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This study investigates how the ecosystem services (ES) linked to livestock grazing are perceived across countries. A total of 82 case studies collected from 42 countries via survey (53.7% cases from Europe and 46.3% from outside of Europe) have been analysed through a multivariate approach. In all, 18 non-provisioning ES were considered. Overall, the reported impacts of livestock grazing on the different ES were much more positive than negative. Notably, a large proportion of respondents reported either positive or very positive impacts for some cultural ES, namely cultural, historic and natural heritage (84%), knowledge systems and educational values (77%), landscape values (74%), and for some supporting and regulating ES, namely habitat provision (66%), nutrient cycling (65%), and bush encroachment/fire control (66%). Based on multiple regression analysis, geographic origin, stakeholder type and species category, as well as protection status of the grazing area, had significant effects on the perception of the impacts. Respondents reported those impacts as more positive in Europe, in protected areas and where several species were present in the grazing area. A significantly larger proportion of respondents reported recognition of ES provided by the grazing livestock population in European countries (40.9%) compared with non-European countries (23.7%). Based on the survey responses it appears that in non-European countries absence of formal recognition, especially by policy makers, is a major challenge for the continued provision of ES in grazing systems. In Europe, where such recognition is already often included in legislation, the long-term sustainability of related policies and incentives to provide such services is viewed as a major issue by the respondents.
Older people have a higher risk of drug-related problems (DRPs). However, little is known about the prevalence of DRPs in community-dwelling people who screened positive for dementia. Our study aimed to determine (1) the prevalence and types of DRPs and (2) the socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with DRPs in people screened positive for dementia in primary care.
The Dementia: life- and person-centered help in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (DelpHi-MV) study is a general practitioner (GP)-based cluster-randomized controlled intervention study to implement and evaluate an innovative concept of collaborative dementia care management in the primary care setting in Germany. Medication reviews of 446 study participants were conducted by pharmacists based on a comprehensive baseline assessment that included a computer-based home medication assessment. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01401582.
A total of 1,077 DRPs were documented. In 414 study participants (93%), at least one DRP was detected by a pharmacist. The most frequent DRPs were administration and compliance problems (60%), drug interactions (17%), and problems with inappropriate drug choice (15%). The number of DRPs was significantly associated with the total number of drugs taken and with a formal diagnosis of a mental or behavioral disorder.
Degree of cognitive impairment (MMSE defined) and formal diagnosis of dementia were not risk factors for an increased number of DRPs. However, the total number of drug taken and the presence of a diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders were associated with an increased total number of DRPs.
We report on the EPICA Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica) deep drilling operation. Starting with the scientific questions that led to the outline of the EPICA project, we introduce the setting of sister drillings at NorthGRIP and EPICA Dome C within the European ice-coring community. The progress of the drilling operation is described within the context of three parallel, deep-drilling operations, the problems that occurred and the solutions we developed. Modified procedures are described, such as the monitoring of penetration rate via cable weight rather than motor torque, and modifications to the system (e.g. closing the openings at the lower end of the outer barrel to reduce the risk of immersing the drill in highly concentrated chip suspension). Parameters of the drilling (e.g. core-break force, cutter pitch, chips balance, liquid level, core production rate and piece number) are discussed. We also review the operational mode, particularly in the context of achieved core length and piece length, which have to be optimized for drilling efficiency and core quality respectively. We conclude with recommendations addressing the design of the chip-collection openings and strictly limiting the cable-load drop with respect to the load at the start of the run.
During the last two decades, many attempts were made to determine the global parameters of the Galaxy and to compare the Galaxy to other galaxies (Schmidt-Kaler and Schlosser 1973; de Vaucouleurs and Pence 1978; Gilmore 1984; van der Kruit 1986). While most of these investigations are based on star counts, a detailed overall study by surface photometry, because of the lack of homogeneous high-resolution data, is rare. The last attempt by van der Kruit (1986), based on Pioneer 10 data, suffered from low resolution. The great number of individual structures at low and even intermediate latitudes could not be recognized. Our work (B-band, Hoffmann et al. 1989, this volume; V-band, Schlosser, Schmidt-Kaler, and Schneider 1989; U-Band and R-band photometry, in preparation) provides this homogeneous high-resolution data.
