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To identify factors influencing successful international travel among patients with psychotic illness.
Eight individuals participated in a semi-structured interview of 15–20-minute duration with a clinician in relation to their recent experience of international travel. Clinical files were reviewed and a case series was compiled.
Four individuals engaged in international travel without any adverse effects. Four other individuals experienced significant psychotic and/or affective symptoms while travelling. Treatment non-adherence, a lack of awareness of how to obtain support and limited or no pre-travel planning were noted in these individuals.
Pre-travel counselling, treatment adherence, provision of information packages relating to their mental illness and having contact details of their treating mental health team increase the likelihood of successful international travel in patients with psychotic illness. Travelling with a companion may reduce fear of relapse.
The identification of natural bioactive compounds which can prevent the post-weaning growth check and enhance gastrointestinal health in the absence of in-feed medications is an urgent priority for the swine industry. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of increasing dietary inclusion levels of laminarin in the first 14 d post-weaning on pig growth performance and weaning associated intestinal dysfunction. At weaning, ninety-six pigs (8·4 (sd 1·09) kg) (meatline boars × (large white × landrace sows)) were blocked by live weight, litter and sex and randomly assigned to: (1) basal diet; (2) basal + 100 parts per million (ppm) laminarin; (3) basal + 200 ppm laminarin and (4) basal + 300 ppm laminarin (three pigs/pen). The appropriate quantity of a laminarin-rich extract (65 % laminarin) was added to the basal diet to achieve the above dietary inclusion levels of laminarin. After 14 d of supplementation, eight pigs from the basal group and the best-performing laminarin group were euthanised for sample collection. The 300 ppm laminarin group was selected as this group had higher ADFI compared with all other groups and higher ADG than the basal group (P < 0·05). Laminarin supplementation increased villus height in the duodenum and jejunum (P < 0·05). Laminarin supplementation increased the expression of SLC2A8/GLUT8 in the duodenum, SLC2A2/GLUT2, SLC2A7/GLUT7, SLC15A1/PEPT1 and FABP2 in the jejunum and SLC16A1/MCT1 in the colon. Laminarin supplementation reduced Enterobacteriaceae numbers in the caecum (P < 0·05) and increased lactobacilli numbers (P < 0·05), total volatile fatty acid concentrations and the molar proportions of butyrate (P < 0·01) in the colon. In conclusion, 300 ppm laminarin from a laminarin-rich extract has potential, as a dietary supplement, to improve performance and prevent post-weaning intestinal dysfunction.
Inspired by notions of interest of humankind and intergenerational equity, we explored Antarctic perceptions of a subset of future generations—university students. Students at three universities in Canada, the Netherlands, and the USA were surveyed to determine the relationships between nationality, academic major, opinions on values of Antarctica, and support for a range of human activities in Antarctica (n = 618). Logistic regression was used to model the relationship of these variables with support for designation of Antarctica as a wilderness reserve, construction of new research stations, and mining. Compared with business and economics majors, biological sciences and natural resources/conservation majors were more likely to support wilderness designation and less likely to support mineral resource development. Nationality was not significantly associated with support for construction of new research stations and mineral resource development. Opinions on the value of Antarctica and support for activities also exhibited significant influences on dependent variables. Consistent with earlier studies of Antarctic scientists, personnel, tourists, and other members of the general public, university students valued Antarctica as one of the world’s last great wildernesses (66%), an important component of the Earth’s climate system (66%), and a science laboratory for the benefit of mankind (62%).
To examine the relationships between objectively measured sleep patterns
(sleep duration, sleep efficiency and bedtime) and sugar-sweetened beverage
(SSB) consumption (regular soft drinks, energy drinks, sports drinks and
fruit juice) among children from all inhabited continents of the world.
Multinational, cross-sectional study.
The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment
Children (n 5873) 9–11 years of age.
Sleep duration was 12 min per night shorter in children who reported
consuming regular soft drinks ‘at least once a day’
compared with those who reported consuming ‘never’ or
‘less than once a week’. Children were more likely to
sleep the recommended 9–11 h/night if they reported
lower regular soft drink consumption or higher sports drinks consumption.
