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The present study explores whether embodied meaning is activated in comprehension of action-related Mandarin counterfactual sentences. Participants listened to action-related Mandarin factual or counterfactual sentences describing transfer events (actions towards or away from the participant), and then performed verb-compatible or -incompatible motor action after a transfer verb (action towards or away from the participant) onset. The results demonstrated that motor simulation, specifically the interfering action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE), was obtained in both factual and counterfactual sentences. Additionally, the temporal course of motor resonance was slightly different between factual and counterfactual sentences. We concluded that embodied meaning was activated in action-related Chinese counterfactual sentences. The results supported a neural network model of Chersi, Thill, Ziemke, and Borghi (2010), proposed within the embodiment approach, which explains the interaction between processing action-related sentences and motor performance. Moreover, we speculated that the neural network model of Chersi et al. was also applicable to action-related Mandarin counterfactual comprehension.
Let φ : ℝn × [0, ∞) → [0, ∞) satisfy that φ(x, · ), for any given x ∈ ℝn, is an Orlicz function and φ( · , t) is a Muckenhoupt A∞ weight uniformly in t ∈ (0, ∞). The (weak) Musielak–Orlicz Hardy space Hφ(ℝn) (WHφ(ℝn)) generalizes both the weighted (weak) Hardy space and the (weak) Orlicz Hardy space and hence has wide generality. In this paper, two boundedness criteria for both linear operators and positive sublinear operators from Hφ(ℝn) to Hφ(ℝn) or from Hφ(ℝn) to WHφ(ℝn) are obtained. As applications, we establish the boundedness of Bochner–Riesz means from Hφ(ℝn) to Hφ(ℝn), or from Hφ(ℝn) to WHφ(ℝn) in the critical case. These results are new even when φ(x, t): = Φ(t) for all (x, t) ∈ ℝn × [0, ∞), where Φ is an Orlicz function.
In this paper, a finite difference scheme on non-uniform staggered grids is proposed for wormhole propagation with the Darcy–Brinkman–Forchheimer framework in porous media by introducing an auxiliary flux variable to guarantee full mass conservation. Error estimates for the pressure, velocity, porosity, concentration and auxiliary flux with second-order superconvergence in different discrete norms are established rigorously and carefully on non-uniform grids. We also obtain second-order superconvergence for some terms of the
norm of the velocity on non-uniform grids. Finally, some numerical experiments are presented to verify the theoretical analysis and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.
In this work, the nitrogen-doped carbon materials (NCM) and nitrogen/sulfur codoped carbon materials (NSCM) were prepared using conventional benzoxazine (BOZ) and sulfur-containing benzoxazine as precursor and SBA-15 as template. The morphology, structure, and electrochemical performance of carbon materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, the X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption, cyclic voltammetry, and galvanostatic charge–discharge. The results show that the as-prepared carbon materials have ordered mesoporous structure, large specific surface area, and excellent electrochemical properties. The NSCM treated at 800 °C exhibit an extremely high specific capacitance of 550 F/g at the current density of 0.5 A/g in 0.5 mol H2SO4 electrolyte, which shows great improvement compared with NCM. The nitrogen/sulfur codoping is suggested to be a very effective method to improve the performance of carbon materials, and the NSCM should be a promising candidate as electrode materials for supercapacitors.
Multiple studies on regional glacier mass balance in the Pamir Mountains have been conducted using the geodetic method, but they were rarely extended to the period before 2000. In this study, we used KH-9 imagery acquired in 1975 to generate the historical DEM for the central Pamir, and then obtained the glacier elevation change by comparing this with the SRTM C-band DEM. The penetration depth of the C-band radar was corrected for different glacier surfaces, i.e. 2.96, 1.68 and 0 m for firn/snow cover, bare ice and debris-covered areas, respectively. The final results suggest that the central Pamir glaciers, overall, experienced a near-zero mass balance of −0.03 ± 0.24 m w.e. a−1 for 1975–99. Due to glacier surge activity, the elevation change patterns of individual glaciers were highly variable, and their mass balances varied from −0.12 ± 0.26 to 0.63 ± 0.20 m w.e. a−1. The mean mass budgets of the surge-type glaciers and non-surge-type glaciers were 0.03 ± 0.14 and −0.05 ± 0.28 m w.e. a−1, respectively. Concurring with previous studies, we conclude that the central Pamir glaciers may have been in a state of approximately balanced mass budget or slight mass deficit from the mid-1970s to the mid-2010s.
