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The Olrog’s Gull Larus atlanticus is an endemic and threatened species of the south-western Atlantic. Little is known about its movements during the non-breeding period. The objective of this study was to analyse the migration of the species by tracking adults from Bahía San Blas (Buenos Aires province, Argentina) with geolocators and using information of sightings of ringed gulls. Differences between males and females were evaluated using tracking data and ringed data were used to determine age differences. A single core area (kernel 50%) from 21 tracked birds was identified. This area included the study colony and also other breeding colonies located up to 300 km to the north. The range area (kernel 95%) included coastal areas up to 1,000 km from the colony. All sightings of ringed gulls (n = 41) occurred north of the breeding colony, however 12 adult individuals were sighted during the winter in its breeding grounds. Our results suggest the occurrence of partial migration behavior in Olrog’s Gull. The migration pattern reported here implies than during the non-breeding season, breeding and wintering areas away from the nesting grounds should be considered as one system in the design of conservation strategies for this regionally threatened gull.
Due to our fear of extinction or annihilation, there is a great deal of preoccupation with the subject of death, through which we attempt to learn to feel more at ease with the concept, and allowing us to cope with our fear of death.
The study assumptions seek to emphasize the correlations between:
A. Demographic characteristics and anxiety of death and dying;
B. Inner - personality characteristics and death and dying anxiety variable; and
C. Intrapersonal characteristics and death and dying anxiety.
The connections between all of those variables were examined before and after the second Lebanon war. The study sample comprised 217 participants as the "before" group and, 151 participants as the "after" group. The study's data was collected via face-to-face interviews. All of the "after" group participant were at the "before" group.
Findings indicate that the war increased the death and dying anxieties especially among those elderly women and those who live within nursing homes. In general elderly people with a high level of self-evaluation and sense of mastery will experience lower levels of death and dying anxieties.
In spite of age, experience and knowledge, war has a powerful influence on elderly people. The phenomena in which innocent citizens became more and more involved in politics violence must be in front of policy makers.
ECT remains as one of the most effective and secure psychiatric treatments for a wide variety of disorders, like depression, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Although not fully known, several theories hypothesize about its mechanism of action. To be effective, it has to induce a generalized convulsion of at least 15 seconds.
To analyze and compare convulsion times regarding diagnosis and treatment phase (acute, continuation or maintenance) to discern whether these factors influence convulsion time.
1675 ECT sessions were performed on 117 patients during a year at a universitary hospital. Convulsion times were analyzed comparing them according to main diagnosis (bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder), as well as according to treatment phase (acute, continuation, maintenance).
Schizophrenia mean convulsion time was 40,77 seconds (CI95% 39,25-42.28), for schizoaffective disorder it was 34,59 seconds (CI95% 32,74-36,44), for bipolar disorder 35,13 seconds (CI95% 33,83-36,43) and for major depressive disorder 34,90 seconds (CI95% 32,72- 37,07), with a statistical significance between groups of p < 0.001.
According to treatment phase, mean convulsion time in the acute phase was 34,94 seconds (CI95% 33,81-36,19), in the continuation phase it was 39,61 seconds (ICI95% 37,28-42,29), and in the maintenance phase it was 39,00 seconds (CI95% 37,92-40,18), with a statistical significance between groups of p < 0.001.
Although there exist statistically significant differences between groups according to diagnosis and treatment phase, they are not clinically relevant, thus concluding that neither diagnosis nor treatment phase seem to influence convulsion time to a relevant degree.
SPECT DaTSCAN is used in clinical practice for differential diagnosis between Parkinson disease and other movement disorders, dementias and drug induced parkinsonism (Park 2012, Scherfler 2007). Nevertheless, its rational indication in patients with psychiatric comorbidity has not been clearly identified.
To assess the rationale for the indication of SPECT DaTSCAN in psychiatric population, explore the therapeutic consequences and clinical outcomes.
A prospective case series of DaTSCAN applications requested from the department of psychiatry of a general hospital (2008–2012). Reason of request, sociodemographic and clinical data, side effects (UKU Rating Scale), diagnostic (DSM-IV-R) and outcome after one-year follow-up were recorded.
18 cases were included (13 hospitalized, 55.5% women, 65±13 years old). Baseline UKU showed: 89.5% bradikinesia, 68% rigidity and 31.5% tremor. The indications for DaTSCAN were: 1) Atypical extrapiramidal syndrome (AES; 55.5%) and 2) Parkinsonism presumably induced by drugs (PPID; 44,4%).
