Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Selecting pivot features that connect a source domain to a target domain is an important first step in unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA). Although different strategies such as the frequency of a feature in a domain, mutual (or pointwise mutual) information have been proposed in prior work in domain adaptation (DA) for selecting pivots, a comparative study into (a) how the pivots selected using existing strategies differ, and (b) how the pivot selection strategy affects the performance of a target DA task remain unknown. In this paper, we perform a comparative study covering different strategies that use both labelled (available for the source domain only) as well as unlabelled (available for both the source and target domains) data for selecting pivots for UDA. Our experiments show that in most cases pivot selection strategies that use labelled data outperform their unlabelled counterparts, emphasising the importance of the source domain labelled data for UDA. Moreover, pointwise mutual information and frequency-based pivot selection strategies obtain the best performances in two state-of-the-art UDA methods.
In north-central China, subsistence practices transitioned from hunting and gathering to millet-based agriculture between the early and middle Holocene. To better understand how ancient environmental changes influenced this shift in subsistence strategies and human activities at regional to local levels, we conducted palynological and lithologic analyses on radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from the Luoyang Basin, western Henan Province. Our palynological results suggest that vegetation shifted from broad-leaved deciduous forest (9230–8850 cal yr BP) to steppe-meadow vegetation (8850–7550 cal yr BP), and then to steppe with sparse trees (7550–6920 cal yr BP). Lithologic analyses also indicate that the stabilization of the Luoyang Basin’s floodplain after ~8370 cal yr BP might have attracted people to move into the basin, promoting the emergence of millet-based agriculture during the Peiligang culture period (8500–7000 cal yr BP). Once agricultural practices emerged, the climatic optimum after ~7550 cal yr BP likely facilitated the expansion of the Yangshao culture (7000–5000 cal yr BP) in north-central China. As agriculture intensified, pollen taxa related to human disturbance, such as Urtica, increased in abundance.
We examined the in vitro developmental competence of parthenogenetic activation (PA) oocytes activated by an electric pulse (EP) and treated with various concentrations of AZD5438 for 4 h. Treatment with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h significantly improved the blastocyst formation rate of PA oocytes in comparison with 0, 20, or 50 µM AZD5438 treatment (46.4% vs. 34.5%, 32.3%, and 24.0%, respectively; P < 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate was higher in the group treated with AZD5438 for 4 h than in the groups treated with AZD5438 for 2 or 6 h (42.8% vs. 38.6% and 37.2%, respectively; P > 0.05). Furthermore, 66.67% of blastocysts derived from these AZD5438-treated PA oocytes had a diploid karyotype. The blastocyst formation rate of PA and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos was similar between oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 2 mM 6-dimethylaminopurine for 4 h and those activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h (11.11% vs. 13.40%, P > 0.05). In addition, the level of maturation-promoting factor (MPF) was significantly decreased in oocytes activated by an EP and treated with 10 µM AZD5438 for 4 h. Finally, the mRNA expression levels of apoptosis-related genes (Bax and Bcl-2) and pluripotency-related genes (Oct4, Nanog, and Sox2) were checked by RT-PCR; however, there were no differences between the AZD5438-treated and non-treated control groups. Our results demonstrate that porcine oocyte activation via an EP in combination with AZD5438 treatment can lead to a high blastocyst formation rate in PA and SCNT experiments.
Thermoluminescence (TL) and radioluminescence (RL) spectra of the long-lasting phosphorescence of SrA12O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ with A1N addition and commercially used SrA12O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ were compared. Their spectra were slowly recorded over the temperature range from 25 to 673 K (400 °C). A1N offers a higher temperature TL peak, which should lengthen the phosphor lifetime. However, both TL and RL, especially that below room temperature, reveal that there are additional decay paths for the samples of SrA12O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ with A1N additions. These new defect sites reduce the phosphor efficiency. Some speculative models of potential sites are proposed and discussed. In addition, discontinuous intensity changes have been observed for both sample types in TL and RL spectra, which are assigned to the transitions of embedded impurity phases. The justification for this model is explained. Suggestions for future experimentation are also considered.
We perform photometric measurements on a large HST snapshot imaging survey sample of 97 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We classify all the sources into three categories with multiple, double and single nucleus/nuclei, mainly based on a quantitative criterion of I-band luminosity. The resultant fractions of multiple, double and single nucleus/nuclei ULIRGs are 18%, 39% and 43%, respectively. This supports the multiple merger scenario as a possible origin of ULIRGs, in addition to the commonly-accepted pair merger model. Further statistical studies indicate that the fraction of AGN increases from multiple (18%) to double (39%) and then to single (43%) nucleus/nuclei ULIRGs. For the single nucleus category, there is a high luminosity tail in the luminosity distribution, which corresponds to a Seyfert 1/QSO excess. This supports the statement that active galactic nuclei tend to appear at final merging stage. For multiple and double mergers, we also find a considerably high fraction of very close nucleus pairs (e.g., 2/3 for those separated by less than 5 kpc). This strengthens the conclusion that systems at late merging phase preferentially host ULIRGs.
