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Copper is one of the six transition metals that have important biochemical roles in humans, particularly in catalysis and electron transport [1, 2]. Because it can exist in two redox states (Cu2+/Cu+), it can participate in redox reactions involving transfer of an electron, but if it builds up it can also generate potentially toxic reactive oxygen species by Fenton chemistry. Examples of copper in redox enzymes include: complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, copper–zinc superoxide dismutase, ceruloplasmin (ferroxidase), lysyl oxidase, dopamine beta-hydroxylase, and tyrosinase.
Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni and Weddell seals Leptonychotes weddellii are important mesopredators in the waters of the Antarctic continental shelf. They compete with each other for prey, yet the seals also prey upon toothfish. Such intraguild predation means that prevalence and respective demographic rates may be negatively correlated, but quantification is lacking. Following a review of their natural histories, we initiate an approach to address this deficiency by analysing scientific fishing catch per unit effort (CPUE; 1975–2011 plus sporadic effort to 2018) in conjunction with an annual index of seal abundance in McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea. We correlated annual variation in scientific CPUE to seal numbers over a 43 year period (1975–2018), complementing an earlier study in the same locality showing CPUE to be negatively correlated with spatial proximity to abundant seals. The observed relationship (more seals with lower CPUE, while controlling for annual trends in each) indicates the importance of toothfish as a dietary item to Weddell seals and highlights the probable importance of intra- and inter-specific competition as well as intraguild predation in seal-toothfish dynamics. Ultimately, it may be necessary to supplement fishery management with targeted ecosystem monitoring to prevent the fishery from having adverse effects on dependent species.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) is a critical need during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Alternative sources of surgical masks, including 3-dimensionally (3D) printed approaches that may be reused, are urgently needed to prevent PPE shortages. Few data exist identifying decontamination strategies to inactivate viral pathogens and retain 3D-printing material integrity.
To test viral disinfection methods on 3D-printing materials.
The viricidal activity of common disinfectants (10% bleach, quaternary ammonium sanitizer, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 70% isopropanol and exposure to heat (50°C, and 70°C) were tested on four 3D-printed materials used in the healthcare setting, including a surgical mask design developed by the Veterans’ Health Administration. Inactivation was assessed for several clinically relevant RNA and DNA pathogenic viruses, including severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1).
SARS-CoV-2 and all viruses tested were completely inactivated by a single application of bleach, ammonium quaternary compounds, or hydrogen peroxide. Similarly, exposure to dry heat (70°C) for 30 minutes completely inactivated all viruses tested. In contrast, 70% isopropanol reduced viral titers significantly less well following a single application. Inactivation did not interfere with material integrity of the 3D-printed materials.
Several standard decontamination approaches effectively disinfected 3D-printed materials. These approaches were effective in the inactivation SARS-CoV-2, its surrogates, and other clinically relevant viral pathogens. The decontamination of 3D-printed surgical mask materials may be useful during crisis situations in which surgical mask supplies are limited.
Systematic monitoring of exanthema is largely absent from public health surveillance despite emerging diseases and threats of bioterrorism. Michigan Child Care Related Infections Surveillance Program (MCRISP) is the first online program in child care centers to report pediatric exanthema.
MCRISP aggregated daily counts of children sick, absent, or reported ill by parents. We extracted all MCRISP exanthema cases from October 1, 2014 through June 30, 2019. Cases were assessed with descriptive statistics and counts were used to construct epidemic curves.
360 exanthema cases were reported from 12,233 illnesses over 4.5 seasons. Children ages 13-35 months had the highest rash occurrence (45%, n = 162), followed by 36-59 months (41.7%, n = 150), 0-12 months (12.5%, n = 45), and kindergarten (0.8%, n = 3). Centers reported rashes of hand-foot-mouth disease (50%, n = 180), nonspecific rash without fever (15.3%, n = 55), hives (8.1%, n = 29), fever with nonspecific rash (6.9%, n = 25), roseola (3.3%, n = 12), scabies (2.5%, n = 9), scarlet fever (2.5%, n = 9), impetigo (2.2%, n = 8), abscess (1.95, n = 7), viral exanthema without fever (1.7%, n = 6), varicella (1.7%, n = 6), pinworms (0.8%, n = 3), molluscum (0.6%, n = 2), cellulitis (0.6%, n = 2), ringworm (0.6%, n = 2), and shingles (0.2%, n = 1).