AES group (N=10): 80% of patients had an affective disorder and 20% a psychotic disorder; DaTSCAN identified three cases of Parkinson disease (30%), two non-parkinson dementia (20%) and one Huntington disease (10%).
PPID group (N=8): 50% of patients had an affective disorder and 50% a psychotic disorder; DaTSCAN identified one case of Parkinson disease (12.5%) and five of drug-induced parkinsonism (62,5%).
After one year follow-up, AES group showed a worse outcome and an important functional decline, while most of patients of PPID group experienced complete remission
The results of this study enable to establish the profile of psychiatric patients that would beneficiate most from DaTSCAN.
Long-acting injectable antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia improve treatment adherence, and this may lead to decreased rates of hospital admission, better rates of clinical remission and better psychosocial adjustment.
To compare clinical remission rates, number of hospital readmissions and personal and social functioning after two years between patients with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS;≤ 2 years), either in treatment with long-acting injectable risperidone (LAIR) or oral antipsychotics (OA).
This is a case-control study comparing patients with EOS who initiated LAIR between 2004–2008 (n = 26 cases) with a control group with EOS matched for age and sex (n = 26 controls) treated with OA. The PANSS was administered at baseline; after two years the PANSS, the Personal and Social Functioning Scale (PSP) and the Andreasen remission criteria were administered.
The PANSS score comparison at baseline showed no significant differences between LAIR and OA groups (79.9 vs. 88.5, respectively; CI 95%: −21.6, 4.3; p = 0.185). There were statistical significant differences after two years of treatment in the PANSS scores (47.7 vs. 66.2, respectively; CI 95%: −27.2, −9.8; p < 0.001), the PSP scores (72.4 vs. 59.7, respectively; CI 95%: 4.9, 20.7; p = 0.002) and the clinical remission rates (65.4% vs. 38.5, respectively; p = 0.05). Although no statistically significant, there were differences between hospital readmission rates (19,5% vs. 42.3%, respectively).
Despite case-control studies limitations, data suggest that treatment with LAIR instead of OA in EOS might improve clinical, remission and social functioning rates. This improved effectiveness might be due to a greater treatment adherence achieved with LAIR.
Species of Anisakis typically infect the stomach of cetaceans worldwide, often causing ulcerative lesions that may compromise the host's health. These nematodes also cause anisakiasis or allergic reactions in humans. To assess the risks of this emerging zoonosis, data on long-term changes in Anisakis infections in cetaceans are necessary. Here, we compare the prevalence and severity of ulcerative lesions caused by Anisakis spp. in five cetacean species stranded along the north-west Spanish coast in 2017–2018 with published data from 1991–1996. Open ulcers were found in 32/43 short-beaked common dolphins, Delphinus delphis; 3/5 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba; 1/7 bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus; and 1/3 harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena meridionalis; a single individual of long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas, was found uninfected. In common dolphins, the mean abundance of open ulcers per host was 1.1 (95% confidence interval: 0.8–1.3), with a maximum diameter (mean ± standard deviation) of 25.4 ± 16.9 mm. Stomachs with scars or extensive fibrosis putatively associated with Anisakis were detected in 14 and five animals, respectively. A molecular analysis based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase II gene using 18 worms from three cetacean species revealed single or mixed infections of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii. Compared with the period 1991–1996, we found a strong increase of prevalence, abundance and extension of ulcerative lesions in most cetacean species. Anisakis populations could have increased in the study area over the last decades, although we cannot rule out that a higher environmental stress has also boosted the pathological effects of these parasites.
This pilot randomised controlled study evaluated the effects of a nutrient-supported intermittent energy restriction nutrition programme to prevent weight gain in healthy overweight adults during the 6-week winter holiday period between Thanksgiving and New Year. For 52 d, twenty-two overweight adults (mean age 41·0 years, BMI 27·3 kg/m2) were assigned to either the nutrition programme (n 10; two fasting days of 730 kcal/d (3050 kJ/d) of balanced shake and dietary supplements to support weight management efforts, followed by 5 d of habitual diet) or a control group (n 12; habitual diet). A significant weight loss from baseline (pre-holiday 10 d before Thanksgiving) to day 52 (post-holiday 3 January) was observed in the nutrition programme (75·0 (sd 9·8) v. 76·3 (sd 9·8) kg; P < 0·05). Body weight did not significantly change in the control group and there was no between-group difference. Increases from baseline in fasting insulin (42·9 %; P = 0·0256), updated homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA2) (43 %; P = 0·025), LDL-cholesterol (8·4 %; P = 0·0426) and total cholesterol (7·1 %; P = 0·0154) levels were also reported in the control group. In the nutrition programme group, baseline HDL-cholesterol and TAG levels measured after two fasting days increased (13 %; P = 0·0245) and decreased (22·8 %; P = 0·0416), respectively. There was no significant change in HOMA2. Between-group differences in changes in insulin levels (P = 0·0227), total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (P = 0·0419) and HOMA2 (P = 0·0210) were significant. Overall compliance rate was 98 % and no severe adverse events were reported. These preliminary findings suggest that this intermittent energy restriction intervention might support weight management efforts and help promote metabolic health during the winter holiday season.
