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Impulsivity and cognitive distortions are hallmarks of gambling disorder (GD) but it remains unclear how they contribute to clinical phenotypes. This study aimed to (1) compare impulsive traits and gambling-related distortions in strategic versus non-strategic gamblers and online versus offline gamblers; (2) examine the longitudinal association between impulsivity/cognitive distortions and treatment retention and relapse.
Participants seeking treatment for GD (n = 245) were assessed for gambling modality (clinical interview), impulsive traits (Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance and Sensation Seeking [UPPS] scale) and cognitive distortions (Gambling Related Cognitions Scale) at treatment onset, and for retention and relapse (as indicated by the clinical team) at the end of treatment. Treatment consisted of 12-week standardized cognitive behavioral therapy, conducted in a public specialized clinic within a general public hospital.
Strategic gamblers had higher lack of perseverance and gambling-related expectancies and illusion of control than non-strategic gamblers, and online gamblers had generally higher distortions but similar impulsivity to offline gamblers. Lack of perseverance predicted treatment dropout, whereas negative urgency and distortions of inability to stop gambling and interpretative bias predicted number of relapses during treatment.
Individuals with online and strategic GD phenotypes have heightened gambling related biases associated with premature treatment cessation and relapse. Findings suggest that these GD phenotypes may need tailored treatment approaches to reduce specific distortions and impulsive facets.
This is a retrospective cohort study based on data from five nursing homes which aims to appraise how physical and cognitive characteristics of nursing home residents were associated with the use of restraints, and to provide information on their prevalence in Spain. The goal was to assess, in a visual way, the possible interactions between the nursing homes residents’ characteristics and their association with the use of restraints. Motivation, risk factors, characteristics of the residents analysed by validated rating systems that assess mobility, level of dependence, cognitive condition and nutritional status, and their association with the use of restraints, were described by means of linear and non-linear multivariate approaches in the form of self-organised maps. Findings showed that the prevalence of restraints was high when compared to other developed countries. The visual analysis reinforced the knowledge that a greater impairment was associated with the use of restraints and vice versa. However, the residents’ characteristics were not always associated with the use of restraints. Subjective factors seem to play a relevant role in decision-making, so it is important to assess risk factors continuously and determine the actual need for the use of restraints from an individual perspective by basing the criteria on specific objectives, and on consistent, reproducible and reliable methods. Initiatives to minimise these subjective factors should be promoted. Likewise, a clear definition of physical restraints should be offered at each centre. In addition, effective legislation that clearly states the need, alternatives and motivation for the use of restraints is needed.
Dimethylformamide (DMF) has been tested as corrosion inhibitor in a metallic material like API 5LX70 in a corrosive solution of 3% of NaCl and using electrochemical technique as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed that 20 ppm is the best concentration to protect the metallic surface of API 5L X70 with η∼ 94%. Hydrodynamic conditions (100 and 1000 rpm) demonstrated that the DMF at different concentration afforded moderate protection against corrosion with inhibition efficiency ∼70%. Finally, the adsorption of this compound follows the Langmuir isotherm with a chemisorption-physisorption process.
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by alterations in the intellectual, social, communication, and behavioral capabilities of an individual, and is rarely detected in children before 24 months of age. Early diagnosis and intervention may be more effective at a younger age. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) of 6-month old infants may be able to identify brain connection patterns related to at least one of the characteristics of autism, which normally appear at 24 months of age, by using a mathematical model to analyze the neuroimaging data.
Clinical studies published up to December 2018 that used fcMRI to detect autism in infants were reviewed. The literature databases searched included PubMed, Web of Science, the Trip Database, DynaMed, the Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Early assessments of fcMRI analysis were identified through the Early Awareness and Alert System of the Agencia de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias.