Children who reported consuming energy drinks ‘once a week or
more’ reported a 25-min earlier bedtime than those who reported
never consuming energy drinks. Children who reported consuming sports drinks
‘2–4 d a week or more’ also reported a
25-min earlier bedtime compared with those who reported never consuming
sports drinks. The associations between sleep efficiency and SSB consumption
were not significant. Similar associations between sleep patterns and SSB
consumption were observed across all twelve study sites.
Shorter sleep duration was associated with higher intake of regular soft
drinks, while earlier bedtimes were associated with lower intake of regular
soft drinks and higher intake of energy drinks and sports drinks in this
international study of children. Future work is needed to establish
causality and to investigate underlying mechanisms.
Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) regimes for HIV are associated with raised levels of circulating triglycerides (TGs) in western populations. However, there are limited data on the impact of ART on cardiometabolic risk in sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations.
Pooled analyses of 14 studies comprising 21 023 individuals, on whom relevant cardiometabolic risk factors (including TG), HIV and ART status were assessed between 2003 and 2014, in SSA. The association between ART and raised TG (>2.3 mmol/L) was analysed using regression models.
Among 10 615 individuals, ART was associated with a two-fold higher probability of raised TG (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.51–2.77, I2 = 45.2%). The associations between ART and raised blood pressure, glucose, HbA1c, and other lipids were inconsistent across studies.
Evidence from this study confirms the association of ART with raised TG in SSA populations. Given the possible causal effect of raised TG on cardiovascular disease (CVD), the evidence highlights the need for prospective studies to clarify the impact of long term ART on CVD outcomes in SSA.
In laboratory experiments, we investigated how media with varying ratio of peat:sand and two levels of compaction influence dispersal success of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species with different foraging strategies: Steinernema carpocapsae (ambusher), Heterorhabditis downesi (cruiser) and Steinernema feltiae (intermediate). Success was measured by the numbers of nematodes moving through a 4 cm column and invading a wax moth larva. We found that both compaction and increasing peat content generally decreased EPN infective juvenile (IJ) success for all three species. Of the three species, H. downesi was the least affected by peat content, and S. carpocapsae was the most adversely influenced by compaction. In addition, sex ratios of the invading IJs of the two Steinernema species were differentially influenced by peat content, and in the case of S. feltiae, sex ratio was also affected by compaction. This indicates that dispersal of male and female IJs is differentially affected by soil parameters and that this differentiation is species-specific. In conclusion, our study shows that organic matter: sand ratio and soil compaction have a marked influence on EPN foraging behaviour with implications for harnessing them as biological pest control agents.
Few studies have described clinical characteristics of patients subject to an involuntary detention in an Irish context. The Irish Mental Health Act 2001 makes provision under Section 23(1), whereby a person who has voluntary admission status can be detained.
This study aimed to describe all involuntary admissions to St Patrick’s University Hospital (SPUH) (2011–2013) and to evaluate clinical characteristics of voluntary patients who underwent Mental Health Act assessment during 2011 to determine differences in those who had involuntary admission orders completed and those who did not.
All uses of Mental Health Act 2001 within SPUH 2011–2013 were identified. All uses of Section 23(1) during 2011 were reviewed and relevant documents/case-notes examined using a pro forma covering clinical data, factors recognized to influence involuntary admissions and validated scales were used to determine diagnoses, insight, suicide and violence risk.
Over 2011–2013, 2.5–3.8% of all admissions were involuntary with more detained after use of Section 23(1) than Section 14(2). The majority of initiations of Section 23(1) did not result in an involuntary admission (72%), occurred out of hours (52%) and many occurred early after admission (<1 week, 43%). Initiation of Section 23(1) by a consultant psychiatrist (p=0.001), suicide risk (p=0.03) and lack of patient insight into treatment (p=0.007) predicted conversion to involuntary admission.