Child care surveillance networks have the potential to act as sentinel public health tools for surveillance of pediatric exanthema outbreaks.
Sleep deprivation is common among both college students and athletes and has been correlated with negative health outcomes, including worse cognition. As such, the current study sought to examine the relationship between sleep difficulties and self-reported symptoms and objective neuropsychological performance at baseline and post-concussion in collegiate athletes.
Seven hundred seventy-two collegiate athletes completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery at baseline and/or post-concussion. Athletes were separated into two groups based on the amount of sleep the night prior to testing. The sleep duration cutoffs for these group were empirically determined by sample mean and standard deviation (M = 7.07, SD = 1.29).
Compared with athletes getting sufficient sleep, those getting insufficient sleep the night prior to baseline reported significantly more overall symptoms and more symptoms from each of the five symptom clusters of the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. However, there were no significant differences on objective performance indices. Secondly, there were no significant differences on any of the outcome measures, except for sleep symptoms and headache, between athletes getting insufficient sleep at baseline and those getting sufficient sleep post-concussion.
Overall, the effect of insufficient sleep at baseline can make an athlete appear similar to a concussed athlete with sufficient sleep. As such, athletes completing a baseline assessment following insufficient sleep could be underperforming cognitively and reporting elevated symptoms that would skew post-concussion comparisons. Therefore, there may need to be consideration of prior night’s sleep when determining whether a baseline can be used as a valid comparison.
This study examined psychological constructs (delay discounting, grit, future time perspective and subjective social status) in relation to food security status and body weight.
A simultaneous triangulation mixed methods design was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were collected in fifty-six adults. Independent variables included food security status (food secure or food insecure) and BMI category (normal weight or overweight/obese). Participants, matched on race (African American and White), were categorised into four food security status by BMI category groups. Psychological constructs were measured via validated questionnaires. Qualitative data were collected in a subsample of twelve participants via in-depth interviews.
This study was conducted in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
The sample was 66 % female and 48 % African American with a mean age of 32·3 (sd 9·2) years and BMI of 28·8 (sd 7·7) kg/m2.
Quantitative results showed that food-insecure participants with overweight/obesity had greater delay discounting (–3·78 v. –6·16, P = 0·01; –3·78 v. –5·75, P = 0·02) and poorer grit (3·37 v. 3·99, P = 0·02; 3·37 v. 4·02, P = 0·02 ) than their food-secure counterparts and food-insecure participants with normal weight. Food-insecure participants with overweight/obesity also had a shorter time period for financial planning (0·72 v. 4·14, P = 0·02) than food-secure participants with normal weight. Qualitative data largely supported quantitative findings with participants discussing varied perceptions of psychological constructs.
This study found differences in delaying gratification, grit and financial planning between food security status and body weight groups.
Hydrogen lithography has been used to template phosphine-based surface chemistry to fabricate atomic-scale devices, a process we abbreviate as atomic precision advanced manufacturing (APAM). Here, we use mid-infrared variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (IR-VASE) to characterize single-nanometer thickness phosphorus dopant layers (δ-layers) in silicon made using APAM compatible processes. A large Drude response is directly attributable to the δ-layer and can be used for nondestructive monitoring of the condition of the APAM layer when integrating additional processing steps. The carrier density and mobility extracted from our room temperature IR-VASE measurements are consistent with cryogenic magneto-transport measurements, showing that APAM δ-layers function at room temperature. Finally, the permittivity extracted from these measurements shows that the doping in the APAM δ-layers is so large that their low-frequency in-plane response is reminiscent of a silicide. However, there is no indication of a plasma resonance, likely due to reduced dimensionality and/or low scattering lifetime.
