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Our recent exploration into the use of biodegradable metals and surface treatments resulting in sufficient strength for skeletal reconstruction applications has led to the need to test these devices’ cytotoxicity. More specifically, our group has developed a resorbable magnesium alloy, Mg–1.2Zn–0.5Ca–0.5Mn, that can be strengthened by heat treatment and coated with a ceramic layer offering time-certain resorption of a medical device. This in vitro study shows that these treatments do not result in cytotoxicity. Both heat-treated (HT) and HT + ceramic-coated (sol–gel) coupons demonstrated more than 70% viability. Thus, these processing steps are likely to be useful in producing biocompatible, resorbable implants that incorporate our Mg–1.2Zn–0.5Ca–0.5Mn alloy.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The North Carolina Translational and Clinical Sciences Institute (NC TraCS) supports faculty and staff in carrying out clinical and translational research at UNC-Chapel Hill. To better understand customer satisfaction and impact, a survey was administered among NC TraCS users. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: NC TraCS has 13 program areas that range from Biostatistics to Community and Stakeholder Engagement. These programs provide services to faculty, staff, students, and outside researchers in the area of clinical and translational science. A customer feedback survey was administered in Spring 2019 to anyone who had used at least one NC TraCS service between March 1st, 2017 and February 28th, 2019. A total of 856 survey invitations were sent. The survey included questions around users’ perception of the ease of access, helpfulness, outcome, and promptness of the services received using 6-point Likert scale. The survey also addressed career impact, communications, and suggestions for improvement. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We received 268 responses, (31% response). Majority of respondents were satisfied with Overall Helpfulness (95%), Outcome of Service (96%), Ease of Access (93%), and Promptness of Service (90%). They also noted that their careers had at least slightly improved in the following areas: Mentorship (76%), Research Methods (75%), Skill Development (77%), Research Direction (71%) and Collaboration (80%). Furthermore, 96% responded positively to returning to TraCS. The feedback received was shared with service administrators and NC TraCS leadership to identify areas of improvement and further strengthen their services. Concerns, when present, were addressed by service directors or the overall PI’s. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Need to communicate expectations to customers the expected turn-around time for help emerged as a clear take-away. In response, TraCS leadership is working to improve staffing and workflows for efficient service delivery including expectation management, especially among the most popular services.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The goals of this evaluation were 1) to describe the pilot grant application cycle and processes at NC TraCS, 2) to illustrate the impact of pilot grants on extramural grant funding, and 3) to provide a framework for other institutions to utilize for the evaluation of pilot grant programs. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: From 2009-2019 the NC TraCS pilot program funded 925 projects, varying from $2,000 to $100,000. Pilot grants are available to any researcher affiliated with the university as well as partner institutions and community stakeholders. For this evaluation we analyzed data on pilot applicants (demographics, type of pilot, funding status, resubmissions, etc.) and outcomes (extramural funding, publications, etc.) yielded from funded pilots. In addition to summary statistics, we also calculated return on investment (ROI) for the program as a whole and by specific grant type. We will use bibliometric network analysis to assess productivity, citation impact, and scope of collaboration. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There have been 2,777 submitted proposals with an acceptance rate of 33.3%. Unfunded proposals can resubmit, 61.8% of resubmitted applications are successfully funded, and 29.6% of funded applications are resubmissions. The $2,000 awards accounted for 43.4% of all grants awarded but only accounted for 6.4% of all pilot funds awarded. Success of proposals was proportional to the number of applications from each academic unit. 60.8% of funded applicants were affiliated with the School of Medicine and account for 65.3% of all funding awarded from 2009-2019. Additionally, we plan on analyzing return on investment rates to illustrate the impact of pilot awards on future research funding. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Pilot grants can lead to subsequent extramural grants, publications, and successful translation of research into practice. This evaluation will assist our institution in understanding the impact of pilot grants and will provide a road map for other institutions evaluating their own programs.
One of the great interpretive arcs of history as an academic discipline is the opposition between pre-modern and modern societies. Stimulated by post-modern theory, historians have done much in the past decades to expunge the ideological baggage of history as a ‘great march of civilization’, but they continue to imagine the industrial revolution as a great hinge between two distinct epochs. For all its merits, this perspective also creates problems. Burdened by hindsight, medievalists and modernists are often inclined to understand a case-study as either a prefiguration of a nineteenth- or twentieth-century development, or as its foil. Some of the most important publications on the history of medieval European towns published in 2019 were about destroying such assumptions.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Serotonin and sympathomimetic toxicity (SST) after ingestion of amphetamine-based drugs can lead to severe morbidity and death. There have been evaluations of the safety and efficacy of on-site treatment protocols for SST at music festivals.
The study aimed to examine the safety and efficacy of treating patients with SST on-site at a music festival using a protocol adapted from hospital-based treatment of SST.
The study is an audit of presentations with SST over a one-year period. The primary outcome was need for ambulance transport to hospital. The threshold for safety was prospectively defined as less than 10% of patients requiring ambulance transport to hospital.
The protocol suggested patients be treated with a combination of benzodiazepines; cold intravenous (IV) fluid; specific therapies (cyproheptadine, chlorpromazine, and clonidine); rapid sequence intubation; and cooling with ice, misted water, and convection techniques.
One patient of 13 (7.7%) patients with mild or moderate SST required ambulance transport to hospital. Two of seven further patients with severe SST required transport to hospital.
On-site treatment may be a safe, efficacious, and efficient alternative to urgent transport to hospital for patients with mild and moderate SST. The keys to success of the protocol tested included inclusive and clear education of staff at all levels of the organization, robust referral pathways to senior clinical staff, and the rapid delivery of therapies aimed at rapidly lowering body temperature. Further collaborative research is required to define the optimal approach to patients with SST at music festivals.
The Melanesian islands of the Southwest Pacific (Island Melanesia) experienced the effects of European contact somewhat later than islands in Micronesia and Polynesia. There were sporadic contacts in the early nineteenth century, but most places had little sustained impact until whaling ships, traders, missionaries, and labor recruiters arrived in larger numbers after 1850. In consequence the islands of the Bismarck Archipelago (Papua New Guinea), Solomons, and New Hebrides (Vanuatu) experienced growing instability in local politics, increasingly violent interisland relations, epidemics, and a decline in population that became increasingly apparent to outside observers in the last three decades of the nineteenth century. A few islands were altogether depopulated, and most others (not all) saw a fall in numbers, but neither the magnitude of decline nor the reasons for decline were documented, and medical information is almost nonexistent. Apart from the colony of Fiji, even a basic head count of the populations did not take place in these islands until well into the twentieth century.
An exception is Simbo and Vella Lavella, two islands in the western Solomons that were visited by William H. R. Rivers and Arthur Hocart in 1908. The extensive genealogies collected by these pioneer anthropologists enabled Rivers to demonstrate the high proportion of married women living on these islands who had borne no children. Rivers himself came to favor a “psychological” explanation for childlessness, seeing colonialism as a form of trauma or shell shock that affected people's willingness to conceive, carry out abortions, or permit children to survive. The evidence he provided for these assertions was weak, and growing evidence now suggests an alternative explanation. I argue that the introduction and spread of STIs, especially gonorrhea, resulted in miscarriages, stillbirths, and sterility, and it was these effects that caused the severe decline in fertility rates. The resulting fall in population probably started before 1850 and accelerated in the 1880s and 1890s.
I also consider how far we can generalize this model across Island Melanesia, which is a region with very great cultural diversity between and even within islands. Were Simbo and Vella Lavella especially vulnerable to high levels of infection by STIs because they were “Aphrodisian cultures,” sensu Marshall Sahlins?