This study predicts a role for patient insight, suicide risk and consultant psychiatrist decision making in the initiation of Mental Health Act assessment of voluntary patients. Further data describing the involuntary admissions process in an Irish setting are needed.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
This paper provides a description of a structured template which allows review of the operation of the Mental Health Act 2001 at St Patrick's Mental Health Services (incorporating St Patrick's University Hospital, St Edmundsbury Hospital and Willow Grove Adolescent Unit). These structured processes were implemented to ensure rigorous monitoring of all clinical governance activities associated with adherence to the Mental Health Act (MHA) 2001. The paper describes in detail the information contained in the St Patrick's Mental Health Services dashboard for 2012. The dashboard displays the key performance indicators that are monitored and the paper describes how these were reviewed by the Hospital's Clinical Governance Committee on a weekly basis for the three approved centres. The dashboard has also been used by the Clinical Governance Committee to provide ongoing education and engagement with staff in order to improve the operation of the MHA 2001. The use of this structured monitoring process has allowed the hospital to measure adherence to the MHA 2001 and also to measure activities that impact directly on the care and treatment of patients detained under the Act. The use of structured monitoring tools (i.e. the dashboard) to review the operation of the MHA 2001 allows for coherent observation of key events and issues which can cause concern in terms of the operation of the Act.
A small number of educational programmes for university students include field experience in Antarctica. These programmes contain a range of educational objectives, approaches and academic assessment related to the field component and the intended on-site learning for students. However, it is possible that the on-site experiences of students in these programmes have an influence on later decisions and behaviour beyond the course itself in the years following participation. This paper investigates the possibility of such influence for students who participated in ship-based tourism field trips to the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent locations (South Georgia, the Falkland Islands, and South Shetland Islands) and explores whether students link their participation to particular post-course outcomes. It examines how participants report being affected by a trip to the Antarctic Peninsula, particularly in terms of later decisions regarding learning, professional lives, and environmental behaviour. Influences noted by respondents include effects on choices made in relation to academic pursuits and career paths, as well as development of their environmental values through increased awareness of tourism impacts, Antarctic region sustainability issues, and global issues such as climate change.
Detailed analysis of the anatomy and taphonomic process of a burial in Jordan shows that the body was originally bound in a sitting position and placed in marshland, where it collapsed into the splayed tableau eventually recovered by excavation. The authors succeed in reconstructing a burial rite from one of the most elusive of mortuary phases: the Early Epipalaeolithic in south-west Asia.
Torngat Mountains National Park (TMNP) is Canada's newest national park, and was established in 2005. The development of the park has mirrored a change in mandate for the agency that manages it, Parks Canada. Since 2005 Parks Canada has sought to focus on ‘proactively facilitate[ing] opportunities for meaningful and memorable visitor experiences’, complimentary to maintaining the protection of ecological integrity and providing education (Parks Canada 2005, no page numbers). Under the auspices of this new multi-faceted mandate, this research note will examine the current state of tourism in TMNP, and will also evaluate some of the opportunities and challenges for the future. Within Parks Canada's Visitor experience vision 2015 statement, understanding tourism delivery in the present and future are important components of its mission, as is engagement with external partners to assist in this process. The analysis of tourism development in TMNP for this note comes from the authors' two week research trips to the park in August 2008 and July 2009, undertaken to assist Parks Canada to evaluate their current visitor experience activities and future options.
Case-based reasoning (CBR) is an approach to problem solving that emphasizes the role of prior experience during future problem solving (i.e., new problems are solved by reusing and if necessary adapting the solutions to similar problems that were solved in the past). It has enjoyed considerable success in a wide variety of problem solving tasks and domains. Following a brief overview of the traditional problem-solving cycle in CBR, we examine the cognitive science foundations of CBR and its relationship to analogical reasoning. We then review a representative selection of CBR research in the past few decades on aspects of retrieval, reuse, revision and retention.