Only one prospective study of 59 infants at 6-months of age was retrieved. A fcMRI analysis was performed to identify 2,635 pairs of functional connections from 230 brain regions. The infants were subsequently assessed for autism at 24 months of age using gold standard tests. The functional connections correlated with at least one of the behaviors related to autism evaluated at 24 months of age. Eleven infants (19%) were diagnosed with autism at 24 months. Compared with the gold standard test results, the predictive model achieved the following: sensitivity 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52 - 0.95); specificity 1.00 (95% CI: 0.93–1.00); positive predictive value 1.00 (95% CI: 0.70–1.00); negative predictive value 0.96 (95% CI: 0.87–0.99); and negative likelihood ratio 0.18 (95% CI: 0.05–0.64). Adverse effects were not reported in the study.
The fcMRI analysis could help in early detection of autism and the development of preventive interventions. However, the evidence is sparse and more well-designed studies are needed.
Minimally invasive capsulorhexis is an incision in the anterior capsule in the peripheral zone for cataract extraction. It allows reduction of the size of the lesion, ensuring a better transparency of the visual axis, preserving the capsule almost intact and a layer of lenticular epithelial cells. The procedure could have a potential regenerative effect of the lens in a natural way. The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive capsulorhexis to promote lens regeneration in children's cataracts.
This technology was identified by the early Awareness and Alert System, “SINTESIS-new technologies” of Agencia de Evaluación de Tecnologías Sanitarias (AETS) Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII). An early assessment was conducted. The searched databases were: PubMed, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD), and Cochrane Library. Clinical studies using the procedure published in any language until 29 September 2017 were reviewed.
An open-label, randomized trial in pediatric cataract patients (age: 0–2 years) was retrieved. Twelve patients underwent minimally invasive capsulorhexis, while twenty-five patients received the standard treatment. Regarding efficacy, a transparent regenerated biconvex lens was found in 100 percent of eyes three months after surgery, but wasn't found in the control group. 100 percent of capsular openings healed within one month after surgery in the experimental group, but not in the control group. Both groups increased their visual acuity parameters without significant differences. Regarding safety, children receiving the standard technique had a higher incidence of corneal edema (eight percent in the intervention vs thirty percent in the control group), anterior chamber inflammation (seventeen percent vs seventy-four percent), additional laser capsulotomy (zero percent vs eighty-four percent) and increased visual axis opacification (four percent vs eighty-four percent).
Minimally invasive capsulorhexis in children's cataracts seems to be a promising new procedure. Preliminary efficacy results were good and safety profile was better than standard treatment. However, it would be necessary to continue further studies to confirm these results.
Ovarian cancer (OC) has the highest mortality rate of all gynecologic malignancies. Completeness of cytoreductive surgery is a key prognostic factor for survival. To differentiate clearly between malignant and healthy tissue is essential for achieving complete cytoreduction. Using current approaches, this differentiation is difficult and can lead to incomplete tumour removal. OTL38 is a folate analogue conjugated to a near-infrared fluorescent dye which has high specificity and affinity for folate receptor alpha (FRα) expressed in OC. OTL38 together with a specific imaging system can help the surgeon to visualize diseased tissue. The objective of this work is to know the effectiveness and safety of OTL38 in of OC surgery.
Early assessment of OTL38 identified through the early-awareness and alert-system, “SINTESIS-new technologies”, of AETS-ISCIII. The searched databases were: PubMed, WOS, Tripdatabase, Dynamed, Cochrane Library and ICTRP. Clinical studies using the OTL38 in cytoreductive surgery in OC published until September 2017 were reviewed.
Only one publication, supported by industry, was retrieved. The study assesses the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of OLT38 in 30 healthy people randomized into 4 groups with different doses and a control group. The study also analyses the percentage of cytoreduction in 12 OC patients. Infusion of 0.025, 0.05, and 0.1 mg/kg OTL38 doses was associated with mild adverse events which did not require intervention. The 0.2 mg/kg dose was associated to adverse events of moderate severity. In OC patients, 0.0125 mg/kg dose was considered the optimal dose with mild adverse events. OTL38 accumulated in FRα-positive tumours and metastases allowed the surgeon to resect an additional 29 percent of malignant lesions which were not detected using standard inspection and palpation methods.
