short chain fatty acids (P < 0.05), and modified the abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the colon. Furthermore, the lower microbial diversity caused by EPR was improved, and gene expression analysis indicated a better barrier function in the colon. During the whole trial, EAI had no interaction with EPR and played a dispensable role in compensatory growth. Collectively, the retardation of growth caused by EPR can be compensated for in the later stages of pig raising, and accompanied by altered intestinal morphology, microbial composition.
Predicting the magnitude of the annual seasonal peak in influenza-like illness (ILI)-related emergency department (ED) visit volumes can inform the decision to open influenza care clinics (ICCs), which can mitigate pressure at the ED. Using ILI-related ED visit data from the Alberta Real Time Syndromic Surveillance Net for Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, we developed (training data, 1 August 2004–31 July 2008) and tested (testing data, 1 August 2008–19 February 2014) spatio-temporal statistical prediction models of daily ILI-related ED visits to estimate high visit volumes 3 days in advance. Our Main Model, based on a generalised linear mixed model with random intercept, incorporated prediction residuals over 14 days and captured increases in observed volume ahead of peaks. During seasonal influenza periods, our Main Model predicted volumes within ±30% of observed volumes for 67%–82% of high-volume days and within 0.3%–21% of observed seasonal peak volumes. Model predictions were not as successful during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Our model can provide early warning of increases in ILI-related ED visit volumes during seasonal influenza periods of differing intensities. These predictions may be used to support public health decisions, such as if and when to open ICCs, during seasonal influenza epidemics.
Tracheophilus cymbius (Trematoda: Cyclocoelidae) is a common tracheal fluke of waterfowl, causing serious loss in the poultry industry. However, taxonomic identification of T. cymbius remains controversial and confused. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes can provide genetic markers for the identification of closely related species. We determined the mt genome of T. cymbius and reconstructed phylogenies with other trematodes. The T. cymbius mt genome is 13,760 bp in size, and contains 12 protein-coding genes (cox 1–3, nad 1–6, nad 4L, cyt b and atp 6), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and one non-coding region. All are transcribed in the same direction. The A + T content is 62.82%. ATG and TAG are the most common initiation and termination codons, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of concatenated nucleotide sequences show T. cymbius grouping in suborder Echinostomata, and clustering together, with high statistical support, as a sister taxon with Echinochasmus japonicus (Echinochasmidae), the two forming a distinct branch rooted to the ancestor of all Echinostomatidae and Fasciolidae species. This is the first report of the T. cymbius mt genome, and the first reported mt genome within the family Cyclocoelidae. These data will provide a significant resource of molecular markers for studying the taxonomy, population genetics and systematics of trematodes.
Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) are widely used for antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), but real-world data on treatment patterns and long-term clinical outcomes are not always available. Using data from electronic medical records between January 2011 and December 2016 in Shanghai, China, we evaluated patient characteristics, treatment patterns and clinical outcomes in patients with CHB. There were 6688 patients in the study cohort. The incidences of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were 41.0‰ and 6.8‰ person-years, respectively. There were more cirrhosis and HCC cases among patients who had shorter NA treatment duration (<365 days), or who were less compliant (<80%). In addition, increased risk of cirrhosis and HCC was observed in patients who did not achieve hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss/seroconversion. Moreover, patients with cirrhosis developed after antiviral treatments had a higher incidence of HCC (adjusted hazard ratio 15.86, 95% confidence interval 7.35–34.24). Good compliance with treatment and longer treatment duration significantly decreased the risk of developing cirrhosis and HCC. HBsAg loss seemed to be a protective factor for cirrhosis/HCC in NAs-treated patients with CHB, and cirrhosis was a confirmed risk factor for HCC development as expected.
Previous studies have demonstrated that type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) could be triggered by an early childhood infection. Whether maternal infection during pregnancy is associated with T1DM in offspring is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to study the association using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eighteen studies including 4304 cases and 25 846 participants were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were synthesised using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of associations. Overall, the pooled analysis yielded a statistically significant association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood T1DM (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07–1.62). Furthermore, six studies that tested maternal enterovirus infection showed a pooled OR of 1.54 (95% CI 1.05–2.27). Heterogeneity from different studies was evident (I2 = 70.1%, P < 0.001) and was mainly attributable to the different study designs, ascertaining methods and sample size among different studies. This study provides evidence for an association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood T1DM.
