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A fully developed approach flow is necessary in open channel studies to maintain commonality among datasets obtained from different facilities. Two-component planar particle image velocimetry is used to study the characteristics of fully developed smooth open channel flow at a constant Reynolds number of 3.9 × 104 based on the maximum velocity and flow depth. The near-bed boundary layer is tripped to achieve a fully developed state and compared with the under- and over-tripped cases. The Reynolds stresses and higher-order moments are used as indicators to establish the fully developed state. Flow properties are explored by identifying uniform momentum zones (UMZs) using the probability density function of streamwise velocities. The instances are grouped based on the number of UMZs (NUMZ) and conditional averaging of flow variables of each group is used to evaluate the difference in flow properties between the developed and the developing flow. Large-scale ejections are found in the logarithmic layer when NUMZ is higher, whereas a lower number indicates the existence of large-scale sweeping motions. The distribution of the conditionally averaged ratio of the shear contribution from ejections and sweeps and velocity deficits shows a vertical variability in the fully developed state. The large-scale and pointwise quadrant events are used simultaneously to depict variability in inner flow properties between developing and fully developed flow which cannot be recognized in the mean flow characteristics. The sweep events have much higher shear generation in the outer flow in the fully developed state whereas the shear stress contribution from ejection is lower than that in developing flow.
Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability plays a significant role in transport and mixing in various media such as hydrodynamic fluids, plasmas, geophysical flows and astrophysical situations. In this paper, we numerically explore this instability for a two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma medium with rotational shear flows. We study this medium using a generalized hydrodynamic fluid model which treats it as a viscoelastic fluid. We consider the specific cases of rotating vorticity with abrupt radial profiles of rotation. In particular, single-circulation and multi-circulation vorticity shell profiles have been chosen. We observe the KH vortices at each circular interface between two relative rotating flows along with a pair of ingoing and outgoing wavefronts of transverse shear waves. Our studies show that due to the interplay between KH vortices and shear waves in the strongly coupled medium, the mixing and transport behaviour are much better than those of standard inviscid hydrodynamic fluids. In the interest of substantiating the mixing and transport behaviour, the generalized hydrodynamic fluid model is extended to include Lagrangian tracer particles. The numerical dispersion of these tracer particles in a flow provides an estimate of the diffusion in such a medium. We present the preliminary observations of tracer distribution (cluster formation) and diffusion (mean square displacement) across the medium.
Background: Ischemic stroke occurs following trauma-related blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) in up to 20% of cases. Preventative treatment includes antiplatelets, anticoagulants, and/or endovascular treatment (ET), but the optimal choice remains unclear. The objective of this study was to compare the ischemic stroke rate between these three treatments. Methods: Following PRISMA guidelines, we queried the OVID Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases from September 2019 to inception to identify studies reporting treatment-stratified outcomes in BCVI patients. Meta-analysis was performed to compare outcomes between the treatment groups, using odds ratios. Retrospective review of our institutional experience with BCVI outcomes was performed and added to the meta-analysis. Results: Analysis of seven comparative studies of antiplatelets (n=334) versus anticoagulation (n=325) found no significant difference in ischemic stroke rate (OR 1.27, 95%CI 0.40-3.99), but a decrease in hemorrhagic complications (OR 0.38, 95%CI 0.15-1.00). Analysis of seven comparative studies of antiplatelets/anticoagulants (n=805) versus ET (n=235) also found no significant difference in stroke rate (OR 0.71, 95%CI 0.35-1.42). Conclusions: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants were similarly effective in reducing ischemic stroke risk in BCVI, but antiplatelets were better tolerated in this trauma population. The addition of endovascular treatment did not further reduce stroke risk compared to antiplatelets or anticoagulants alone.
Background: Ancillary tests are indicated to diagnose death by neurological criteria whenever clinical neurological examination is unreliable, but their use is variable and subject to debate. Methods: Survey of Canadian intensivists providing care for potential organ donors. We included closed-ended questions and different clinical scenarios regarding the use of ancillary tests. Results: Among 550 identified intensivists, 249 completed the survey. Respondents indicated they would be comfortable diagnosing death based on neurological examination without ancillary tests in the following scenarios: movement in response to stimulation (48%), spontaneous peripheral movement (31%), inability to evaluate upper/lower extremity responses (34%) or both oculocephalic and oculo-caloric reflexes (17%), presence of high cervical spinal cord injury (16%) and within 24 hours of hypoxemic-ischemic brain injury (15%). Furthermore, 93% agreed that ancillary tests should always be conducted when a complete neurological examination is impossible, 89% if there remains possibility of residual sedative effect and 59% in suspected isolated brainstem death. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that Canadian intensivists have different perceptions on what constitutes a complete and reliable clinical neurological examination for determining death by neurologic criteria. Some self-reported practices also diverge from national recommendations. Further investigation and education are required to align and standardize medical practice across physicians and systems.