Lewy body dementia, consisting of both dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), is considerably under-recognised clinically compared with its frequency in autopsy series.
This study investigated the clinical diagnostic pathways of patients with Lewy body dementia to assess if difficulties in diagnosis may be contributing to these differences.
We reviewed the medical notes of 74 people with DLB and 72 with non-DLB dementia matched for age, gender and cognitive performance, together with 38 people with PDD and 35 with Parkinson's disease, matched for age and gender, from two geographically distinct UK regions.
The cases of individuals with DLB took longer to reach a final diagnosis (1.2 v. 0.6 years, P = 0.017), underwent more scans (1.7 v. 1.2, P = 0.002) and had more alternative prior diagnoses (0.8 v. 0.4, P = 0.002), than the cases of those with non-DLB dementia. Individuals diagnosed in one region of the UK had significantly more core features (2.1 v. 1.5, P = 0.007) than those in the other region, and were less likely to have dopamine transporter imaging (P < 0.001). For patients with PDD, more than 1.4 years prior to receiving a dementia diagnosis: 46% (12 of 26) had documented impaired activities of daily living because of cognitive impairment, 57% (16 of 28) had cognitive impairment in multiple domains, with 38% (6 of 16) having both, and 39% (9 of 23) already receiving anti-dementia drugs.
Our results show the pathway to diagnosis of DLB is longer and more complex than for non-DLB dementia. There were also marked differences between regions in the thresholds clinicians adopt for diagnosing DLB and also in the use of dopamine transporter imaging. For PDD, a diagnosis of dementia was delayed well beyond symptom onset and even treatment.
It is not clear to what extent associations between schizophrenia, cannabis use and cigarette use are due to a shared genetic etiology. We, therefore, examined whether schizophrenia genetic risk associates with longitudinal patterns of cigarette and cannabis use in adolescence and mediating pathways for any association to inform potential reduction strategies.
Associations between schizophrenia polygenic scores and longitudinal latent classes of cigarette and cannabis use from ages 14 to 19 years were investigated in up to 3925 individuals in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Mediation models were estimated to assess the potential mediating effects of a range of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral phenotypes.
The schizophrenia polygenic score, based on single nucleotide polymorphisms meeting a training-set p threshold of 0.05, was associated with late-onset cannabis use (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.08,1.41), but not with cigarette or early-onset cannabis use classes. This association was not mediated through lower IQ, victimization, emotional difficulties, antisocial behavior, impulsivity, or poorer social relationships during childhood. Sensitivity analyses adjusting for genetic liability to cannabis or cigarette use, using polygenic scores excluding the CHRNA5-A3-B4 gene cluster, or basing scores on a 0.5 training-set p threshold, provided results consistent with our main analyses.