High resolution (0.°25 × 0.°25) surface brightness distribution in V of the southern Milky Way over an area of 200° ≤ l ≤ 60° and of −30° ≤ b ≤ +30° was obtained by photographic plates, taken at La Silla, Chile, with the super-wide-angle camera with spherical mirror of the Astronomisches Institut der Ruhr-Universität Bochum (Schmidt-Kaler et al. 1983). Schmidt-Kaler et al. (1983) and Seidensticker, Schmidt-Kaler, and Schlosser (1982) carried out an analysis of these plates. However, these studies used only a fraction of the whole plate; interesting parts of the sky were chosen near the plate centers, thus minimizing various errors. The plates are now all scanned over the whole field of view with a PDS with a diaphragm of 50 × 50 μm = 0.°12 × 0.° 12 on the sky. The image size is 1201 × 1201 pixels per plate. The mean deviation during the scan time was less than 0.1%. Through the identification of about 50 stars and by using their l, b and x, y coordinates, the equations of the plates were solved with eight geometric parameters. The standard deviation of all parameters was less than 0.3 pixels on all plates.
Introduction: Point of care ultrasound (PoCUS) provides invaluable information during resuscitation efforts in cardiac arrest by determining presence/absence of cardiac activity and identifying reversible causes such as pericardial tamponade. There is no agreed guideline on how to safely and effectively incorporate PoCUS into the advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) algorithm. We consider that a consensus-based priority checklist using a “4 F’s” approach (Fluid; Form; Function; Filling), would provide a better algorithm during ACLS. Methods: The ultrasound subcommittee of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) drafted a checklist incorporating PoCUS into the ACLS algorithm. This was further developed using the input of 24 international experts associated with five professional organizations led by the International Federation of Emergency Medicine. A modified Delphi tool was developed to reach an international consensus on how to integrate ultrasound into cardiac arrest algorithms for emergency department patients. Results: Consensus was reached following 3 rounds. The agreed protocol focuses on the timing of PoCUS as well as the specific clinical questions. Core cardiac windows performed during the rhythm check pause in chest compressions are the sub-xiphoid and parasternal cardiac views. Either view should be used to detect pericardial fluid, as well as examining ventricular form (e.g. right heart strain) and function, (e.g. asystole versus organized cardiac activity). Supplementary views include lung views (for absent lung sliding in pneumothorax and for pleural fluid), and IVC views for filling. Additional ultrasound applications are for endotracheal tube confirmation, proximal leg veins for DVT, or for sources of blood loss (AAA, peritoneal/pelvic fluid). Conclusion: The authors hope that this process will lead to a consensus-based SHoC-cardiac arrest guideline on incorporating PoCUS into the ACLS algorithm.
The IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon calibration curves have been revised utilizing newly available and updated data sets from 14C measurements on tree rings, plant macrofossils, speleothems, corals, and foraminifera. The calibration curves were derived from the data using the random walk model (RWM) used to generate IntCal09 and Marine09, which has been revised to account for additional uncertainties and error structures. The new curves were ratified at the 21st International Radiocarbon conference in July 2012 and are available as Supplemental Material at www.radiocarbon.org. The database can be accessed at http://intcal.qub.ac.uk/intcal13/.
We present the first snow/ice chemistry and ice radar results ever collected from South Georgia as part of an initial reconnaissance with the ultimate goal of assessing the feasibility of a South Georgia ice core to reconstruct past climate in the South Atlantic. South Georgia is well situated to capture a record of past atmospheric chemical composition over the South Atlantic and of past variability in the position and intensity of the austral westerlies. The question is how well preserved an ice core record can be recovered from a region experiencing accelerated melting? The results presented in this paper offer only a preliminary step in determining the feasibility of future deep ice coring on South Georgia. However, this initial reconnaissance does provide some basic information including: the chemistry of the atmosphere over South Georgia relative to other Southern Hemisphere ice coring sites; the potential for preservation of ‘annual layers’ in old ice on the island; a possible age for deep ice in the region; and an estimate of glacier health in the lower elevation regions of the island.