The COVID-19 pandemic has shone a spotlight on how health outcomes are unequally distributed among different population groups, with disadvantaged communities and individuals being disproportionality affected in terms of infection, morbidity and mortality, as well as vaccine access. Recently, there has been considerable debate about how social disadvantage and inequality intersect with developmental processes to result in a heightened susceptibility to environmental stressors, economic shocks and large-scale health emergencies. We argue that DOHaD Society members can make important contributions to addressing issues of inequality and improving community resilience in response to COVID-19. In order to do so, it is beneficial to engage with and adopt a social justice framework. We detail how DOHaD can align its research and policy recommendations with a social justice perspective to ensure that we contribute to improving the health of present and future generations in an equitable and socially just way.
To assess the influence of presbylarynx and presbycusis on Voice Handicap Index and emotional status.
A case–control, prospective, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted of patients aged 65 years or older referred to an otorhinolaryngology department from January to September 2020. Presbycusis was assessed by pure tone and vocal audiometry. Each subject underwent fibre-optic videolaryngoscopy with stroboscopy, and presbylarynx was considered when two or more of the following endoscopic findings were identified: vocal fold bowing, prominence of vocal processes in abduction, and a spindle-shaped glottal gap. Each subject completed two questionnaires: Voice Handicap Index and Geriatric Depression Scale (short-form).
The studied population included 174 White European subjects, with a mean age of 73.99 years, of whom 22.8 per cent presented both presbylarynx and presbycusis. Multivariate linear regression revealed that only presence and severity of presbylarynx had an influence on Voice Handicap Index-30 scores. However, both spindle-shaped glottal gap and presbycusis influenced Geriatric Depression Scale scores.
Presbylarynx has a strong association with the impact of voice on quality of life. Presbylarynx and presbycusis seem to have a cumulative effect on emotional status.
Dietary supplements have been increasingly used by gym users and are often consumed without the guidance of a health professional. Moreover, the indiscriminate supplements use can have adverse health effects, such as changes in liver and kidney function. The aim of this study was to verify the association between dietary supplements intake with alterations in the liver and kidney function among gym users. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 594 gym users (mean age 37 (sd 14) years, 55·2 % women) from a city in southern Brazil. A questionnaire was used to evaluate the use of dietary supplements. The markers of the liver (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyltransferase) and renal (creatinine and urea) function were also evaluated on a subsample of the study population. Data were analysed by binary logistic regression, adjusted for sex, age and education. The prevalence of dietary supplement intake was 36·0 %. Individuals who intake dietary supplements showed a higher prevalence to present slight alterations in the AST enzyme and in the urea after adjustments for potential confounders. In conclusion, the use of dietary supplement was associated with slight alterations in AST enzyme and in the urea among gym users. These findings show the importance of using supplements correctly, especially with guidance from professionals trained to avoid possible risks to health.
This study aimed to characterise the availability, the nutritional composition and the processing degree of industrial foods for 0–36-month-old children according to the neighbourhoods affluence.
A cross-sectional exploratory study.
All food products available in retail stores for children aged 0–36 months were analysed. Data collection took place in two neighbourhoods, comparing two different sociodemographic districts (high v. low per capita income), Campanhã and Foz do Douro in Porto, Portugal.
A total of 431 commercially processed food products for children aged 0–36 months which are sold in 23 retail stores were identified. Food products were classified according to their processing degree using the NOVA Food Classification System.
For NOVA analysis, of the 244 food products that were included 82 (33·6 %) were minimally processed, 25 (10·2 %) processed and 137 (56·1 %) ultra processed. No food product was classified as a culinary ingredient. The products included mostly cereals, yogurts, prevailed in high-income neighbourhoods for the 0–6-month-old group. It was observed that some categories of ultra-processed food (UPF) presented higher amounts of energy, sugars, saturated fat and salt than unprocessed/minimally processed products.
The high availability of UPF offered for 0–36-month-old children should be considered when designing interventions to promote a healthy diet in infancy.