Our study provides evidence that genetic risk for schizophrenia is associated with patterns of cannabis use during adolescence. Investigation of pathways other than the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral phenotypes examined here is required to identify modifiable targets to reduce the public health burden of cannabis use in the population.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To evaluate whether the default mode network experiences age-related changes in functional connectivity and to identify these patterns of progression across seven decades of life. The overall goal is to evaluate whether quantifying these functional changes can serve as potential neurobiomarkers of aging for further quantitative genetic analyses. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Scans were performed at the RII on a 3T Siemens Trio scanner with an 8-channel head coil. Whole-brain, rsfMR imaging was performed using a gradient-echo EPI sequence sensitive to the BOLD effect (TE/TR = 30/3000 ms; flip angle = 90°; isotropic 1.72 mm2). Subjects were instructed to lie in dimmed light with their eyes open and try not to fall asleep. Image analysis was performed with FMRIB’s Software Library tools (www.fmrib.ox.ac.uk/fsl). Preprocessing of resting state data includes motion correction, brain extraction, spatial smoothing, and high-pass temporal filtering. Time series data was extracted from 9 DMN ROIs using FSL’s Featquery tool with 6mm radius spherical ROI masks created in Mango. After extraction, DMN connectivity was assess using structural equation modeling implemented in Amos 22.0 (IBM, Inc.). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: The exploratory SEM (eSEM) default mode network (DMN) model used consists of 9 regions of interest and 13 functional connectivity paths. The eSEM DMN model exhibited exceptional model fit to a primary resting state data set of 1169 subjects from the Genetics of Brain Structure project (1R01MH078111-01, David Glahn PI) with an RMSEA of 0.037. This model also had excellent model fit in 7 cohorts that were grouped by decade age (10s – RMSEA: 0.058, 20s – 0.051, 30s – 0.045, 40s – 0.048, 50s – 0.043, 60s – 0.035, 70s – 0.037). Analysis of the decade group-wise path coefficients identified 7 of the 13 paths (pC -> LMTG, pC -> PCC, PCC -> MPFG, PCC -> vACC, MPFG -> vACC, LIPL -> RIPL, LMTG -> RMTG) significantly negatively correlated with age-related changes. As early as the 1st decade of life, the functional connectivity within the DMN decreases. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The DMN experiences progressive age-related decreases in connectivity, beginning in the first decade of life. Our results suggest that DMN path coefficients can serve as biomarkers of cognitive aging, which can then be used as quantitative traits for genetic analyses to identify genes associated with normal aging and age-related cognitive diseases.
Epigenetic programming is essential for lineage differentiation, embryogenesis and placentation in early pregnancy. In epigenetic association studies, DNA methylation is often examined in DNA derived from white blood cells, although its validity to other tissues of interest remains questionable. Therefore, we investigated the tissue specificity of epigenome-wide DNA methylation in newborn and placental tissues. Umbilical cord white blood cells (UC-WBC, n = 25), umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UC-MNC, n = 10), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC, n = 25) and placental tissue (n = 25) were obtained from 36 uncomplicated pregnancies. Genome-wide DNA methylation was measured by the Illumina HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. Using UC-WBC as a reference tissue, we identified 3595 HUVEC tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) and 11,938 placental tDMRs. Functional enrichment analysis showed that HUVEC and placental tDMRs were involved in embryogenesis, vascular development and regulation of gene expression. No tDMRs were identified in UC-MNC. In conclusion, the extensive amount of genome-wide HUVEC and placental tDMRs underlines the relevance of tissue-specific approaches in future epigenetic association studies, or the use of validated representative tissues for a certain disease of interest, if available. To this purpose, we herewith provide a relevant dataset of paired, tissue-specific, genome-wide methylation measurements in newborn tissues.
Van Os et al. (2009) have proposed a Proneness-Persistence-lmpairment model to explain the psychosis continuum, and cognitive models of psychosis have suggested that appraisals of anomalous experiences may be key in determining ‘need for care’.
The present study investigated the interaction between appraisals and safety behaviours in the maintenance of impairing psychotic symptoms.
It was predicted that individuals with psychotic symptoms without a need for care would display fewer threat appraisals and safety behaviours than their clinical counterparts, and that these variables would predict distress.
The study recruited people with persistent psychotic experiences but who had no-need-for-care (Persistence group; n = 39) and individuals diagnosed with a psychotic disorder who were receiving current treatment (Impairment group; n = 28). The participants were assessed on semi-structured interviews of appraisals and safety behaviours in relation to their psychotic experiences and on anxiety and depression questionnaires.
Both groups had similar levels of psychotic symptoms in the last month, including first rank symptoms. However there was a large significant difference between Impairment and Persistence groups in threat appraisals and safety behaviours, with the Persistence group reporting higher levels of both. A mediation analysis found that threat appraisals mediated the relationship between safety behaviours and anomaly-related distress, suggesting that threat appraisals may maintain anomaly-related distress, a defining feature of Impairment status.