The parasite Cyathostomum pateratum, which occurs in the large intestine of equines, is a common species of the subfamily Cyathostominae. Cyathostominae nematodes are a complex nematode group for which only limited genetic information has been reported. To re-examine the phylogenetic relationships among Cyathostominae nematodes, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Cy. pateratum and compared it with the mt genome of the congeneric species Cyathostomum catinatum. The complete mtDNA sequence of Cy. pateratum was 13,822 bp in length, 16 bp shorter than that of Cy. catinatum. The mtDNA sequences of both species contained 12 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes, and all 36 genes were transcribed in the same direction and in the same strand. Pairwise comparisons of the 12 predicted amino acid sequences between Cy. catinatum and Cy. pateratum revealed differences of 0.4–3.1%; the least conserved sequence was that of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3 (cox3). Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated amino acid sequences using Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood methods showed that Cy. catinatum and Cy. pateratum clustered together with very high nodal support, and Cylicostephanus goldi was closer to the Cyathostomum nematodes than to other Cyathostominae nematodes. The mtDNA sequence of Cy. pateratum is reported here for the first time. The study will shed some light on the genetic evolution among parasitic nematodes in Cyathostomum.
Charge Exchange (CEX) ion is the main factor causing the plume pollution. The distribution of CEX ions is determined by the distribution of beam ions and neutral atoms. Hence, the primary problem in the study of the plume is how to accurately simulate the distribution of beam ions and neutral atoms. At present, the most commonly used model utilised for the plume simulation is the analytical model proposed by Roy for the plume simulation of the NASA Solar Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) ion thruster. However, this analytical model can only be applied to the ion beam with small divergence angles. In addition, the analytical model is no longer applicable to the simulation for the plume of a new type of ion thruster that appeared recently, which is called the annular ion thruster. In this paper, a 3D particle model is proposed for the plume simulation of ion thrusters consisting of the particle model for beam ions, the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model for neutral atoms and the Immersed Finite Element-Particle In Cell-Monte Carlo Collision (IFE-PIC-MCC) model for CEX ions. Then, the plume of the NSTAR ion thruster is simulated by both Roy's model and the 3D particle model. The simulation results of both models are then compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the numerical results of the 3D particle model agree well with those of the analytical model and the experimental data. And this 3D particle model can also be used for other electric thrusters.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity associated with liver disease. Risk factors identified for the transmission of HCV include contaminated blood products, intravenous drug use, body piercing, an infected mother at birth, sexual activity, and dental therapy, among others. However, the exact diversity of the HCV genotype and genetic variation among patients with low-risk factors is still unknown. In this study, we briefly described and analysed the genotype distribution and genetic variation of HCV infections with low-risk factors using molecular biology techniques. The results suggested that genotype 1b was predominant, followed by genotypes 2a and 1a. Genetic variations in the 5′ UTR sequences of HCV were identified, including point mutations, deletions, and insertions. The frequency of genetic variations in 1b was higher than in 2a. This study provides considerable value for the prevention and treatment of liver disease caused by HCV among patients with low-risk factors and for the development of HCV diagnostic reagents and vaccines.
Cytochrome P450s (CYPs or P450s) have been long recognized as very important enzymes in the metabolism of xenobiotic and endogenous compounds, but only a few CYPs have been functionally characterized in insects. The effort in functional characterization of insect P450s is heavily hindered by technical difficulties in preparing active, individual P450 enzymes directly from the target insect. In this paper, we describe the functional expression of two additional pyrethroid resistance-associated CYP9A genes (CYP9A12 and CYP9A17) from the polyphagous pest Helicoverpa armigera in the facile Escherichia coli. The functionality of E. coli produced CYP9A12, CYP9A14, and CYP9A17 was investigated and activities of these CYP9As were compared against three probe substrates after reconstitution with NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase. The results showed that active forms of CYP9A12 and CYP9A17 were expressed in E. coli with a content of about 1.0–1.5 nmol mg−1 protein in membrane preparations. In vitro assays showed that CYP9A14 was capable of catalyzing O-dealkylation of methoxyresorufin (MROD), ethoxyresorufin (EROD), and benzyloxyresorufin (BROD), while CYP9A12 and CYP9A17 exhibited only MROD and EROD activities. Kinetic studies demonstrated that CYP9A14 had the greatest kcat/Km value for MROD, and CYP9A17 for EROD, while the lowest kcat/Km values for both MROD and EROD were observed for CYP9A12. The distinct biochemical traits suggest that the three paralogous CYP9As may play different roles in xenobiotic metabolism in this important pest.
