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As an emerging infectious disease, COVID-19 has involved with many countries and regions. With the further development of the epidemic, the proportion of clusters has been increased.
In our study, we collected the information of COVID-19 clusters in Qingdao City. The epidemiological characteristic and clinical manifestation were analyzed.
11 clusters of COVID-19 were reported in Qingdao City during Jan 29, 2020 and Feb 23, 2020, involved 44 confirmed cases, which were accounted for 73.33% of all confirmed cases. Most from Jan 19 and Feb 2, 2020, the cases mainly concentrated in the district which had many designated hospitals. The cases aged 20-59 years old accounted for the largest proportion (68.18%), with the male-to-female sex ration 0.52:1. Three cases were infected from exposure to confirmed cases. The average incubation period was 6.28d. The median number of cases per cluster was 4 and the median duration time was 6d.The median cumulative number of exposure persons was 53.
More attention should be paid on the epidemic of clusters in prevention and control of COVID-19. Besides isolating patients, it is essential to track, screen and isolate the close contacts. Self-isolation is the key especially for healthy people in epidemic area.
We aimed to evaluate the relationship of plasma magnesium with the risk of new-onset hyperuricemia, and examine any possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients. This is a post-hoc analysis of the Uric acid (UA) Sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). A total of 1685 participants were included in the current study. The main outcome was new-onset hyperuricemia defined as a UA concentration ≥417 μmol/L in men or ≥357 μmol/L in women. The secondary outcome was a change in UA concentration defined as UA at the exit visit minus that at baseline. During a median follow-up duration of 4.3 years, new-onset hyperuricemia occurred in 290 (17.2%) participants. There was a significantly inverse relation of plasma magnesium with the risk of new-onset hyperuricemia (per SD increment; OR, 0.85; 95%CI: 0.74, 0.99) and change in UA levels (per SD increment; β, -3.96 μmol/L; 95%CI: -7.14, -0.79). Consistently, when plasma magnesium was analyzed as tertiles, a significantly lower risk of new-onset hyperuricemia (OR, 0.67; 95%CI: 0.48, 0.95) and less increase in UA levels (β, -8.35μmol/L; 95%CI: -16.12, -0.58) were found among participants in tertile 3 (≥885.5 μmol/L) compared with those in tertile 1 (<818.9 μmol/L). Similar trends were found in males and females. Higher plasma magnesium levels were associated with a decreased risk of new-onset hyperuricemia in hypertensive adults.
YBO3:Eu3+ crystals with flower-like hierarchitecture are readily synthesized through a folic acid assisted hydrothermal process using polyborate precursors in the aqueous solution. It was found that the pH value , borate/yittrium ratio and the mass of folic acid take effects on the morphology and photoluminescence emission intensity of YBO3:Eu3+ crystals. The product with the small flower-like hierarchitecture was obtained under the conditions of pH value at 9, borate/yittrium ratio at 2 and the mass of folic acid at 0.44 g, showing the strongest photoluminescence intensity. The growth process of the YBO3:Eu3+ flowers and microflowers was invesitgated based on the time-dependent experiments, which showed that the growth mechanism of the flower-like hierarchitecture follows an in situ growth rather than self-assembly process as reported previously. Such a hydrothermal route using folic acid as a capping agent may provide a green and effective method for fabricating useful and complex 3D architectures of LEDs phosphors.
Findings of epidemiological studies regarding the association between carrot consumption and lung cancer risk remain inconsistent. The present study aimed to summarise the current epidemiological evidence concerning carrot intake and lung cancer risk with a meta-analysis. We conducted a meta-analysis of case–control and prospective cohort studies, and searched PubMed and Embase databases from their inception to April 2018 without restriction by language. We also reviewed reference lists from included articles. Prospective cohort or case–control studies reporting OR or relative risk with the corresponding 95 % CI of the risk lung cancer for the highest compared with the lowest category of carrot intake. A total of eighteen eligible studies (seventeen case–control studies and one prospective cohort study) were included, involving 202 969 individuals and 5517 patients with lung cancer. The pooled OR of eighteen studies for lung cancer was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·74) by comparing the highest category with the lowest category of carrot consumption. Based on subgroup analyses for the types of lung cancer, we pooled that squamous cell carcinoma (OR 0·52, 95 % CI 0·19, 1·45), small-cell carcinoma (OR 0·43, 95 % CI 0·12, 1·59), adenocarcinoma (OR 0·34, 95 % CI 0·15, 0·79), large-cell carcinoma (OR 0·40, 95 % CI 0·10, 1·57), squamous and small-cell carcinoma (OR 0·85, 95 % CI 0·45, 1·62), adenocarcinoma and large-cell carcinoma (OR 0·20, 95 % CI 0·02, 1·70) and mixed types (OR 0·61, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·81). Exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the pooled OR. Integrated epidemiological evidence from observational studies supported the hypothesis that carrot consumption may decrease the risk of lung cancer, especially for adenocarcinoma.