In different parts of the world, aphid populations and their natural enemies are influenced by landscapes and climate. In the Neotropical region, few long-term studies have been conducted, maintaining a gap for comprehension of the effect of meteorological variables on aphid population patterns and their parasitoids in field conditions. This study describes the general patterns of oscillation in cereal winged aphids and their parasitoids, selecting meteorological variables and evaluating their effects on these insects. Aphids exhibit two annual peaks, one in summer–fall transition and the other in winter-spring transition. For parasitoids, the highest annual peak takes place during winter and a second peak occurs in winter–spring transition. Temperature was the principal meteorological regulator of population fluctuation in winged aphids and parasitoids during the year. The favorable temperature range is not the same for aphids and parasitoids. For aphids, temperature increase resulted in population growth, with maximum positive effect at 25°C. Temperature also positively influenced parasitoid populations, but the growth was asymptotic around 20°C. Although rainfall showed no regulatory function on aphid seasonality, it influenced the final number of insects over the year. The response of aphids and parasitoids to temperature has implications for trophic compatibility and regulation of their populations. Such functions should be taken into account in predictive models.
The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), can remain inside dry and deformed reproductive structures of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus (Malvaceae), known as dry bolls, during the cotton fallow to infest the next cotton crop. In this study, the influence of cotton cultivars and sowing densities on the formation of dry bolls was evaluated. In addition, dry bolls were dissected and internal structures that were related to boll weevil development were estimated. Finally, the presence and survival of boll weevils inside dry bolls were evaluated. The results indicate that the number of dry bolls, empty pupal cells, and emergence holes was influenced by cultivar and not by sowing density. Almost one-quarter (22.53%) of adult boll weevils examined was found alive inside the dry bolls after 10 weeks, which is slightly longer than the duration of cotton fallow in Brazil’s main cotton-producing regions. Therefore, remaining inside the dry bolls is an important survival strategy for boll weevils during the cotton fallow period, and cotton cultivars with a greater propensity for the formation of dry bolls might favour survival of the pest during this period.
The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has improved with the search of novel antigens; however, their performance is limited when samples from VL/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected patients are tested. In this context, studies conducted to identify more suitable antigens to detect both VL and VL/HIC coinfection cases should be performed. In the current study, phage display was performed using serum samples from healthy subjects and VL, HIV-infected and VL/HIV-coinfected patients; aiming to identify novel phage-exposed epitopes to be evaluated with this diagnostic purpose. Nine non-repetitive and valid sequences were identified, synthetized and tested as peptides in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments. Results showed that three (Pep2, Pep3 and Pep4) peptides showed excellent performance to diagnose VL and VL/HIV coinfection, with 100% sensitivity and specificity values. The other peptides showed sensitivity varying from 50.9 to 80.0%, as well as specificity ranging from 60.0 to 95.6%. Pep2, Pep3 and Pep4 also showed a potential prognostic effect, since specific serological reactivity was significantly decreased after patient treatment. Bioinformatics assays indicated that Leishmania trypanothione reductase protein was predicted to contain these three conformational epitopes. In conclusion, data suggest that Pep2, Pep3 and Pep4 could be tested for the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV coinfection.
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) can affect mental health in different ways. There is little research about psychiatric complications in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
The aim of the study was to describe the psychiatric clinical profile and pharmacological interactions in COVID-19 inpatients referred to a Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry (CLP) unit.
This is a cross-sectional retrospective study, carried out at a tertiary hospital in Spain, in inpatients admitted because of COVID-19 and referred to our CLP Unit from March 17,2020 to April 28,2020. Clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records. The patients were divided in three groups depending on psychiatric diagnosis: delirium, severe mental illness (SMI) and non-severe mental illness (NSMI).
Of 71 patients included (median [ICR] age 64 [54-73] years; 70.4% male), 35.2% had a delirium, 18.3% had a SMI, and 46.5% had a NSMI. Compared to patients with delirium and NSMI, patients with SMI were younger, more likely to be institutionalized and were administered less anti-COVID19 drugs. Mortality was higher among patients with delirium (21.7%) than those with SMI (0%) or NSMI (9.45%). The rate of side effects due to interactions between anti-COVID19 and psychiatric drugs was low, mainly drowsiness (4.3%) and borderline QTc prolongation (1.5%).
Patients affected by SMI were more often undertreated for COVID-19. However, the rate of interactions was very low, and avoidable with a proper evaluation and drug-dose adjustment. Half of the patients with SMI were institutionalized, suggesting that living conditions in residential facilities could make them more vulnerable to infection.
