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Atrial septal defect is one of the most common CHD. The pathogenesis of atrial septal defect still remains unknown. Cx43 is the most prevalent connexin in the mammalian heart during development. Its genetic variants can cause several CHD. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of genetic variations of the Cx43 with sporadic atrial septal defect. A total of 450 paediatric patients were recruited, including 150 cases with atrial septal defect and 300 healthy controls. The promoter region of Cx43 was analysed by sequencing after polymerase chain reaction. All data were analysed by using the Statistic Package for Social Science 19.0 software. The frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs2071166 was significantly higher in atrial septal defect cases than in healthy controls. The CC genotype at rs2071166 site in Cx43 was correlated with an increased risk for atrial septal defect (p<0.0001, odds ratio=3.891, 95% confidence interval 1.948–7.772) and the C allele was positively correlated with atrial septal defect (p=0.007, odds ratio=1.567, 95% confidence interval 1.129–2.175). In conclusion, our results confirmed that rs2071166 in Cx43 may be relevant with an increased atrial septal defect risk.
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal dietary butyrate supplementation on energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis in offspring skeletal muscle and the possible mediating mechanisms. Virgin female rats were randomly assigned to either control or butyrate diets (1 % butyrate sodium) throughout gestation and lactation. At the end of lactation (21 d), the offspring were killed by exsanguination from the abdominal aorta under anaesthesia. The results showed that maternal butyrate supplementation throughout gestation and lactation did not affect offspring body weight. However, the protein expressions of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPR) 43 and 41 were significantly enhanced in offspring skeletal muscle of the maternal butyrate-supplemented group. The ATP content, most of mitochondrial DNA-encoded gene expressions, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 4 protein contents and the mitochondrial DNA copy number were significantly higher in the butyrate group than in the control group. Meanwhile, the protein expressions of type 1 myosin heavy chain, mitochondrial transcription factor A, PPAR-coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and uncoupling protein 3 were significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscle of the treatment group compared with the control group. These results indicate for the first time that maternal butyrate supplementation during the gestation and lactation periods influenced energy metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis through the GPR and PGC-1α pathways in offspring skeletal muscle at weaning.
In this work, sulfurizing metal precursors prepared by magnetron sputtering was applied in Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film fabrication. Three precursor structures, namely substrate/ Zn/(Cu&Sn), substrate/Zn/Cu/Sn/Cu and substrate/Zn/Sn/Cu, were compared for their synthesized CZTS film quality. It is notable that CZTS film made of the precursor structure of substrate/Zn/(Cu&Sn) has the best film quality with no obvious voids and biggest average grain size. When applying this precursor structure into device fabrication, a working CZTS device with an efficiency of 2.26% was made. The impact of metal precursors on the structural property of CZTS film were characterised by SEM, XRD, Raman and TEM. Thick MoS2 interfacial layer (∼200nm) between absorber and back Mo contact and ZnS formed in the front and back absorber regions are the possible reasons limiting short-circuit current and fill factor of the cell.
For structural investigation, highly (112) oriented tetragonal Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films on hexagonal sapphire (0001) single crystal substrates were obtained by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The influences of the deposition parameters, such as substrate temperature (Tsub) and working Ar pressure (PAr) on the chemical composition and structural properties of as deposited CZTS films were investigated. The film sputtered at 500°C has the only orientation of (112), also, it bears the best structural quality with pure CZTS phase and an estimated band gap of 1.51eV.
In order to utilize germplasm resources more efficiently for peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) genetic improvement, a core collection of 576 accessions and a primary mini core collection of 298 accessions were developed previously from a collection of 6839 cultivated peanut lines stored at the Oil Crops Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences at Wuhan. For an efficient evaluation and characterization of the most useful agronomic and disease-resistant traits, an even smaller collection of peanut accessions that represent a spectrum of phenotypes could be more desirable. For this reason, a mini-mini core collection with 99 accessions from the core accessions was developed based on the analysis of 21 morphological traits. It was demonstrated that there were no significant differences between the core and mini-mini core collections in 20 out of the 21 morphological traits studied. Further, the mini-mini core collection captured the ranges of all of the 21 traits displayed in the core collection. The newly developed mini-mini core collection was assessed for resistance to bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Two accessions showing a high level of resistance to bacterial wilt were identified, demonstrating the usefulness of the mini-mini core collection. The mini-mini-core collection provides a more efficient means of germplasm evaluation and will be resequenced as part of the International Peanut Genome Consortium sequencing project at the UC-Davis Genome Center.
This paper reports the test results of a small-scale prototype that implements a digitally beam-formed phased antenna array in the E-band. A four-channel dual-conversion receive RF module for 71–76 GHz frequency band has been developed and integrated with a linear end-fire antenna array. Wideband frequency-domain angle-of-arrival estimation and beam-forming algorithms were developed and implemented using Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) with Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying (QPSK) at 1 Gbps. Measured performance is very close to the simulated results and experimental data for an analogue-beam-formed array. This work is a stepping stone toward practical realization of larger hybrid arrays in the E-band.
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