Conventional silicon-based electronics have faced challenges in the realization of soft bioelectronics, such as wearable and implantable integrated devices, which necessitate electrically and mechanically interactive biotic–abiotic interfacing without disturbing the daily life of the user or posing biocompatibility issues. Recently, much effort has been directed at overcoming the mechanical limitations of conventional rigid electronics by replacement of bulky, thick, and rigid electronic materials with biocompatible, soft, and nanoscale electronic materials, which exhibit intrinsic mechanical deformability as well as superior electrical properties. Recent advances in the synthesis of unconventional nanomaterials, surface functionalization methods, and integrated device fabrication techniques have resulted in further improvements in the performance of nanomaterials-based soft bioelectronics. Numerous studies have focused on the biological, electrical, and mechanical analyses of heterogeneous nanomaterial–biosystem interfaces as well as the development of efficient integration processes of soft nanomaterials into devices. In this article, we summarize the latest advances and future prospects in nanomaterials synthesis, processing, and integration strategies for flexible and stretchable bioelectronics, and their application to wearable and implantable devices.
Exoskeleton robots have been widely used in many fields at present. When wearing the exoskeleton to operate, the wearer may be unconscious of the position of exoskeleton or affected by the surrounding environment, causing collision between two arms of exoskeleton or between arms and environment. The collision may result in the exoskeleton destroyed or even the wearer injured. This paper proposes a hierarchical safety control strategy for exoskeleton robots based on maximum correntropy Kalman filter and bounding box to ensure safe operation. Accurate joint angle prediction can be obtained by filtering out non-Gaussian impulsive noise using maximum correntropy criterion as evaluation criterion. Relative position relationship of the arms can be derived based on bounding box to realize hierarchical safe control. Enough experiments have been carried out, and the results validated the feasibility of the proposed method.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability and polygenic inheritance. Multimodal neuroimaging studies have also indicated that abnormalities of brain structure and function are a plausible neurobiological characterisation of schizophrenia. However, the polygenic effects of schizophrenia on these imaging endophenotypes have not yet been fully elucidated.
To investigate the effects of polygenic risk for schizophrenia on the brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity, which are disrupted in schizophrenia.
Genomic and neuroimaging data from a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia (N = 509) and healthy controls (N = 502) were included in this study. We examined grey matter volume and functional connectivity via structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Using the data from a recent meta-analysis of a genome-wide association study that comprised a large number of Chinese people, we calculated a polygenic risk score (PGRS) for each participant.
The imaging genetic analysis revealed that the individual PGRS showed a significantly negative correlation with the hippocampal grey matter volume and hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, both of which were lower in the people with schizophrenia than in the controls. We also found that the observed neuroimaging measures showed weak but similar changes in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia.
These findings suggested that genetically influenced brain grey matter volume and functional connectivity may provide important clues for understanding the pathological mechanisms of schizophrenia and for the early diagnosis of schizophrenia.
In this paper we derive several explicit results on one special sticky diffusion process which is constructed as a time-changed version of a diffusion with no sticky points. A theorem concerning the process-related Green operators defined on some nonnegative piecewise continuous functions is provided. Then, based on this theorem, we explore the distributional properties of the sticky diffusion. A financial application is presented where we compute the value of the European vanilla call option written on the underlying with sticky price dynamics.
Dalian, China, is a city free of rabies in recent 20 years, but the annual cost for rabies vaccination still brings an economic burden on society and individuals. We did a retrospective descriptive analysis to analyse the reason for this and try to find some ways to resolve it. A total of 10 028 post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) cases were recorded from January 2016 to December 2017. According to the exposure grades, 32 cases were grade I; 7712 cases were grade II; 2284 cases were grade III. All the patients in the cases were injured by pet dogs without abnormal clinical signs, and 80% of them were home pet dogs. Fifty-two per cent of the pet dogs were vaccinated. All the dogs survived during the PEP vaccination period. The data showed that a considerable proportion of people who did not have exposure risk for rabies had received vaccination. The underlying reasons included social, medical and personal factors. So here we proposed to replace the current ‘five-course’ intramuscular injection with intradermal injection method in the cities free of rabies in China, this can not only achieve effective vaccination but also save resources and eliminate the fear of rabies from victims. Meanwhile we should strengthen communication on rabies knowledge and make a routine evaluation of rabies surveillance system to improve understanding of the risk for rabies from biting animals.