NiCrMoV steels used in nuclear rotor with heavy section were successfully fabricated by ultra-narrow gap submerged arc welding method. In this study, the mechanical properties including the tensile and impact toughness of the welded joints (WJs) with a wide temperature range were systematically investigated. Microstructural characterization indicated that the high-temperature tempered martensite and tempered bainite, as the main microstructure in WJ, were responsible for the improved comprehensive mechanical properties of the WJ. Microhardness across the WJ was measured as well, showing that the highest value of hardness occurred at the heat-affected zone which represents the appropriate lowest impact toughness of WJ. However, compared with the base metal, the ultimate tensile strength of the WJ displayed approximately equivalent values, while the yield strength was increased with increasing temperature. All the fracture of the WJ specimens occurred on the weld metal. In addition, the Charpy impact energy of weld metal was obtained at various temperatures, and the transition temperature (Tt) of welded metal was determined as 5 °C, which helps for the application design. The fractography indicated that the ductile fracture modes changed to quasi-cleavage ones gradually with decreasing temperature, and also the dimples became smaller and shallower.
Few studies have explored the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Evidence from non-Western areas is particularly lacking. In the present study, we aimed to examine the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of GDM in a Chinese population. A total of 3063 pregnant Chinese women from an ongoing prospective cohort study were included. Data on dietary intake were collected using a FFQ at 24–27 weeks of gestation. GDM was diagnosed using a 75 g, 2 h oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary patterns were determined by principal components factor analysis. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the associations between dietary pattern and the risk of GDM. The analysis identified four dietary patterns: vegetable pattern; protein-rich pattern; prudent pattern; sweets and seafood pattern. Multivariate analysis showed that the highest tertile of the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM (relative risk (RR) 0·79, 95 % CI 0·64, 0·97), compared with the lowest tertile, whereas the highest tertile of the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM (RR 1·23, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·49). No significant association was found for either the protein-rich or the prudent pattern. The protective effect of a high vegetable pattern score was more evident among women who had a family history of diabetes (P for interaction = 0·022). These findings suggest that the vegetable pattern was associated with a decreased risk of GDM, while the sweets and seafood pattern was associated with an increased risk of GDM. These findings may be useful in dietary counselling during pregnancy.
The present study aimed to translate the English version of the Nutritional Form For the Elderly into Simplified Chinese, as well as to test the reliability (homogeneity and stability) and validity (content and construct validity) of the Chinese version of the Nutritional Form For the Elderly (NUFFE-CHI).
The study adopted a cross-sectional design. The English version of the NUFFE was translated into Simplified Chinese and a questionnaire survey was conducted. The data were analysed with statistical methods to estimate the homogeneity, stability, content and construct validity.
Jinzhou City, China.
A total number of 701 community-dwelling older adults answered the questionnaire, including background variables and the NUFFE-CHI. A small group of the participants (n 50) completed the NUFFE-CHI twice for test–retest reliability.
Cronbach’s α was 0·65 and the split-half reliability was 0·67. Item-to-total correlation analyses showed that the scale has sufficient internal consistency. The test–retest reliability regarding the total scores of NUFFE-CHI was reflected in an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0·88. The intra-class correlation coefficients between the test and retest of the NUFFE-CHI items varied between 0·43 and 0·98. A content validity index of 0·83 explained good content validity. Construct validity was demonstrated in an exploratory factor analysis with a six-factor solution, explaining 57·65 % of the variance.
This first testing of the NUFFE-CHI indicates sufficient evidence for reliability, content and construct validity. Further testing studies regarding homogeneity, concurrent validity, sensitivity and specificity are required before the NUFFE-CHI can be used as a screening instrument in clinical settings and in research.
Weighted interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin method is developed to solve the two-dimensional non-equilibrium radiation diffusion equation on unstructured mesh. There are three weights including the arithmetic, the harmonic, and the geometric weight in the weighted discontinuous Galerkin scheme. For the time discretization, we treat the nonlinear diffusion coefficients explicitly, and apply the semi-implicit integration factor method to the nonlinear ordinary differential equations arising from discontinuous Galerkin spatial discretization. The semi-implicit integration factor method can not only avoid severe timestep limits, but also takes advantage of the local property of DG methods by which small sized nonlinear algebraic systems are solved element by element with the exact Newton iteration method. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the validity of discontinuous Galerkin method for high nonlinear and tightly coupled radiation diffusion equation.
In this paper, a new discontinuous Galerkin method is developed for the parabolic equation with jump coefficients satisfying the continuous flow condition. Theoretical analysis shows that this method is L2 stable. When the finite element space consists of interpolative polynomials of degrees k, the convergent rate of the semi-discrete discontinuous Galerkin scheme has an order of . Numerical examples for both 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional problems demonstrate the validity of the new method.
In 2008 January the 24th Chinese expedition team successfully deployed the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) to Dome A, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau. CSTAR consists of four 14.5cm optical telescopes, each with a different filter (g, r, i and open) and has a 4.5°×4.5° field of view (FOV). Based on the CSTAR data, initial statistics of astronomical observational site quality and light curves of variable objects were obtained. To reach higher photometric quality, we are continuing to work to overcome the effects of uneven cirrus cloud cirrus, optical “ghosts” and intra-pixel sensitivity. The snow surface stability is also tested for further astronomical observational instrument and for glaciology studies.