20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E) is a key hormone which regulates growth, development and reproduction in insects. Although cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) participating in the ecdysteroid biosynthesis of 20E have been characterized in a few model insects, no work has been published on the molecular entity of their orthologs in the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, a major pest insect in agriculture worldwide. In this study, four cytochrome P450 homologs, namely HarmCYP302A1, HarmCYP306A1, HarmCYP314A1 and HarmCYP315A1 from H. armigera, were identified and evolutional conservation of these Halloween genes were revealed among lepidopteran. Expression analyses showed that HarmCYP302A1 and HarmCYP315A1 were predominantly expressed in larval prothoracic glands, whereas this predominance was not always observed for HarmCYP306A1 and CYP314A1. The expression patterns of Halloween genes indicate that the fat bodies may play an important role in the conversion of ecdysone into 20E in larval–larval molt and in larval–pupal metamorphosis, and raise the possibility that HarmCYP315A1 plays a role in tissue-specific regulation in the steroid biosynthesis in H. armigera. These findings represent the first identification and expression characterization of four steriodogenic P450 genes and provide the groundwork for future functional and evolutionary study of steroid biosynthesis in this agriculturally important pest.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a serious hospital and community-acquired infection and some strains are associated with greater severity. We investigated the clinical variability and molecular characteristics of MRSA infections in Shenzhen, China through a study at nine sentinel hospitals from January to December 2014. MRSA infections were classified as community-associated (CA-MRSA), healthcare-associated (HA-MRSA), and healthcare-associated community-onset (HACO-MRSA). In total, 812 MRSA isolates were collected and 183 of these were selected for further study. Patients with HA-MRSA infections were generally of greater age compared to other groups. Distinct body site and clinical presentations were evident in infected patients, e.g. CA-MRSA (skin and soft tissue, 53%), HA-MRSA (respiratory tract, 22%; surgical site, 20%; trauma wounds, 20%) and HACO-MRSA (mastitis, 47%). In contrast to HA-MRSA, other categories of strains were significantly more susceptible to gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and tetracycline. No resistance to vancomycin or linezolid was recorded. The predominant clonal lineage within each strain category was CC59-t437-SCCmec IV/V-agr I (CA, 51·4%; HA, 28·9%; HACO, 52·9%) which exhibited characteristics of a traditional CA clone together with agr I which is more often associated with HA clones. In conclusion, for the three categories of MRSA infections, there were significant differences in clinical characteristics of patients, but the predominant clone in each category shared a similar genetic background which suggests that transmission of MRSA strains has occurred between the community and hospitals in Shenzhen.
We present a scheme of electron beam radiography to dynamically diagnose the high energy density (HED) matter in three orthogonal directions simultaneously based on electron Linear Accelerator. The dynamic target information such as, its profile and density could be obtained through imaging the scattered electron beam passing through the target. Using an electron bunch train with flexible time structure, a very high temporal evolution could be achieved. In this proposed scheme, it is possible to obtain 1010 frames/second in one experimental event, and the temporal resolution can go up to 1 ps, spatial resolution to 1 µm. Successful demonstration of this concept will have a major impact for both future inertial confinement fusion science and HED physics research.
Quercetin is ubiquitous in terrestrial plants. The cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera as a highly polyphagous insect has caused severe crop losses. Until now, interactions between this pest and quercetin are poorly understood at the biochemical and molecular levels. In this study, we investigated the in vivo effects of quercetin on performance of cotton bollworm and on cytochrome P450 (P450) expression. Deleterious effects of quercetin on the performance of the cotton bollworm, including growth, survival, pupation and adult emergence were observed after oral administration of 3 and 10 mg g−1 quercetin to larvae since the third instar, whereas no significant toxic effect was found at 0.1 mg g−1 quercetin treatment. Piperonyl butoxide treatment enhanced the toxicity of quercetin. In vitro metabolism studies showed that quercetin was rapidly transformed by gut enzymes of fifth instar larvae of the cotton bollworm. qRT–PCR results revealed that the effect of quercetin on P450 expression was tissue- and dose-specific. Quercetin regulated P450 expression in a mild manner, and it could serve as P450 inducer (CYP337B1, CYP6B6) or repressor (CYP337B1, CYP6B7, CYP6B27, CYP9A14, CYP6AE11, and CYP4M7). These findings are important for advancing our understanding of the biochemical and molecular response of insects to plant toxins and have implications for a smart pest control.
