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We used laboratory and field feeding trials to investigate adult carabid
beetle preferences for three brassicaceous weed species (rapeseed, wild
mustard, and field pennycress) that are pests in canola. All carabid species
preferred seeds of rapeseed most and those of field pennycress least and
showed intermediate preference for wild mustard seeds. Beetles highly
preferred imbibed seeds of all three weed species. Activity–density of
carabids and mean weed seed removal were highly correlated in field plots of
canola, with activity–density accounting for 67% of the observed variation
in seed removal. Our study indicates that seed consumption among carabids is
influenced by several factors, including weed species, physiological state
of seeds, and carabid activity–density. Carabid seed predation is
significant in canola agroecosystems; therefore, understanding these
influences has implications for ecological weed management.
This study identified factors that influenced physical activity (PA) participation among older adults from rural settings in Nova Scotia Canada and explored how the rural context may influence PA participation and promotion. Data were collected via individual semistructured interviews with 20 older adults (Mage = 77.5 years) from rural areas of Cape Breton and subjected to thematic analysis procedures (Braun & Clarke, 2006). Four themes representing factors that influence the prioritization of PA were identified: (1) historical context of activity, work, and productivity; (2) already busy with day-to-day activities; (3) being/staying on the go; and (4) cautionary approach. These findings suggest that PA promotion should be contextually salient, and highlight the need for a shared understanding between rural older adults and PA promoters regarding what constitutes being “physically active”. Effective promotion of PA among rural older adults may require a shift away from contemporary methods of PA promotion.
Ground beetles are postdispersal weed seed predators, yet their role in
consuming buried seeds is not well studied. We conducted greenhouse
experiments to investigate how seed burial affects consumption of weed seeds
(volunteer canola) by adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Seed
burial depth influenced seed consumption rates as demonstrated by a
significant interaction between seed burial depth, carabid species, and
gender of the carabid tested. We observed higher seed consumption by females
of all species, and greater consumption of seeds scattered on the soil
surface compared with seeds buried at any depth. However, there was evidence
of seed consumption at all depths. Adults of Pterostichus
melanarius (Illiger) and Harpalus affinis
(Schrank) consumed more buried seeds than did those of Amara
littoralis Mannerheim. Agricultural practices, such as tillage,
bury seeds at different depths and based on the results of this study, these
practices may reduce seed consumption by carabids. Soil conservation
practices that reduce tillage (conservation or zero tillage) will favor
greater weed seed predation due, in part, to the high availability of seeds
at the soil surface or at shallow soil depths.
Background: It has been hypothesized that [18F]-sodium fluoride (NaF) uptake imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) binds to hydroxyapatite molecules expressed in regions with active calcification. Therefore, we aimed to validate NaF as a marker of hydroxyapatite expression in high-risk carotid plaque. Methods: Eleven patients (69 ± 5 years, 3 female) scheduled for carotid endarterectomy were prospectively recruited for NaF PET/CT. One patient received a second contralateral endarterectomy; two patients were excluded (intolerance to contrast media and PET/CT misalignment). The bifurcation of the common carotid was used as the reference point; NaF uptake (tissue to blood ratio - TBR) was measured at every PET slice extending 2 cm above and below the bifurcation. Excised plaque was immunostained with Goldner’s Trichrome and whole-slide digitized images were used to quantify hydroxyapatite expression. Pathology was co-registered with PET. Results: NaF uptake was related to the extent of hydroxyapatite expression (r=0.45, p<0.001). Upon classifying bilateral plaque for symptomatology, symptomatic plaque was associated with cerebrovascular events (3.75±1.1 TBR, n=9) and had greater NaF uptake than clinically silent asymptomatic plaque (2.79±0.6 TBR, n=11) (p=0.04). Conclusion: NaF uptake is related to hydroxyapatite expression and is increased in plaque associated with cerebrovascular events. NaF may serve as a novel biomarker of active calcification and plaque vulnerability.
We report on the analysis of virtual powder-diffraction patterns from serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) data collected at an X-ray free-electron laser. Different approaches to binning and normalizing these patterns are discussed with respect to the microstructural characteristics which each highlights. Analysis of SFX data from a powder of Pr0.5Ca0.5MnO3 in this way finds evidence of other trace phases in its microstructure which was not detectable in a standard powder-diffraction measurement. Furthermore, a comparison between two virtual powder pattern integration strategies is shown to yield different diffraction peak broadening, indicating sensitivity to different types of microstrain. This paper is a first step in developing new data analysis methods for microstructure characterization from serial crystallography data.
There has been a tendency in scholarship on premodern women and the law to see married women as hidden from view, obscured by their husbands in legal records. This volume provides a corrective view, arguing that the extent to which the legal principle of 'coverture' applied has been over-emphasized. In particular, it points up differences between the English common law position, which gave husbands guardianship over their wives and their wives' property, and the position elsewhere in northwest Europe, where wives' property became part of a community of property. Detailed studies of legal material from medieval and early modern England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Ghent, Sweden, Norway and Germany enable a better sense of how, when, and where the legal principle of 'coverture' was applied and what effect this had on the lives of married women. Key threads running through the book are married women's rights regarding the possession of moveable and immovable property, marital property at the dissolution of marriage, married women's capacity to act as agents of their husbands and households in transacting business, and married women's interactions with the courts. Cordelia Beattie is Senior Lecturer in Medieval History at the University of Edinburgh; Matthew Frank Stevens is Lecturer in Medieval History at Swansea University. Contributors: Lars Ivar Hansen, Shennan Hutton, Lizabeth Johnson, Gillian Kenny, Mia Korpiola, Miriam Muller, S. C. Ogilvie, Alexandra Shepard, Cathryn Spence.
Using first-principles electronic structure calculations in the local density approximation combined with lattice dynamics, we investigate the effect of III/V impurities on the ideal strength of covalent solids (C, Si, and Ge). Our results show that undoped crystalline solids are stronger in tension along  than n-type crystalline solids. P doping has a negligible effect on ideal tensile strength, while n-type doping causes a small reduction in strength of about 6%. The n-type impurity effect is due to the negative (repulsive) contribution from the bottom state of the distorted conduction band to the ideal strength of the solid.
The design of a low voltage point-projection field-emission transmission electron microscope is described and images showing 0.7nm resolution at 100 volts are given. A scheme for low voltage reflection electron holography from bulk samples in UHV is outlined. A new STM is described which allows atomic clusters to be transferred onto the tip, then introduced into a time-of-flight analyser for species identification.