The purpose of this study was to determine the aetiology of acute diarrhoea and improve knowledge of gastrointestinal pathogens in China. Faecal specimens from 1526 outpatients with diarrhoea were collected from 20 hospitals in Henan province and the prevalence of seven bacterial and five viral diarrhoeagenic pathogens were determined. Bacterial pathogens were recovered from 279/1526 (18·3%) stool specimens and viral pathogens were detected in 178/1526 (11·7%) stool specimens. The top five pathogenic species were diarrhoeagenic E. coli (n = 140, 9·2%), rotavirus (n = 79, 5·2%), Shigella spp. (n = 69, 4·5%), Salmonella spp. (n = 66, 4·3%) and norovirus (n = 56, 3·7%). The prevalence of pathogens showed correlation with age, season and clinical symptoms. Several dominant serotypes were identified in Shigella and Salmonella isolates, and high prevalence of multiple drug-resistant isolates was observed in both species. This important information will have a significant effect on public health policy development and resource prioritization practices.
In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China?
Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview.
Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD.
Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD.
The film properties of two PECVD deposited dielectric copper barrier films
have been optimized to improve BEOL device reliability in terms of
electromigration. Two critical aspects that affect electromigration are the
dielectric barrier film hermeticity and adhesion to copper. We use a method
to quantify the barrier film hermeticity and have optimized the hermeticity
of the BLOκ™ low-κ dielectric barrier film to be similar to that of silicon
nitride. By using FT-IR we find that the film porosity has a much stronger
effect than the film stoichiometry on hermeticity. In addition, the
interfaces between Damascene Nitride™ with copper, as well as BLOκ with
copper have been engineered to improve the interfacial adhesion energy to
>10 J/m2 for both Damascene Nitride and BLOκ.
Butyrophilin 1A1 (BTN1A1), which is a member of the Ig superfamily, is highly expressed in the lactating mammary gland and is secreted into milk in association with lipid droplets, and concentrated in the apical plasma membranes of mammary epithelial cells. Because butyrophilin is expressed only during lactation, it appears to be essential for milk fat globule production. However, there is little information about its properties in the dairy goat. The objective of this study was to confirm whether butyrophilin was related to milk changes in different lactation periods of Xinong Saanen goats. Using suppression subtractive hybridization analysis, we identified a significant increase in butyrophilin mRNA in Xinong Saanen goat mammary gland at middle lactation when compared to that of late lactation. The gBTN1A1 complementary DNA has an open reading frame of 1581 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 526 amino acids. Amino acids 1–26 were the signal peptide domain. The homologies of nucleotide and peptide sequences of goat butyrophilin with bovine (NM_174508), human (NM_001732) and mouse (AK145168) butyrophilin were 97 and 96%, 88 and 84%, 84 and 70%, respectively. The secondary structure, transmembrane domain and hydrophilicity of goat butyrophilin were similar to the those of the bovine, human and mouse protein. In conclusion, we confirmed that the goat mammary gland mRNA level of gBTN1A1 was responsible for goat milk fat globule secretion.
Duck interleukin (IL)-18 mature protein gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from total RNA extracted from Ma duck (Tadorna ferruginea) splenocytes. The PCR product was cloned into pGEM-T Easy vector for sequencing. The result revealed that the nucleotide sequence of duck IL-18 mature protein gene (mDuIL-18) consisted of a 513 bp band. A prokaryotic plasmid of mDuIL-18, pQE30-mDuIL18, was obtained by subcloning the encoding region of the DuIL-18 mature peptide into pQE30. pQE30-mDuIL18 transformed Escherichia coli M15. The expression of mDuIL-18 gene was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Its molecular weight was 19.76 kDa, and could be specifically recognized by rabbit sera to chicken IL-18. The expressed products existed as inclusion bodies. After being degenerated, then renatured, the activities of the inclusion bodies were detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. In ducks injected intramuscularly with mDuIL-18 protein (150 ng or 200 ng per duck) and Avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccine 2 weeks after immunization, the average titres of haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies to AIV reached 7.5–7.7 log2, while those of HI antibody ranged between 6.3 and 6.6 log2 in ducks vaccinated with AIV vaccine only or with 100 ng mDuIL-18 and AIV vaccine. The results clearly showed that 150 ng mDuIL-18 per duck strengthened the in vivo immune responses induced by the inactivated oil emulsion AIV vaccine.
The construction of the sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) molecular genetic linkage map started in the early 1990s. Molecular genetic maps with a high density of markers covering almost the entire sorghum genome have been completed and integration of a sorghum genetic and physical map is under way. The correlation between genetic linkage groups and relevant chromosomes was established and the locations of the important structures of chromosomes, such as centromeres, long and short arms, nucleolus organizer region (NOR), etc., have been identified on the linkage groups. Molecular cytogenetic mapping of each chromosome has been advanced substantially. With continuing progress in the field, sequencing of the full sorghum genome and study of sorghum functional genomics will be initiated soon.