Bainite transformation in steels is influenced by various factors. In the present work, bainite transformation in medium carbon high alloyed steel was investigated focusing on the influence of preexisting VC carbides on the morphology and transformation kinetics of the subsequently formed bainite. Hot-work die steels were held at 950 °C for various times to precipitate VC carbides, then rapidly cooled from 950 to 350 °C and held at this temperature for the bainite transformation. It is found that the bainite transformation was obviously accelerated by the preexisting VC carbides precipitated at the austenite region. The precipitation of carbides leads to a decrease in carbon concentration in the matrix, which decreases the effective activation energy and increases the highest temperature for the nucleation of bainite. Besides, bainite was observed to grow beside the VC carbides. It suggests that the VC carbides in the matrix act as nucleation sites for the bainite transformation. In the specimens, the bainite transformation is accelerated, and a higher fraction of bainite is formed when there are carbides in the matrix.
In this paper, the design of a graded honeycomb radar absorbing structure (RAS) is presented to realize both a wide bandwidth and absorption over a wide range of angles. For both transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic polarization, a fractional bandwidth of more than 118.6% is achieved for at least a 10 dB reflectivity reduction when the incident angle is <45°, an 8 dB reduction when the incident angle is <55° and a 5 dB reduction when the incident angle is <70°. Meanwhile the 10 dB reduction upper angle limit is approximately 30° for the uniform coating honeycomb RAS in the literature, which loses its absorbing ability when the incident angle is larger than 55°. Furthermore, the total thickness of our design is 10.7 mm, which is only approximately 1.29 times that of the theoretical limitation. The good agreement between the calculated, simulated, and measured results demonstrates the validity of this optimization.
Sodium bismuth titanate (NBT) and its solid solutions with other ABO3 perovskites are of great interest for lead-free ferroelectric and piezoelectric applications. In this article, we provide an introduction to the complex structure of NBT, including atomic displacements and nanoscale defects. We also review poling effects and properties as well as NBT-ABO3 phase equilibria. The interesting relaxor properties, frequency dispersion in dielectric permittivity, and field-induced structural phase transitions of these systems are discussed. Finally, we describe other functional, mechanical, and electrical properties of NBT.
In this paper we are interested in a sharp result about the global existence and blowup of solutions to a class of pseudo-parabolic equations. First, we represent a unique local weak solution in a new integral form that does not depend on any semigroup. Second, with the help of the Nehari manifold related to the stationary equation, we separate the whole space into two components S+ and S– via a new method, then a sufficient and necessary condition under which the weak solution blows up is established, that is, a weak solution blows up at a finite time if and only if the initial data belongs to S–. Furthermore, we study the decay behaviour of both the solution and the energy functional, and the decay ratios are given specifically.
X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data for Palbociclib, C24H29N7O2, are reported [a = 18.182(2) Å, b = 11.508(1) Å, c = 5.041(1) Å, α = 81.282(7)°, β = 97.423(7)°, γ = 102.415(2)°, unit-cell volume V = 1013.1(4) Å3, Z = 2, and space group P-1. All XRPD measured lines were indexed and no detectable impurities were observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for DCT (C12H12Cl2N6O4S2 • C6H15N) are reported [a = 18.991(9) Å, b = 19.057(2) Å, c = 7.346(8) Å, α = β = γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 2659.05 Å3, Z = 4, and space-group P212121]. No detectable impurity was observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for beta-methyl vinyl phosphate (MAP), C29H27N2O10P, are reported [a = 17.293(4) Å, b = 6.142(6) Å, c = 14.464(8) Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 112.048(0)°, unit-cell volume V = 1424.19 Å3, Z = 2, and space group P21]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21 space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
Alternative oxidase (AOX), a ubiquinol oxidase, introduces a branch pathway to the respiratory electron transport chain (ETC), bypassing complexes III and IV and catalysing the cyanide-resistant reduction of oxygen to water without translocation of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Thus, it functions as a non-energy-conserving member of respiratory ETC. Previous studies of AOX focused on plants and some fungi, whereas data on animals are limited. In this study, full-length AOX cDNA was cloned from the Echiuran worm, Urechis unicinctus, a marine benthic invertebrate. In addition, mRNA expression pattern of combined activity of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) in the body wall and hindgut of the worm exposed in sulphide (50 µM and 150 µM) was measured. The results revealed that AOX mRNA expression increased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in both tissues, was significantly increased at 48 h, and continuously increased with time. In contrast, the activity of CCO decreased significantly at 24 h and was inhibited at 48 h during exposure to 150 µM sulphide. The present data indicate the expression of AOX mRNA depended on the sulphide concentration present as well as being influenced by the physical condition of the worm, especially the CCO activity.