Secondary carbonate deposits (similar to speleothems) in urban undergrounds, have been recently highlighted as powerful archives for reconstruction of the historical anthropogenic imprint on the environment. The precise chronology of these secondary carbonate deposits is a key issue for the accurate time reconstruction of environmental conditions. We present three 14C data sets for urban speleothem-like deposits that developed in contrasted man made environments. The first one was sampled in an underground technical gallery of the Palace of Versailles (France), and the other two in a manhole (Saint-Martin spring) of a historical underground aqueduct in Paris (France). The comparison of these records with the bomb peak and relative chronology (laminae counting) allowed us to identify: i) fast carbon transfer from the atmosphere to the urban underground; ii) a high proportion of dead carbon and a high damping effect in relation to possible old carbon stored within urban soils and/or the influence of local fossil carbon burning. This study also shows that the lamination of these deposits is bi-annual in these highly urbanized sites.
Ecoevolutionary processes affecting hosts, vectors and pathogens are important drivers of zoonotic disease emergence. In this study, we focused on nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) whose natural reservoir is the bank vole, Myodes glareolus. We questioned the possibility of NE emergence in a French region that is considered to be NE-free but that is adjacent to a NE-endemic region. We first confirmed the epidemiology of these two regions and we demonstrated the absence of spatial barriers that could have limited dispersal, and consequently, the spread of PUUV into the NE-free region. We next tested whether regional immunoheterogeneity could impact PUUV chances to circulate and persist in the NE-free region. We showed that bank voles from the NE-free region were sensitive to experimental PUUV infection. We observed high levels of immunoheterogeneity between individuals and also between regions. Antiviral gene expression (Tnf and Mx2) reached higher levels in bank voles from the NE-free region. During experimental infections, anti-PUUV antibody production was higher in bank voles from the NE-endemic region. These results indicated a lower susceptibility to PUUV for bank voles from this NE-free region, which might limit PUUV persistence and therefore, the risk of NE.
We report on the long term X-ray monitoring with Swift, RXTE, Suzaku, Chandra, and XMM-Newton of the outburst of the newly discovered magnetar Swift J1822.3–1606 (SGR 1822-1606), from the first observations soon after the detection of the short X-ray bursts which led to its discovery (July 2011), through the first stages of its outburst decay (April 2012). Our X-ray timing analysis finds the source rotating with a period of P = 8.43772016(2) s and a period derivative Ṗ = 8.3(2) × 10−14 ss−1, which entails an inferred dipolar surface magnetic field of B ≃ 2.7 × 1013 G at the equator. This measurement makes Swift J1822.3–1606 the second lowest magnetic field magnetar (after SGR 0418+5729; Rea et al. 2010). Following the flux and spectral evolution from the beginning of the outburst, we find that the flux decreased by about an order of magnitude, with a subtle softening of the spectrum, both typical of the outburst decay of magnetars. By modeling the secular thermal evolution of Swift J1822.3–1606, we find that the observed timing properties of the source, as well as its quiescent X-ray luminosity, can be reproduced if it was born with a poloidal and crustal toroidal fields of Bp ~ 1.5 × 1014 G and Btor ~ 7 × 1014 G, respectively, and if its current age is ~550 kyr (Rea et al. 2012).
Amiodarone can induce severe hyperthyroidism that justifies its withdrawal and the introduction of antithyroid drugs. Continuing amiodarone use, failure to control hyperthyroidism and poor clinical progress may require thyroidectomy. This study aimed to evaluate patients’ post-operative development and mid-term outcome after thyroidectomy for amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis.
Prospective case series.
Tertiary care centre.