The OTL38 is an emergent health technology, which could help in cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer. However, the evidence is scarce and it would be necessary to continue further studies.
The hypoglossal nerve stimulation (HNS) produces a tongue protrusion for the treatment of mod-severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It is one of the emerging health technologies prioritized to assess its possible inclusion on the Spanish National Health System. The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this system in the treatment of OSA.
An early assessment (horizon scanning) was performed. The searched databases were: PubMed, WOS, Tripdatabase, Dynamed, Cochrane Library and ICTRP. Clinical studies of OSA patients treated with HNS published until 01 March 2017 were reviewed. Outcomes considered were: AHI (Apnea Hypopnea Index) ODI (Oxygen Desaturation Index) ESS (Epworth sleepiness scale) and AE (adverse events).
Four devices of HNS were founded: Inspire™, HGNS®, Aura6000™, and Nixoah™. We found two randomized controlled trials (RCT). The Inspire™ RCT showed significant results on mean differences on AHI (−16.9, 95% CI −24.7 to −9.0); ODI (−15.1, 95% CI −22.7 to −7.5) and ESS (−4.5, 95% CI −7.5 to −1.4) in 46 patients, after one week of follow-up. The HGNS® RCT showed non-significant differences on AHI (device active 22.1 ± 5.2 vs control 29.7 ± 6.2), ODI (11.4 ± 4.1 vs 19.5 ± 5.2) and ESS (9.8 ± 1.0 vs 14.1 ± 2.5) in 21 patients at 6 months. A systematic review that included 6 cases series (3 with HGNS®, 2 with Inspire™ and 1 with Aura6000™) without device subgroup analysis and 7 cohorts studies (6 with Inspire™ and one with Aura6000™) showed significant differences comparing AHI, ODI and ESS results to before treatment values. Major AE reported from the studies varied from 4 to 4.5%. No study with Nixoah™ was found.
Inspire™ seems to be an effective option for OSA patients although the evidence is scarce and of low quality for all HNS devices. It would be necessary further well-designed studies.
Here we present a new site in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain): Galería de las Estatuas (GE), which provides new information about Mousterian occupations in the Iberian Plateau. The GE was an ancient entrance to the cave system, which is currently closed and sealed by a stalagmitic crust, below which a detritic sedimentary sequence of more than 2 m is found. This has been divided into five litostratigraphic units with a rich assemblage of faunal and lithic remains of clear Mousterian affinity. Radiocarbon dates provide minimum ages and suggest occupations older than 45 14C ka BP. The palynological analysis detected a landscape change to increased tree coverage, which suggests that the sequence recorded a warming episode. The macromammal assemblage is composed of both ungulates (mainly red deer and equids) and carnivores. Taphonomic analysis reveals both anthropic, and to a lesser extent, carnivore activities. The GE was occupied by Neanderthals and also sporadically by carnivores. This new site broadens the information available regarding different human occupations at the Sierra de Atapuerca, which emphasizes the importance of this site-complex for understanding human evolution in Western Europe.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Plasmapheresis is a procedure consisting of removing the plasma, or specific elements which are considered to be involved in pathological processes. Plasmapheresis could reduce the A beta peptides load in the brain. The objective is to study the safety and efficacy of plasmapheresis for AD.
Systematic review, with all studies published before April 2016 reviewed. Selected studies included patients with AD treated with plasmapheresis. GRADE was used to assess quality. Efficacy outcomes include: (i) Cognitive, functional and behavior status, through Mini Mental State Examination, and Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive test; (ii) Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid A beta levels; (iii) Brain-imaging and functional neuroimaging studies. Safety outcomes included side effects related to the treatment.