Currently, due to simultaneous large area coating thermal evaporation (TE) allows the highest YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) volume deposition rates among various coating techniques. The simultaneous large area deposition translates into long length when the deposition area is closely filled up with metal tape. On short RABiTS samples thermal evaporation has already established critical current densities in excess of 1 MA/cm2 at 77K. Recently, the deposition technique has been scaled up using a multi-turn tape winder for a simultaneously coatable length of 4 meters of 1 cm wide tape. The reel to reel tape deposition system is designed for long term operation based on a vapor composition control by atomic absorption spectroscopy and in situ refillable evaporation sources. In the initial setup phase the system has been able to reproduce the above results on small samples. The first results on continuously moving tape substrate coating up to a length of several meters will be reported.
The objective of this research was to establish a new baseline process for obtaining ultra-thin silicon-oxide gate material in a prototype vertical furnace. Of particular concern was the optimization of a process sequence whereby unpatterned 150 mm diameter wafers ‘see’ the same processing steps prior to gate oxidation as patterned device wafers ‘see’. The figures-of-merit for evaluating process optimization include: i) full-wafer current-voltage (I-V) maps using Hg-gate capacitors; ii) the variation in the current or current density at a given bias voltage, extracted from an I-V map; iii) the variation in electrical oxide thickness that is extracted from full-wafer capacitance-voltage measurements using Hg-gate capacitors; and iv) the variation in optical oxide thickness that is extracted from full-wafer spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The results from this research demonstrate that: i) the addition of 1% O2 to the usual N2 gas during the ramp-up cycle in the vertical furnace is necessary to achieve acceptable across-the-wafer oxide-thickness uniformity as determined from both electrical and optical figures-of-merit; and ii) a full-wafer response surface of the current at a given bias voltage is a powerful finger print for process development when the question of variation in as-grown silicon-oxide thickness is at issue.
Between 75% and 85% of the mature wheat grain is starch, so above all else, yield is a measure of the whole-plant processes that culminate in starch deposition in the grain. Protein percentage, on the other hand, is a ratio value, and whilst not independent of yield is obviously an expression of nitrogen metabolism. The rates and durations of both starch and protein deposition in the endosperm of wheat all appear to be independent events controlled by separate mechanisms (Jenner, Ugalde & Aspinall, 1991). It is this independence that gives the opportunity to manipulate specific responses in the plant that culminate in starch and protein deposition, whether the attempts at improvement be genetic or agronomic.
The relationship between substrate supply and dry matter deposition is different for starch and protein, and the responses change during grain development (Jenner et al, 1991). During the grain filling stage (10–15 days after anthesis until the onset of maturity), the rate of starch deposition in healthy plants is mainly influenced by sink-limited factors, that is by factors that operate within or close to the grain itself. By contrast, deposition of protein is influenced to a much greater extent by source-limited factors, that is by factors of supply. Increasing amino acid supply to developing grains leads directly to increases in protein deposition. Within this context, however, the levels of substrate within the endosperm (sucrose and amino acids respectively) appear inconsistent with what may be expected.
In this work, polycrystalline SiGe has been viewed as an alternative gate material to polysilicon in single wafer processing for the deep submicrometer VLSI applications. We studied deposition of the silicon-germanium (SiGe) films with different germanium concentrations (up to 85%) on SiO2 in a rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition reactor using GeH4 and SiH4/H2 gas mixture with the temperature ranging from 550°C to 625°C. Since the SiGe RTCVD process is selective toward oxide and does not form nucleation sites on the oxide easily, an in-situ polysilicon flash technique is used to provide the necessary nucleation sites for the deposition of SiGe films with high germanium content. It was observed that with the in-situ polysilicon flash as a pre-nucleation seed, the SiGe deposited on SiO2 forms a continuous polycrystalline layer. Polycrystalline SiGe films of about 2000Å in thickness have a columnar grain structure with a grain size of approximately 1000Å. Compositional analyses from Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) show that the high germanium incorporation in the SiGe films has a weak dependence on the deposition temperature. It is also noted that the germanium content across the film thickness is fairly constant which is a critical factor for the application of SiGe films as the gate material. Lastly, we found that the surface morphology of SiGe films become smoother at lower deposition temperature.