One of the largest and longest Salmonella outbreaks in Germany within the last 10 years occurred in central Germany in 2013. To identify vehicles of infection, we analysed surveillance data, conducted a case-control study and food traceback. We identified 267 cases infected with Salmonella Infantis with symptom onset between 16 April and 26 October 2013 in four neighbouring federal states. Results of our study indicated that cases were more likely to have eaten raw minced pork from local butcher's shops [odds ratio (OR) 2·5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1–5·8] and have taken gastric acid-reducing or -neutralizing medication (OR 3·8, 95% CI 1·3–13) than controls. The outbreak was traced back to contaminated raw pork products found in different butcher's shops supplied by one slaughterhouse, to pigs at one farm and to an animal feed producer. Characterization of isolates of human, food, animal, feed, and environmental origin by phage-typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed the chain of infection. Insufficient hygiene standards in the slaughterhouse were the most probable cause of the ongoing transmission. We recommend that persons taking gastric acid suppressants should refrain from consuming raw pork products. Improving and maintaining adequate hygiene standards and process controls during slaughter is important to prevent future outbreaks.
Ecological restoration of trees is often constrained by limited knowledge of the biology, propagation and management requirements of individual species. Consequently, restoration initiatives rarely incorporate less well-known species or those that are difficult to source and grow. We describe challenges associated with the restoration of threatened trees in the Araucaria Forest of southern Brazil, and analyse the effectiveness of methods used to define target species, identify seed sources and generate information on the phenology of rare or threatened tree species. A review of secondary data identified 71 rare or threatened taxa as targets for seed collection. We then surveyed 68.7 km of trails in 26 forest remnants, identifying and mapping 1,027 seed-producing trees of 38 species. Surveys confirmed the scarcity of several tree species (including seven species with an abundance of <0.04 individuals per km), and nine species showed no signs of fruiting during 3 years of phenological monitoring. These findings, together with limited knowledge and application of optimal seed collection methods, are significant factors impeding the recovery of these species within their natural habitat. Wider application of the results of this case study could support restoration of the Araucaria Forest with seedlings from a wider diversity of species.
We present results of Raman-scattering experiments on GaN doped with Si, C, and Mg, respectively, grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The influence of the different dopants on strain and free-carrier concentration was investigated. Furthermore, we report on several local vibrational modes (LVM) around 2200 cm−1 in Raman spectra of highly Mg-doped GaN. A possible explanation of these high-energy modes in terms of hydrogen-related vibrations is given. We also found a variety of new structures in the range of the GaN host lattice phonons. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was applied to determine the concentration of magnesium and unintentionally incorporated hydrogen.
The Global Plan of Action (GPA) for Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR) adopted by FAO recognizes the role of AnGR for food security through improved productivity while maintaining genetic diversity. A critical issue for conservation and genetic improvement programmes is the availability of supportive infrastructure. The objective of the present study was to assess existing and needed infrastructure for sustainable use of AnGR in a sample of countries in Southern and Eastern Africa. Information was primarily obtained from semi-structured interviews with key personnel in animal breeding during country visits. Countries studied are at different stages of development. No complete breeding programmes are in place but some conservation programmes exist in most countries. Except for a few cases, livestock recording as basis for R&D and breeding practice is lacking. The institutional setup to support animal breeding programmes is fragmented and needs to be better integrated. Shortage of skilled personnel is noted as the most serious constraint for development. Countries with least university training in animal breeding have least developed AnGR activities. However, since the GPA was agreed upon, many countries have re-casted their policies and make efforts to develop breeding policies. A change in mindsets aiming at closer collaboration among institutions, farmer involvement and capacity development and strengthening at all levels is suggested.
We present numerical as well as experimental results of axisymmetric, axially propagating vortices appearing in counter-rotating Taylor–Couette flow below the centrifugal instability threshold of circular Couette flow without additional externally imposed forces. These propagating vortices are periodically generated by the shear flow near the Ekman cells that are induced by the non-rotating end walls. These axisymmetric vortices propagate into the bulk towards mid-height, where they get annihilated by rotating, non-propagating defects. These propagating structures appear via a supercritical Hopf bifurcation from axisymmetric, steady vortices, which have been discovered recently in centrifugally stable counter-rotating Taylor–Couette flow (Abshagen et al., Phys. Fluids, vol. 22, 2010, 021702). In the nonlinear regime of the Hopf bifurcation, contributions of non-axisymmetric modes also appear.
Leptin is thought to act as an important mediator in stress reactions. To date, no study has examined the association between psychological stress and leptin levels in children. This study aimed to assess the association between emotional symptoms and peer problems and serum leptin levels in children aged 10 years of the two population-based GINI-plus and LISA-plus birth cohorts.