In this work, we investigated the influence of N-polar wet etching on the properties of nitride-based hexagonal pyramids array (HPA) vertical-injection light emitting diodes (V-LEDs). The cathodeluminescence images showed the randomly distribution of hexagonal pyramids with isolated active regions. The transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated the reduced density of threading dislocations. The IQE was estimated by temperature dependence of photoluminescence, which showed 30% increase for HPA V-LEDs compared with broad area (BA) V-LEDs. The improved extraction efficiency was verified by finite difference time domain simulation, which was 20% higher than that of roughened BA V-LEDs. The electrical properties of HPA V-LEDs were measured by conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) measurements. HPA V-LEDs exhibited much lower leakage current due to the improved crystal quality.
We present reflection and refraction of a global EUV wave observed by SDO on August 4, 2011. The global EUV wave originated in the NOAA AR 11261 located at the solar northwest. Partial EUV wave stopped and partial EUV wave traversed through the active region 11263 during the propagation of the EUV wave. Partial EUV wave interacted with coronal hole and was reflected and refracted by coronal hole.
α-Tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) has been shown to be a potent apoptosis inducer and growth inhibitor in a variety of cancer cells. Our previous studies showed the important role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the apoptosis induced by α-TOS. However, the relationship of oxidative stress with ER stress is still controversial. The objective of the present study was to investigate the interplay between the two stress responses induced by α-TOS in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells. In response to α-TOS, cytological changes typical of apoptosis, induction of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein transcription factor (CHOP), and activation of caspase-4 were observed. And the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine inhibited induction of both GRP78 and CHOP by α-TOS transcriptionally and translationally. Furthermore, knocking down CHOP by RNA interference decreased ROS generation, increased glutathione level and induced glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression in α-TOS-treated cells, whereas catalase and superoxide dismutases mRNA expression were not altered. The results imply that α-TOS induces ER stress response through ROS production, while CHOP perturbs the redox state of SGC-7901 cells treated with α-TOS.
ZnTe/Zn1-xMnxTe superlattices were grown on GaAs (001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The multi-phonon processes including overtones and combinations of optical phonons have been studied by near resonant Raman scattering in the temperature range 13 K to 300 K. The strain arising from lattice mismatch gives rise to a shift in the optical-phonon frequencies. A two-phonon interface mode of superlattice has been observed and identified for the first time. Strain-induced red shifts of exciton energies related to transitions from the conduction subband to the light-hole and heavy-hole subband have been found by photoreflectance measurements. Experimental results agree well with the calculated strain-induced shift in superlattices.
Gold inverse spherical nanoscale voids have been fabricated in linear arrays for directional plasmon measurements in the visible spectral range. We show that by KOH anisotropic etching in Si, we are able to make V-grooves in which latex spheres of the order of 500 nm self-assemble with largely defect-free cubic symmetry. Both single layer and multilayer assembly in a face-centered close-packed (FCC) lattice can be achieved by varying the width of the trenches. This template is subsequently used for electrodeposition of gold to create the inverse spherical nanovoids.
Our previous study showed that Erythrina variegata L. (EV) inhibited bone loss and improved bone properties in ovariectomised rats. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the potential mechanism involved in mediating the osteoprotective actions of EV. Female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a phyto-oestrogen-free diet and subjected to either ovariectomy or a sham operation. Ovariectomised rats were treated with genistein (40 mg/kg) as well as low (200 mg/kg), medium (500 mg/kg) or high (1000 mg/kg) doses of EV extract. Bone properties and mRNA expressions were evaluated by micro-computed tomography and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Osteoclast differentiation in RAW 264·7 cells was studied by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. High doses of EV could decrease urinary Ca and P excretion, maintain serum Ca and P level, and exert beneficial effects on the micro-structure and morphology of trabecular bone and cortical bone in ovariectomised rats. EV suppressed the up-regulation of cathepsin K mRNA and the down-regulation of osteoprotegrin mRNA in the tibia of ovariectomised rats. TRAP-positive cell numbers were significantly decreased in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced RAW 264·7 cells when co-cultured with EV extracts. The present study indicated that the protective effects of EV on bone properties in ovariectomised rats are likely to be mediated by its inhibitory actions on the process of bone resorption via the suppression of osteoclast differentiation and maturation.