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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project of the UPR-MSC and UCC has demonstrated that educational interventions in CTR are very effective in fulfilling the objective of promoting awareness, stimulate interest and increase the knowledge, skills and opportunities, to US, GS and F (participants) in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The training sessions (TS) offered through the Title V initiative have become an engine for the involvement in CTR for participants from higher education institutions island-wide. TS consisted of cycles –level 1 and 2–: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO,I,II) and Mentorship Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR,I,II), ending in the formation of the Clinical and Translational Mentoring Teams (CTMT)s, in which participants, paired by their research interests, were mentored by a well-established CT researchers in their research project, to be developed in the Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Up to date, 4 TS-level 1 and 2 TS-level 2 were offered. Eighty (80) participants completed level 1, distributed: 42 (52.5%) US in RETO, 21 (26.25%) GS and 17 (21.25%) F in MOTOR and 17 participants completed level 2, distributed: 4 (23.52%) US in RETO, 6 (25.29%) GS and 7 (41.17%) F in MOTOR. From which, 15, with 8 CT researchers, formed 5 CTMTs in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: US, GS and F were integrated in the active process throughout educational levels for their development in CTR.
Composites from carbon nanotubes and polymers have been synthesized and studied. The composites were obtained joining carbon nanotubes with polymethyl methacrylate, nylon-6 and polystyrene. The materials were observed through scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the carbon nanotubes dispersion in the polymeric matrices. FTIR and Raman spectroscopies were used to analyze the interactions among functionalized and non-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes and polymers, demonstrating affinity and peculiar spectra behaviors for each composite with different carbon nanotubes loads.
The pestiviruses bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), 2 (BVDV-2), and HoBi-like (HoBiPeV) are endemic among Brazilian cattle, the world's largest commercial bovine herd. In the last two decades (1998–2018) over 300 bovine pestiviruses have been partially or fully sequenced in Brazil, including viruses from different regions, different epidemiological backgrounds, and associated with diverse clinical presentations. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses demonstrated a predominance of BVDV-1 (54.4%), with subgenotypes −1a (33.9% of total) and −1b (16.3%) being more frequent and subgenotypes −1d, −1e, and −1i at very low frequencies. The overall BVDV-2 frequency was 25.7% but it varied largely by region, reaching up to 48% in Southern states. BVDV-2b was the predominant subgenotype (84.8% of BVDV-2), followed by BVDV-2a (8.86%). HoBiPeV accounted for 19.9% (61/307) of the genotyped viruses and were detected at high frequency in cattle from Northeastern states. These findings demonstrate a unique mix of pestivirus species and subgenotypes, unlike that seen in Europe or North America. The design of effective diagnostic tools, vaccines, and control programs for limiting bovine pestivirus infections in Brazil must take into consideration this unique mix of viruses. This article provides a critical review of two decades of genetic identification of pestiviruses in Brazil.
Inclusion of legume in grass pastures optimizes protein values of the forage and promotes improved digestibility. Therefore, we hypothesized that finishing steers on a novel combination of legumes and grass pasture would produce carcasses with acceptable traits when compared to carcasses from steers finished in feedlot systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of finishing steers on three systems including: grazing legume–grass pasture containing oats, ryegrass, white and red clover (PAST), grazing PAST plus supplementation with whole corn grain (14 g/kg BW (SUPP)), and on a feedlot-confined system with concentrate only (28 g/kg BW, consisting of 850 g/kg of whole corn grain and 150 g/kg of protein–mineral–vitamin supplement (GRAIN)) on growth performance of steers, carcass traits and digestive disorders. Eighteen steers were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments and finished for 91 days. Data regarding pasture and growth performance were collected during three different periods (0 to 28, 29 to 56 and 57 to 91 days). Subsequently, steers were harvested to evaluate carcass traits, presence of rumenitis, abomasitis and liver abscesses. The legume–grass pasture provided more than 19% dry matter of protein. In addition, pasture of paddocks where steers were assigned to SUPP and PAST treatments showed similar nutritional quality. When compared to PAST, finishing on SUPP increased total weight gain per hectare, stocking rate, daily and total weight gains. The increase of weight gain was high to GRAIN than SUPP and PAST. Steers finished on GRAIN had high hot carcass weight, fat thickness and marbling score when compared to PAST. However, these attributes did not differ between GRAIN and SUPP. Abomasum lesions were more prevalent in steers finished on GRAIN when compared to PAST. Results of this research showed that it is possible to produce carcasses with desirable market weight and fat thickness by finishing steers on legume–grass pasture containing oats, ryegrass, white and red clover. Moreover, supplementing steers with corn when grazing on legume–grass pasture produced similar carcass traits when compared to beef fed corn only.