Cross-sectional data from 2827 children aged 10 years were assessed with regard to leptin concentrations in serum and behavioral problems using the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Linear regression modeling was applied to determine the likelihood of elevated leptin levels in children with emotional symptoms and peer problems, controlling for socio-economic status (SES), body mass index (BMI), fasting serum leptin levels, pubertal development and sex hormones.
We found that increases in emotional symptoms (exp βadj = 1.03, s.e. = 0.02, p < 0.04) and peer problems (exp βadj = 1.05, s.e. = 0.01, p = 0.0001) were significantly associated with higher serum leptin levels controlled for BMI and sociodemographic factors. Similar results were found when the fasting serum leptin sample was examined (exp βadj = 1.08, s.e. = 0.04, p = 0.0294). Gender-stratified analyses showed a significant relationship between serum leptin and peer problems in girls (exp βadj = 1.05, s.e. = 0.02, p = 0.03), and a borderline significant association in boys (exp βadj = 1.04, s.e. = 0.02, p = 0.05).
Children with peer problems have higher stress and eat more, acquire a higher body fat mass and thus, through increased leptin resistance, exhibit higher leptin levels.
We report results of a combined numerical and experimental study on axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric flow states in a finite-length, co-rotating Taylor–Couette system in the Taylor vortex regime but also in the Rayleigh stable regime for moderate Reynolds numbers (
). We found the dominant boundary-driven axisymmetric circulation to play a crucial role in the mode selection and the bifurcation behaviour in this flow. A sequence of partially hysteretic transitions to other axisymmetric multi-cell flow states is observed. Furthermore, we observed spiral states bifurcating via a supercritical Hopf bifurcation out of these multi-cell states which strongly determine the shape of the spiral. Finally, an excellent agreement between experimental and numerical results of the full Navier–Stokes equations is found.
The Dawn spacecraft orbited Asteroid (4) Vesta for a year, and returned disk-resolved images and spectra covering visible and near-infrared wavelengths at scales as high as 20 m/pix. The visible geometric albedo of Vesta is ~ 0.36. The disk-integrated phase function of Vesta in the visible wavelengths derived from Dawn approach data, previous ground-based observations, and Rosetta OSIRIS observations is consistent with an IAU H-G phase law with H=3.2 mag and G=0.28. Hapke's modeling yields a disk-averaged single-scattering albedo of 0.50, an asymmetry factor of -0.25, and a roughness parameter of ~20 deg at 700 nm wavelength. Vesta's surface displays the largest albedo variations observed so far on asteroids, ranging from ~0.10 to ~0.76 in geometric albedo in the visible wavelengths. The phase function of Vesta displays obvious systematic variations with respect to wavelength, with steeper slopes within the 1- and 2-micron pyroxene bands, consistent with previous ground-based observations and laboratory measurement of HED meteorites showing deeper bands at higher phase angles. The relatively high albedo of Vesta suggests significant contribution of multiple scattering. The non-linear effect of multiple scattering and the possible systematic variations of phase function with albedo across the surface of Vesta may invalidate the traditional algorithm of applying photometric correction on airless planetary surfaces.
Horses are often stabled in individual boxes, a method that does not meet their natural needs and may cause psychical and musculoskeletal diseases. This problem is particularly evident in Iceland, where horses often spend the long winter periods in cramped boxes. The aim of this study was to analyze the suitability of a group housing system in Iceland, but the results are also applicable to horses of other regions. Eight Icelandic horses were observed in an active stable system, and their behavior and time budget were recorded. Movement and lying behavior were studied with ALT (Activity, Lying, Temperature detection) pedometers. The effect of an automatic concentrate feeding station (CFS) on the horses’ behavior was examined. In the first period of investigation, the horses were fed concentrates manually, and in the second period, they were fed with the CFS. Additional behavioral observations and a determination of social hierarchy occurred directly or by video surveillance. The physical condition of the horses was recorded by body weight (BW) measurement and body condition scoring (BCS). The results showed a significant increase between the first and second trial periods in both the activity (P < 0.001) and the lying time (P = 0.003) of the horses with use of the CFS. However, there was no significant change in BW during the first period without the CFS (P = 0.884) or during the second period with the CFS (P = 0.540). The BCS of the horses was constant at a very good level during both trial periods, and the horses showed a low level of aggression, a firm social hierarchy and behavioral synchronization. This study concludes that group housing according to the active stable principle is a welfare-friendly option for keeping horses and is a suitable alternative to conventional individual boxes.