The local streamline topology classification method of Chong et al. (Phys. Fluids A: Fluid Dyn., vol. 2, no. 5, 1990, pp. 765–777) is adapted and extended to describe the geometry of infinitesimal vortex lines. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of forced isotropic turbulence reveals that the joint probability density function (p.d.f.) of the second ($q_\omega$) and third ($r_\omega$) normalized invariants of the vorticity gradient tensor asymptotes to a self-similar bell shape for $Re_\lambda > 200$. The same p.d.f. shape is also seen at the late stages of breakdown of a Taylor–Green vortex suggesting the universality of the bell-shaped p.d.f. form in turbulent flows. Additionally, vortex reconnection from different initial configurations is examined. The local topology and geometry of the reconnection bridge is shown to be nearly identical in all cases considered in this work. Overall, topological characterization of the vorticity field provides a useful analytical basis for examining vorticity dynamics in turbulence and other fluid flows.
In this paper, we present results from an experiment using EEG to measure brain activity and explore EEG frequency power associated with gender differences of professional industrial designers while performing two prototypical stages of constrained and open design tasks, problem-solving and design sketching. Results indicate no main effect of gender. However, among other main effects, a consistent main effect of hemisphere for the six frequency bands under analysis was found. In the problem-solving stage, male designers show higher alpha and beta bands in channels of the prefrontal cortices and female designers in the right occipitotemporal cortex and secondary visual cortices. In the design sketching stage, male designers show higher alpha and beta bands in the right prefrontal cortex, and female designers in the right temporal cortex and left prefrontal cortex, where higher theta is also found. Prioritising different cognitive functions seem to play a role in each gender's approach to constrained and open design tasks. Results can be useful to design professionals, students and design educators, and for the development of methodological approaches in design research and education.
Cactus pear is an important species for animal feeding in the regions of dry climate. There is no information on the fertilization with coated urea in the cultivation of cactus pear under rainfed conditions in the savannah region. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the forage potential of Nopalea cochenillifera variety Doce in yellow latosol under rainfed conditions in the Brazilian savannah, comparing the fertilization with urea and coated urea in different levels. A randomized block design was adopted, in a 2 × 4 × 2 factorial scheme, with the factors corresponding to two sources of nitrogen (urea and urea coated with polymers, N+), four levels of nitrogen (0, 60, 120 and 240 kg/ha/year) and two harvests (year I and year II). The plants were evaluated after 1 year of growth, in each year of evaluation, regarding the characteristics of growth, production, chemical and mineral composition and nutritional value. The level of 240 kg/ha provided higher emission of cladodes per plant (17.33 and 18.17), respectively, for N+ and urea. The highest nitrogen use efficiency was found in the level of 60 kg N/ha (142 kg/ha/year). NFC values were 3.5 g/kg dry matter (DM) higher when the cactus pear was fertilized with urea in year I and 5.4 g/kg DM in year II. The use of conventional urea promoted better results of agronomic and nutritional characteristics of the cactus pear, under rainfed regime, when compared to the use of urea coated with polymers.
To design a low radar cross section (RCS) antenna, the major concern is not only to reduce scattering, but also to maintain its radiation parameters, viz. gain, voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), etc. This paper presents a simple configuration of low RCS microstrip patch array with a periodic structure-based superstrate. The ground of the array is designed as reduced ground plane with high impedance surface elements, viz. rectangular patch and Jerusalem cross. The configuration of superstrate consists of multilayered, viz., two-layered and three-layered structures having partially absorbing and reflecting surfaces. In both the proposed configurations, the array gain of 12.5 dB is maintained with reduced structural RCS over the entire in-band frequency range. The reflection coefficient (~ −20 dB) and VSWR (~ 1.1) of the array are maintained. It is shown that the proposed superstrate-based patch array design has significantly reduced in-band RCS (−18 dBsm) at its resonant frequency.
Despite evidence showing that the intake of ultra-processed food has a negative impact on health, diet quality and dietary vitamin E, its impact on vitamin E nutritional status and breast milk remains unknown. This study aimed to assess the influence of the consumption of ultra-processed foods on vitamin E biomarkers of lactating women. A cross-sectional study was performed with 294 lactating women. Food consumption was obtained by 24-h dietary recall, and foods were grouped according to the NOVA classification. Levels of α-tocopherol were analysed by HPLC. Breast milk vitamin E (BMVE) adequacy was based on the quantity of the vitamin in the estimated intake volume. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the tertiles and linear regression to association between ultra-processed food consumption and biomarkers. Ultra-processed foods accounted for 16 % of energy intake and vitamin E intakes by all women were considered low. Serum α-tocopherol was 26·55 (sd 7·98) µmol/l, 5 % (n 11) showed inadequate vitamin E (< 12 µmol/l) and 78 % had an inadequate BMVE content (< 4 mg/780 ml). The regression showed that a higher dietary share of ultra-processed foods was associated with lower concentrations of serum α-tocopherol (β = –0·168, 95 % CI –0·047, 0·010, P = 0·003) and inadequate BMVE content (β = –0·144, 95 % CI = –0·505, 0·063, P = 0·012) (adjustment for income and maternal age). Thus, higher dietary shares of ultra-processed foods had an impact on vitamin E biomarkers, suggesting that inadequate dietary intake practices during lactation may reduce the supply of vitamin E to women and breast milk.
