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In this chapter, I consider the social causation and social construction of mental health. To do this, I draw on sociology and social philosophy, and key findings from this book, to put forward an argument in three parts. I begin by summarising them and then explore each part in greater depth. I also provide footnotes that expand on the core content.
We describe the motivation and design details of the ‘Phase II’ upgrade of the Murchison Widefield Array radio telescope. The expansion doubles to 256 the number of antenna tiles deployed in the array. The new antenna tiles enhance the capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array in several key science areas. Seventy-two of the new tiles are deployed in a regular configuration near the existing array core. These new tiles enhance the surface brightness sensitivity of the array and will improve the ability of the Murchison Widefield Array to estimate the slope of the Epoch of Reionisation power spectrum by a factor of ∼3.5. The remaining 56 tiles are deployed on long baselines, doubling the maximum baseline of the array and improving the array u, v coverage. The improved imaging capabilities will provide an order of magnitude improvement in the noise floor of Murchison Widefield Array continuum images. The upgrade retains all of the features that have underpinned the Murchison Widefield Array’s success (large field of view, snapshot image quality, and pointing agility) and boosts the scientific potential with enhanced imaging capabilities and by enabling new calibration strategies.
To examine associations between availability of fast-food restaurants and convenience stores in the home and school neighbourhoods, considered separately and together, and adolescents’ fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intakes.
Cross-sectional observational study.
East London, UK.
Adolescents (n 3089; aged 13–15 years) from the Olympic Regeneration in East London (ORiEL) Study self-reported their weekly frequency of fast-food and SSB consumption. We used food business addresses collected from local authority registers to derive absolute (counts) and relative (proportions) exposure measures to fast-food restaurants and convenience stores within 800 m from home, school, and home and school combined. Associations between absolute and relative measures of the food environment and fast-food and SSB intakes were assessed using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors.
Absolute exposure to fast-food restaurants or convenience stores in the home, school, or combined home and school neighbourhoods was not associated with any of the outcomes. High SSB intake was associated with relative exposure to convenience stores in the residential neighbourhood (risk ratio=1·45; 95 % CI 1·08, 1·96) and in the home and school neighbourhoods combined (risk ratio=1·69; 95 % CI 1·11, 2·57).
We found no evidence of an association between absolute exposure to fast-food restaurants and convenience stores around home and school and adolescents’ fast-food and SSB intakes. Relative exposure, which measures the local diversity of the neighbourhood food environment, was positively associated with SSB intake. Relative measures of the food environment may better capture the environmental risks for poor diet than absolute measures.
Seventeenth century England, like the rest of western Europe in the early modern period, was a patriarchal society. It had been such for a long time and would remain so until industrialization and the concept of greater individualism began to upset traditional values. The notion of family was quite different then from what it is now: the family included all persons living in a household whether they were related or not. Thus, servants, apprentices, and live-in employees were part of the employer's family and the head of the household was its absolute master, serving as surrogate father to those not actually his children. His relationship with the younger members of the family was similar to the relationship between the absolute monarchs of the era and their subjects. Of course, not all subjects were dutiful and obedient sons or daughters of the father figure, either in the state or in the family, but the ideal was patriachalism in every social unit. This ideal was perhaps nowhere better illustrated than in the institution of apprenticeship. This essay will concentrate on the apprentices of London during the early seventeenth century and will describe both the ideal and the reality of apprentice-master relationships.
NASA’s Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), scheduled for launch in 2009, will determine the positions of thousands of stars as faint as V = 20 to a precision better than 4 microarcseconds (µas). A key part of the mission is the Astrometric Grid, which is a reference frame of several thousand stars with V ≤ 13 against which all relative measurements will be calibrated. To serve as a reliable inertial reference frame, the Grid must be astrometrically stable against photocenter jitter (from planets, binary companions, flaring or spotting) at the ~ 4µas level. Sub–solar metallicity giant stars, by virtue of their intrinsic luminosity, can probe the Galaxy to greater distances than almost any other stellar type at the same apparent magnitude. Thus, distant (> 3 kpc) giants with V < 13 will have proportionately smaller astrometric jitter compared to other potential Astrometric Grid star candidates. The Grid Giant Star Survey is a patchwork all-sky survey to find sub–solar metallicity K giants for the Grid, and to provide a unique database for studies of Galactic stellar populations. We describe here the survey characteristics and give examples of results to date.
During the Cretaceous and Paleogene, the Indian subcontinent was isolated as it migrated north from the east coast of Africa to collide with Asia. As it passed over the Reunion hotspot in the late Maastrichtian–early Danian, a series of lava flows extruded, known as the Deccan Traps. Also during this interval, there was a major mass-extinction event at the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, punctuated by a meteorite impact at Chicxulub, Mexico. What were the biological implications of these changes in paleogeography and the extensive volcanism in terms of biodiversity, evolution, and biogeography? By combining chronostratigraphic, paleosol, and paleobotanical data, an understanding of how the ecosystems and climates changed and the relative contributions of the Chicxulub impact, Deccan Traps volcanism, and paleogeographic isolation can be gained. Understanding relative ages of paleobotanical localities is crucial to determining floristic changes, and is challenging because different methods (e.g., magnetostratigraphy, radiometric dating, vertebrate and microfossil biostratigraphy) sometimes give conflicting answers, or have not been done for paleobotanical localities. Climatic data can be obtained quantitatively by studying paleosol geochemistry, as well as qualitatively by examining functional traits and nearest living relatives of fossil plants. An additional challenge is revising macrofossil data, which includes some confidently identified taxa and others with uncertain affinities. This is important for understanding ecosystem composition both spatially and temporally, as well as the biogeographic implications of an isolated India.
We report chemical abundances for a sample of 66 M giants with high S/N high-resolution spectroscopy in the inner halo of the Milky Way. The program giant stars have radial velocities that vary significantly from those expected for stars moving on uniform circular orbits in the Galactic disk. Thus, based on kinematics, we expect a sample dominated by halo stars. Abundances are derived for α-elements and neutron capture elements. By analyzing the multi-dimensional abundance space, the formation site of the halo giants – in-situ or accreted – can be assessed. Of particular interest are a class of stars that form in-situ, deep in the Milky Way's gravitational potential well, but are “kicked out” of the disk into the halo due to a perturbation event. We find: (1) our sample is dominated by accreted stars and (2) tentative evidence of a small kicked-out population in our Milky Way halo sample.
It is difficult to generalize about how people at any point in time view the process of growing old and the aged themselves. Attitudes towards old people have perhaps always been ambiguous and are probably ambiguous in western societies today. In seventeenth-century England, which in so many ways combined tradition and modernity, the ambivalent attitude towards the elderly included both traditional and modern aspects in three ways. First, as with traditional societies, early modern Englishmen looked upon old age as simply another stage in life, one of the seven through which all persons must pass; at the same time, old age was seen as something entirely different, a reversal of all previous stages. The latter view, which sociologists have labeled the “implicit” view, sees life as a constant process of expansion and growth until one reaches old age when the process is halted and reversed. Secondly, as in other traditional societies, old age was seen as a period of great dignity and wisdom, with the elderly deserving the respect and admiration of all other persons. Alongside this view in seventeenth-century England, old age was thought of as a time of folly and old people were described in undesirable terms. Thirdly, there were two ways of looking at death and its nearness: the traditional Christian view, held by many seventeenth-century theologians, was that death was entirely in God's hands and was a relief from the suffering of earthly life. The more modern view, held by others in the seventeenth-century, was that death was postponable by sensible precautions or by the science of medicine. Drawing on the literature of the age, this article will attempt to show old age in all of these various ways and point out the ambiguities.