These data provide support for the cognitive model of psychosis, with threat appraisals potentially playing a major role in the transition from non-clinical anomalous experiences to clinical psychotic status.
Evaluate the safety and tolerability of aripiprazole once-monthly (ARI-OM) initiation in patients stabilized on oral antipsychotics other than aripiprazole. Previous pivotal Phase III trials have evaluated initiating ARI-OM in patients stabilized on oral aripiprazole1.
Eligible patients were treated with oral atypical antipsychotics other than aripiprazole with a history of oral aripiprazole tolerability. The study included a screening phase (30 days) and a treatment phase (28 days). Patients were stabilized per investigator's judgment for ≥14 days on risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, or ziprasidone, before administration of ARI-OM (400 mg). Current oral antipsychotic was co-administered with ARI-OM for 2 weeks to determine safety and tolerability of a single ARI-OM dose following treatment initiation. Safety assessments were adverse events (AEs); extrapyramidal symptoms (EPSs) using standard objective rating scales; Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale; clinical laboratory measures; and weight changes.
60 patients initiated ARI-OM, while continuing treatment for ≤2 weeks with oral risperidone (n=24), quetiapine (n=28), ziprasidone (n=5) or olanzapine (n=3). Treatment-emergent (TE) AEs (≥5%) were fatigue, injection-site pain, and restlessness (risperidone); insomnia, dystonia, injection-site pain, and toothache (quetiapine); and muscle spasm, tooth abscess, and toothache (ziprasidone). Prior olanzapine did not cause any AEs. Incidence of TE-EPSs were similar in all groups (< 5%). There were no unusual changes in objective EPS rating scales, suicidality, weight, laboratory values or fasting metabolic parameters across all groups.
The AE profile of patients receiving ARI-OM concomitant with oral atypical antipsychotics other than aripiprazole was consistent with prior reports1.
This study directly compares the effectiveness of aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg (AOM) and paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP) on the validated and symptom-focused Heinrichs-Carpenter Quality-of-Life Scale (QLS) in schizophrenia.
A 28-week, randomized, open-label rater-blinded, head-to-head study (NCT01795547) of AOM and PP in adult patients (18-60 years) needing a change from current oral antipsychotic treatment for any reason. The study comprised oral conversion, initiation of AOM or PP treatment according to labels, and treatment continuation with injections every 4 weeks. The primary endpoint assessed non-inferiority and subsequently superiority on change from baseline to week 28 in QLS total score analyzed using a mixed model for repeated measurements.
Of 295 randomized patients, 100/148 (67.6%) of AOM and 83/147 (56.5%) of PP patients completed 28 weeks of treatment. In treated patients, adverse events (AEs) were the most frequent reason for discontinuation; AOM: 16/144 (11.1%), PP: 27/137 (19.7%). The difference in change from baseline to week 28 on QLS total score was statistically significant (4.67 [95%CI: 0.32;9.02], p=0.036), confirming non-inferiority and establishing superiority of AOM compared to PP. The respective changes were 7.47±1.53 for AOM and 2.80±1.62 for PP. AEs occurring at rates ≥5% in either group in the treatment continuation phase were weight increased (AOM: 12/119 [10.1%]; PP: 17/109 [15.6%]), psychotic disorder (AOM: 3/119 [2.5%]; PP: 6/109 [5.5%]) and insomnia (AOM: 3/119 [2.5%]; PP: 6/109 [5.5%]).
Superior improvements on the clinician-rated QLS and lower rates of all-cause discontinuation suggest greater overall effectiveness for aripiprazole once-monthly vs paliperidone palmitate.
To evaluate the initial (3 months) all-cause discontinuation and safety of aripiprazole once-monthly 400mg (AOM-400mg), an extended release injectable suspension of aripiprazole, stratified by previous treatment.
These two studies (NCT00705783 & NCT00706654) were double-blind, placebo- or active-controlled assessing the efficacy and safety of AOM-400mg. Detailed study designs have been reported previously (1, 2). This analysis was conducted on the pooled population in the first 3 months after initiating AOM-400mg treatment, on patients who received at least one dose of AOM-400mg. Outcome measures are reported for groups stratified by prior treatment.