By using electrochemical tests, small signal variations were study by digital signal processing techniques. Electrochemical noise and electrochemical polarization curves were very useful to obtained electrochemical behavior of alloys, but the low signal levels of measurements obtained showed that some of the information was not likely to be measured and, therefore, not being able to identify. Graphene oxides (GO) samples were prepared by ball milling procedure adding Lithium. SIGVIEW software was used for Digital Signal studies. Comparing, the signals obtained by electrochemical techniques and the research by computational tools; it was possible to find out a behavior path of samples. Display devices made by graphene were observed to provide new information about the structure of samples and how nanotechnology area can be improved. The current investigation aimed at maintaining electrochemical stability, since different deformations, as twisting and bending are quite relevant in portable electronics devices.
Rosin resin is constituted by rosin acids, in particular, abietic acid, which is an inexpensive substance. This paper concerns the study of the molecular interactions between a bifunctional monomer of abietic acid with isocyanate to form polyurethane. Polyurethane is a varnish that can be applied to any timber surface protecting it from chemical and environmental factors. Furthermore, the polar groups (OH´s) of the diol have a direction along the molecular axis thus, increasing their intermolecular interactions with the isocyanate groups. The varnish named as (PAR), was synthesized in the laboratory and applied to a timber surface whereby its functionality was evaluated. Morphological and spectroscopic studies were carried out on the diol obtained and the polyurethane. Likewise, we behaved several of physical and chemical analyses of vanish. The comparative SEM showed a homogeneous phase on the PAR surface and FTIR between the diphenylmethane, 4-4, diisocyanate (MDI) and the varnish from hydroxylated rosin resin (HAA) showed that the reaction was carried out in its entirety, exhausting the limiting reagent (MDI). The obtained varnish which was labelled as PAR has very suitable characteristics for indoor use. It has a transparent and bright appearance, a solids percentage of 44-45%, a drying time for application between layers and layers of 15-20 minutes.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus linked to mucosal and cutaneous carcinogenesis. More than 200 different HPV types exist. We carried out a transversal study to investigate the prevalence of HPV types in two regions of Mexico. A total of 724 genital and non-genital samples from women (F) and men (M) were studied; 241 (33%) from North-Eastern (NE) and 483 (66%) from South-Central (SC) Mexico. The overall prevalence was 87%. In genital lesions from females, the NE group showed a prevalence of HPV types 16 (37%), 6 (13%), 59 (6%), 11, 18 and 66 (5.4% each); and the SC group showed types 6 (17%), 16 (15%), 11 (14.5%), 18 (12%) and 53 (6%). In the genital lesions from males, NE group showed types 16 (38%), 6 (21%), 11 (13%) and 59 plus 31 (7.5%) and the SC group showed types 6 (25%), 11 (22%), 18 (17%) and 16 (11.5%). When the two regions were compared, a higher prevalence of low-risk HPV 6 and 11 was found in the SC region and of high-risk HPV 59, 31 and 66 (the latter can also be present in benign lesions) in the NE region. Our findings complement efforts to understand HPV demographics as a prerequisite to guide and assess the impact of preventive interventions.
The main goal of this work consisted in cloning, purifying and characterizing a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) from promastigotes of Leishmania major. The gene was cloned and amplified by PCR using specific oligonucleotides and the recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. The peak with maximal protein concentration was analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and revealed a protein of 44·9 kDa with PP2C activity. This activity was dependent on divalent cations (Mg+2 and Mn+2) and was optimal at pH of 8·5, using phosphothreonine as the substrate. Sanguinarine inhibited the activity of the recombinant LmPP2C, while protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors had no effect. The recombinant LmPP2C was used to generate polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies recognized a protein of 44·9 kDa in different Leishmania species; the LmPP2C was localized in the flagellar pocket and the flagellum of promastigotes.
This paper proposes the use of a generalized finite difference method for the numerical simulation of free surface single phase flows during mould filling process which are common in some industrial processes particularly in the area of metal casting. A novel and efficient idea for the computation of the normal vectors for free surface flows is introduced and presented for the first time. The incompressible Navier–Stokes equations are numerically solved by the well-known Chorin's projection method. After we showed the main ideas behind the meshless approach, some numerical results in two and three dimensions are presented corresponding to mould filling process simulation.