Mobile robotic systems are used in a wide range of applications. Especially in the assistive field, they can enhance the mobility of the elderly and disable people. Modern robotic technologies have been implemented in wheelchairs to give them intelligence. Thus, by equipping wheelchairs with intelligent algorithms, controllers, and sensors, it is possible to share the wheelchair control between the user and the autonomous system. The present research proposes a methodology for intelligent wheelchairs based on head movements and vector fields. In this work, the user indicates where to go, and the system performs obstacle avoidance and planning. The focus is developing an assistive technology for people with quadriplegia that presents partial movements, such as the shoulder and neck musculature. The developed system uses shared control of velocity. It employs a depth camera to recognize obstacles in the environment and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor to recognize the desired movement pattern measuring the user’s head inclination. The proposed methodology computes a repulsive vector field and works to increase maneuverability and safety. Thus, global localization and mapping are unnecessary. The results were evaluated by simulated models and practical tests using a Pioneer-P3DX differential robot to show the system’s applicability.
Maternal nutrition is critical in mammalian development, influencing the epigenetic reprogramming of gametes, embryos, and fetal programming. We evaluated the effects of different levels of sulfur (S) and cobalt (Co) in the maternal diet throughout the pre- and periconceptional periods on the biochemical and reproductive parameters of the donors and the DNA methylome of the progeny in Bos indicus cattle. The low-S/Co group differed from the control with respect to homocysteine, folic acid, B12, insulin growth factor 1, and glucose. The oocyte yield was lower in heifers from the low S/Co group than that in the control heifers. Embryos from the low-S/Co group exhibited 2320 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) across the genome compared with the control embryos. We also characterized candidate DMRs linked to the DNMT1 and DNMT3B genes in the blood and sperm cells of the adult progeny. A DMR located in DNMT1 that was identified in embryos remained differentially methylated in the sperm of the progeny from the low-S/Co group. Therefore, we associated changes in specific compounds in the maternal diet with DNA methylation modifications in the progeny. Our results help to elucidate the impact of maternal nutrition on epigenetic reprogramming in livestock, opening new avenues of research to study the effect of disturbed epigenetic patterns in early life on health and fertility in adulthood. Considering that cattle are physiologically similar to humans with respect to gestational length, our study may serve as a model for studies related to the developmental origin of health and disease in humans.
Evidence suggests that maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) is associated with offspring cardiometabolic risk factors. This study was aimed at assessing the association of maternal prepregnancy BMI with offspring cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescence and adulthood. We also evaluated whether offspring BMI was a mediator in this association. The study included mother–offspring pairs from three Pelotas birth cohorts. Offspring cardiometabolic risk factors were collected in the last follow-up of each cohort [mean age (in years) 30.2, 22.6, 10.9]. Blood pressure was measured using an automatic device, cholesterol by using an enzymatic colorimetric method, and glucose from fingertip blood, using a portable glucose meter. In a pooled analysis of the cohorts, multiple linear regression was used to control for confounding. Mediation analysis was conducted using G-computation formula. In the adjusted model, mean systolic blood pressure of offspring from overweight and obese mothers was on average 1.25 (95% CI: 0.45; 2.05) and 2.13 (95% CI: 0.66; 3.59) mmHg higher than that of offspring from normal-weight mothers; for diastolic blood pressure, the means were 0.80 (95% CI: 0.26; 1.34) and 2.60 (95% CI: 1.62; 3.59) mmHg higher, respectively. Non-HDL cholesterol was positively associated with maternal BMI, whereas blood glucose was not associated. Mediation analyses showed that offspring BMI explained completely the association of maternal prepregnancy BMI with offspring systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and non-HDL cholesterol. Our findings suggest that maternal prepregnancy BMI is positively associated with offspring blood pressure, and blood lipids, and this association is explained by offspring BMI.