Two papers reporting results from three studies were selected: (i) pilot study (n = 10), (ii) its extended study (12 months more of follow-up) (n = 7), and (iii) clinical trial (n = 39). The quality of evidence was very low. About efficacy, the studies didn't report quantitative results and were inconclusive. The pilot study and its extended study reported (1): a tendency towards stabilization in cognitive status; the plasma levels of A beta peptides didn't show a clear pattern; and the brain-imaging assessment suggested a progressive volume increase in the hippocampus. The clinical trial reported in the experimental group vs control (2): a better score for the cognitive status; an increase of plasma A beta peptides; and did not find significant differences between groups for cerebrospinal fluid A beta peptides. The brain-imaging assessment showed a progressive loss of hippocampus volume in both groups. Regarding safety, the studies didn't report quantitative data. We didn't find economic evaluation studies.
The included studies had very high risk of bias and very low quality. We found no evidence on efficacy and safety of plasmapheresis treating AD. Plasmapheresis isn't a priority line in research of AD treatment.
Basic numerical processing has been regularly assessed using numerical nonsymbolic and symbolic comparison tasks. It has been assumed that these tasks index similar underlying processes. However, the evidence concerning the reliability and convergent validity across different versions of these tasks is inconclusive. We explored the reliability and convergent validity between two numerical comparison tasks (nonsymbolic vs. symbolic) in school-aged children. The relations between performance in both tasks and mental arithmetic were described and a developmental trajectories’ analysis was also conducted. The influence of verbal and visuospatial working memory processes and age was controlled for in the analyses. Results show significant reliability (p < .001) between Block 1 and 2 for nonsymbolic task (global adjusted RT (adjRT): r = .78, global efficiency measures (EMs): r = .74) and, for symbolic task (adjRT: r = .86, EMs: r = .86). Also, significant convergent validity between tasks (p < .001) for both adjRT (r = .71) and EMs (r = .70) were found after controlling for working memory and age. Finally, it was found the relationship between nonsymbolic and symbolic efficiencies varies across the sample’s age range. Overall, these findings suggest both tasks index the same underlying cognitive architecture and are appropriate to explore the Approximate Number System (ANS) characteristics. The evidence supports the central role of ANS in arithmetic efficiency and suggests there are differences across the age range assessed, concerning the extent to which efficiency in nonsymbolic and symbolic tasks reflects ANS acuity.
Conventional gastric balloons for weight loss require endoscopy for placement and removal. The ELIPSETM is a new gastric balloon designed for weight loss that is swallowed and does not require endoscopy or anesthesia. The device is designed to remain in the stomach and be expelled after a predetermined time of 4 months. The objective of this work is to assess the efficacy and safety of the ELIPSETM procedureless gastric balloon for weight loss.
The ELIPSETM procedureless gastric balloon was identified by the early Awareness and Alert System, “SINTESIS-new technologies,” of The Instituto De Salud Carlos III (AETS-ISCIII). An early assessment of the technology was conducted. The searched databases were: MEDLINE (PubMed), Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, and the Cochrane Library. Clinical studies using the device published in any language until 10 January 2017 were reviewed.
A prospective, non-randomized, open label study supported by industry was retrieved. Thirty-four patients were enrolled. Six patients treated with an experimental device were excluded. Twenty-eight patients successfully swallowed the device. No endoscopy or anesthesia was required. All devices were excreted safely. Of the twenty-five patients finally studied, the mean percent total body weight loss was 10 percent (95 percent Confidence Interval, CI 7.3–12.7) and the mean waist circumference was reduced by 8.4cm (95 percent CI 5.7-11.8) at 4 months. Improvements were also seen in metabolic parameters (HbA1c, Low density lipoprotein, triglycerides and blood pressure). All aspects of quality of life measured by the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life (IWQoL) questionnaire demonstrated significant improvements. About safety, there were no serious adverse events or serious adverse device effects, however 64 percent of patients had vomiting, 54 percent experienced nausea, 25 percent had abdominal pain and 2 patients were excluded because of symptoms.