Necrophoric behaviour is critical sanitation behaviour in social insects. However, little is known about the necrophoric responses of workers towards different developmental stages in a colony as well as its underlying mechanism. Here, we show that Solenopsis invicta workers display distinct necrophoric responses to corpses of workers and pupae. Corpses of workers killed by freezing (dead for <1 h) were carried to a refuse pile, but pupal corpses would take at least 1 day to elicit workers’ necrophoric response. Metarhizium anisopliae-infected pupal corpses accelerated the necrophoric behaviour of resident workers, with 47.5% of unaffected corpses and 73.8% infected corpses discarded by 1 day post-treatment). We found that fungus-infected pupal corpses had a higher concentration of fatty acids (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid) on their surface. We experimentally confirmed that linoleic and oleic acids would elicit a necrophoric response in workers. The appearance of linoleic and oleic acids appeared to be chemical signals involved in recognition of pupal corpses, and M. anisopliae infection could promote the accumulation of fatty acids on surface of pupal corpses resulting in accelerated necrophoric responses of workers.
This study examined sequence variability in internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA among Syphacia obvelata and Aspiculuris tetraptera isolates from laboratory mice from different geographical locations in China. ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA were amplified separately from adult S. obvelata and A. tetraptera individuals by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the amplicons were subjected to sequencing from both directions. The lengths of the sequences of ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA from both nematodes were 314 bp and 456 bp, 157 bp, and 273 bp and 419 bp, respectively. The intraspecific sequence variations in S. obvelata ITS1 were 0–0.3%. For A. tetraptera they were 0–0.7% in ITS1 and 0–1.0% in ITS2. However, the interspecific sequence differences among members of the infraorder Oxyuridomorpha were significantly higher, being 54.0–65.5% for ITS1 and 55.3–64.1% for ITS2. Phylogenetic analysis based on the combined partial sequences of ITS1 and ITS2 using three inference methods – Bayesian inference, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony – revealed that all the S. obvelata and A. tetraptera samples formed independent monophyletic groups. Syphacia obvelata was closer to Syphacia muris than to A. tetraptera, consistent with morphological classification. These results demonstrate that ITS1 and ITS2 rDNA sequences are useful markers for population genetic studies of oxyurid nematodes.
Clownfish and their associated sea anemones are icons of tropical and
subtropical coastal ecosystems, but bleaching and collecting for the
aquarium trade has reduced their population densities in several
Indo-Pacific locations. We surveyed four Entacmaea
quadricolor populations and their associated clownfish
Amphiprion clarkii in Hong Kong. These assemblages
represented a combination of exposed and sheltered, flat bottomed and sloped
conditions. Different from tropical areas, where E.
quadricolor is usually found in sheltered shallow waters, the
four populations in Hong Kong were distributed in 4–10 m depths, being
densest on a 40 × 80 m slope of volcanic rocks (34.2–76.6% substrate cover
and 48.7–102.1 ind m−2) at an exposed site. This distribution
pattern could be explained by the high turbidities associated with river
discharge and sedimentation rates in local waters, which discourage the
establishment of E. quadricolor populations in sheltered bays; shallow
habitats might not be suitable for E. quadricolor in Hong
Kong due to strong wave actions generated by typhoons. Amphiprion
clarkii was present at low densities
(0.07–0.26 fish m−2) across the sites. Our data provide a
baseline for monitoring the changes of these conspicuous members of shallow
water communities in Hong Kong.
Little is known about HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) in newly diagnosed HIV-infected adults in eastern China where the HIV epidemic is spreading predominantly through sexual contact. During 2008–2011, newly HIV-diagnosed adults in Taizhou prefecture, Zhejiang province in eastern China were examined for HIVDR by amplifying and sequencing the HIV-1 pol gene. Of 447 genotyped participants, 53·7% were infected with CRF01_AE, 20·1% with CRF07_BC, 12·5% with subtype B, and 11·6% with CRF08_BC. Most of the participants had one or more minor genetic mutations in the pol gene that are associated with HIVDR. Twelve (2·7%) participants met the standard guidelines of having low to high HIVDR, suggesting that the prevalence of HIVDR in newly HIV-diagnosed adults was low in the study area and current antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are likely to remain effective. However, given high frequency of minor HIVDR in HIV patients and the scaling up of ART programmes in China, larger HIVDR surveillance programmes are needed.
Coproantigen test kits for Echinococcus spp. worms in dogs, designed for commercial use, were obtained from three different Chinese producers, and were compared with a laboratory kit using reagents from New Zealand. None of the three producers would provide details of their test validation. From a known set of dog faeces obtained at necropsy from infected and uninfected dogs, and from faeces collected from dogs necropsied in the field, results differed between the kits. For field material, the Tiankang kit showed the best specificity but lacked sensitivity. The Combined kit showed best sensitivity but lacked specificity. Results for the Haitai kit were intermediate. With samples from experimentally infected dogs, both the Haitai and Combined kits lacked sensitivity. Kits will need to be validated by the user before they can be relied on to predict progress in Echinococcus spp. control in China or in other countries.