During the first 3 months of treatment, discontinuation due to all-causes (except for those who discontinued due to the sponsor stopping the NCT00705783 study early after pre-specified efficacy parameters were met) as well as due to adverse events are presented in Table 1. The rates of insomnia and akathisia are shown in Table 1
Aripiprazole once-monthly 400mg appeared equally safe and effective (as measured by all cause discontinuation) in the first 3 months after initiation, regardless of treatment prior to entering trials.
Antipsychotic other than oral aripiprazole (converted) n=581
Understanding primary productivity is a core research area of the National Science Foundation's Long-Term Ecological Research Network. This study presents the development of the GIS-based Topographic Solar Photosynthetically Active Radiation (T-sPAR) toolbox for Taylor Valley. It maps surface photosynthetically active radiation using four meteorological stations with ~20 years of data. T-sPAR estimates were validated with ground-truth data collected at Taylor Valley's major lakes during the 2014–15 and 2015–16 field seasons. The average daily error ranges from 0.13 mol photons m-2 day-1 (0.6%) at Lake Fryxell to 3.8 mol photons m-2 day-1 (5.8%) at Lake Hoare. We attribute error to variability in terrain and sun position. Finally, a user interface was developed in order to estimate total daily surface photosynthetically active radiation for any location and date within the basin. T-sPAR improves upon existing toolboxes and models by allowing for the inclusion of a statistical treatment of light attenuation due to cloud cover. The T-sPAR toolbox could be used to inform biological sampling sites based on radiation distribution, which could collectively improve estimates of net primary productivity, in some cases by up to 25%.
This study investigated metabolic, endocrine, appetite and mood responses to a maximal eating occasion in fourteen men (mean: age 28 (sd 5) years, body mass 77·2 (sd 6·6) kg and BMI 24·2 (sd 2·2) kg/m2) who completed two trials in a randomised crossover design. On each occasion, participants ate a homogenous mixed-macronutrient meal (pizza). On one occasion, they ate until ‘comfortably full’ (ad libitum) and on the other, until they ‘could not eat another bite’ (maximal). Mean energy intake was double in the maximal (13 024 (95 % CI 10 964, 15 084) kJ; 3113 (95 % CI 2620, 3605) kcal) compared with the ad libitum trial (6627 (95 % CI 5708, 7547) kJ; 1584 (95 % CI 1364, 1804) kcal). Serum insulin incremental AUC (iAUC) increased approximately 1·5-fold in the maximal compared with ad libitum trial (mean: ad libitum 43·8 (95 % CI 28·3, 59·3) nmol/l × 240 min and maximal 67·7 (95 % CI 47·0, 88·5) nmol/l × 240 min, P < 0·01), but glucose iAUC did not differ between trials (ad libitum 94·3 (95 % CI 30·3, 158·2) mmol/l × 240 min and maximal 126·5 (95 % CI 76·9, 176·0) mmol/l × 240 min, P = 0·19). TAG iAUC was approximately 1·5-fold greater in the maximal v. ad libitum trial (ad libitum 98·6 (95 % CI 69·9, 127·2) mmol/l × 240 min and maximal 146·4 (95 % CI 88·6, 204·1) mmol/l × 240 min, P < 0·01). Total glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and peptide tyrosine–tyrosine iAUC were greater in the maximal compared with ad libitum trial (P < 0·05). Total ghrelin concentrations decreased to a similar extent, but AUC was slightly lower in the maximal v. ad libitum trial (P = 0·02). There were marked differences on appetite and mood between trials, most notably maximal eating caused a prolonged increase in lethargy. Healthy men have the capacity to eat twice the energy content required to achieve comfortable fullness at a single meal. Postprandial glycaemia is well regulated following initial overeating, with elevated postprandial insulinaemia probably contributing.