The ELIPSETM gastric balloon for weight loss seems to be an effective therapy with an acceptable safety profile. However it would be necessary to continue further studies to confirm these results, including comparative studies with current treatments.
Meals are an important source of food intake, contributing to body weight and health status. Previous studies have examined the relationship between isolated mealtime behaviours and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to examine the influence over time of ten interrelated mealtime habits on the risk of developing the MetS and insulin resistance (IR) among Mexican adults. We conducted a prospective cohort study with a sample of 956 health workers. The Mealtime Habits Quality (MHQ) scale is based on four mealtime situations (availability of time to eat, distractions while eating, environmental and social context of eating, and familiar or cultural eating habits), which were used to assess the participants’ MHQ at the baseline (2004–2006) and follow-up (2010–2012) evaluations. The MetS was assessed using criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). IR was defined using the homoeostasis model assessment. Crude and adjusted relative risks were calculated to estimate the relationship between MHQ and the risk of developing the MetS or IR. Participants classified in the lower MHQ category had an 8·8 (95 % CI 3·1, 25) and 11·1 (95 % CI 3·4, 36·1) times greater risk of developing the MetS (using the NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria, respectively), and an 11·2 times (95 % CI 3·9, 31·5) greater likelihood of developing IR, compared with those in the higher MHQ group. This prospective study reveals that individuals who engaged in more undesirable than recommended mealtime behaviours had a >10-fold risk of developing the MetS or IR.
A number of experiments have shown that, in skilled adult readers, a small increase in interletter spacing speeds up the process of visual word recognition relative to the default settings (i.e., judge faster than judge). The goal of the present experiment was to examine whether this effect can be generalized to a more ecological scenario: text reading. Each participant read two stories (367 words each) taken from a standardized reading test. The stories were presented with the standard interletter spacing or with a small increase in interletter spacing (+1.2 points to default) in a within-subject design. An eyetracker was used to register the participants’ eye movements. Comprehension scores were also examined. Results showed that, on average, fixation durations were shorter while reading the text with extra spacing than while reading the text with the default settings (237 vs. 245 ms, respectively; η2 =. 41, p = .01). However, the number of fixations (while nonsignificant) was slightly higher in the text with extra spacing than in the text with the default spacing, and cancelled out the effect of interletter spacing in total reading times (F < 1). Comprehension scores were similar in the two spacing conditions (F < 1). Thus, at least for skilled adult readers, interletter spacing does not seem to play a consistently facilitative role during text reading.
The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale is the most widely used instrument to assess self-esteem. In light of the absence of adaptations in Colombia, this study seeks to validate and adapt this scale in the Colombian population, and perform factorial equivalence with the Spanish version. A total of 1,139 seniors (633 Colombians and 506 Spaniards) were evaluated; the individuals answered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and sexual self-esteem scale. The average score of the items was similar to the questionnaire’s theoretical average, and standard deviations were close to one. The psychometric properties of the items are generally adequate with alphas of .83 and .86 and significant (CI = .95) and correlations with the sexual self-esteem scale ranging from .31 and .41. Factorial equivalence was confirmed by means of a structural equation model (CFI = .912 and RMSEA = .079), thus showing a strong level of invariance.
People with anxiety disorders demand psychological attention most often. Therefore, it seems important to identify both the characteristics of the patients who demand help and the clinical variables related to that demand and its treatment. A cohort of 292 patients who requested help at a university clinical facility was studied. The typical profile of the patient was: being female, young, unmarried, with some college education, and having previously received treatment, especially pharmacological one. The three most frequent diagnoses of anxiety, which include 50% of the cases, were: Anxiety Disorder not otherwise specified, Social Phobia, and Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia. Regarding the characteristics of the intervention, the average duration of the assessment was 3.5 sessions (SD = 1.2), and the duration of the treatment was 14 sessions (SD = 11.2). The percentage of discharges was 70.2%. The average cost of treatment was around €840. The results are discussed, underlining the value of empirically supported treatments for anxiety disorders.