Subjects and methods:
We prospectively collected cases of amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis requiring thyroidectomy due to failure of antithyroid treatment, despite amiodarone discontinuation. Post-thyroidectomy complications were compared immediately, 30 days and one year post-operatively, and also for scheduled versus emergency surgery cases.
Of 11 total cases, nine scheduled thyroidectomy cases had no morbidity after elective surgery. Two cases required emergency surgery for multiple organ failure and cardiac problems. Immediate post-operative complications (mostly haemodynamic) occurred in both cases (emergency vs routine surgery, p = 0.018).
In such cases, pre-operative medical treatment is vital to limit peri- and post-operative complications, but surgery should not be delayed if the haemodynamic status deteriorates. Surgery, with careful anaesthesia, is the cornerstone of the treatment.
The development of a new passive wireless pressure sensor, based on an electromagnetic transduction approach, is reported. The sensing element is a flexible high resistivity silicon membrane located above a coplanar quarter-wavelength resonator. The comprehensive coverage of the physical bases is beyond the scope of this paper. For the remote extraction of the applied pressure value, the passive pressure sensor is connected to a broadband horn antenna via a coaxial delay line. When interrogated by a frequency modulated continuous wave radar, the level of the backscattered signal changes versus the pressure applied to the proof body. Through this interrogation principle, the sensor provides load impedance that is reflected back to the radar reader: the measured dynamic is about 0.8 dBm/bar. This completely passive and wireless pressure telemetry micro-sensor has been designed, fabricated and characterized, thereby eliminating the need for contact, signal processing circuits, and power supplies needed by conventional active sensors.
The paper reviews the basics of SiC bulk growth by the physical vapor transport (PVT) method and discuss current and possible future concepts to improve crystalline quality. In-situ process visualization using x-rays, numerical modeling and advanced doping techniques will be briefly presented which support growth process optimization. The “pure” PVT technique will be compared with related developments like the so called Modified-PVT, Continuous-Feeding-PVT, High-Temperature-CVD and Halide-CVD concepts. Special emphasis will be put on dislocation generation and annihilation and concepts to reduce dislocation density during SiC bulk crystal growth. The dislocation study is based on a statistical approach. Rather than following the evolu-tion of a single defect, statistic data which reflect a more global dislocation density evolution are interpreted. In this context a new approach will be presented which relates thermally induced strain during growth and dislocation patterning in networks.
The somatosensory system of adult primates is capable of considerable reactivation after the loss of some of the activating connections This chapter examines what happens when damage occurs at each of four levels of the system: the receptor or primary afferent level, the level of the brain stem relay to the dorsal column-trigeminal complex, the thalamic ventroposterior nucleus, and primary somatosensory cortex. It summarizes several important features that relate to plasticity. The chapter discusses the consequences of a nerve crush with regeneration, a nerve cut and repair with regeneration, a nerve cut without regeneration, and transplanting and regenerating a nerve to a new skin location. The clear evidence for extensive reorganization came with the opportunity to study the somatosensory cortex of monkeys with a longstanding loss of all afferents from a forelimb. One mechanism for the extensive reactivation appears to be the growth of new connections in the brain stem.
This paper outlines the issues related to RF MEMS packaging and low actuation voltage. It is presented an original approach concerning the modeling of the capacitive contact using multi-physics simulation and advanced characterization. A similar approach is used concerning the packaging development where multi-physic simulations are used to optimize the process. A devoted package architecture is proposed featuring very low loss at microwave range.
In the current cosmological scenario, part of the linearly polarized
emission of the CMB is expected to be rotational (B-modes). This
component is due to tensor perturbations of the metric produced by
primordial gravitational waves, which are generated a split-second after the
Big Bang. The signal expected is of the order of ≲ 0.1 μK, well below the non-rotational component of the polarization
signal (E-modes), and beyond the sensitivity of present generation
instruments. New, more sensitive instruments are developed in
several labs, with the goal to measure the B-modes. Control of
systematics and foregrounds will be the key to make the results of
these experiments believable. In this paper we shortly outline
BRAIN, a bolometric interferometer devoted to B-modes research,
and its pathfinder experiment, devoted to test the Dome-C site.
This paper shows the potentialities of merging the MEMS and micromachining with SiGe technologies in order to speed up the performances of next generation of front end in term of flexibility, reconfigurability and adaptability. MEMS technologies are presented based on Benzo-Cyclo-Butene (BCB) materials and Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) materials. Special attention is paid to ensure a full compatibility between IC and MEMS. We have shown that very innovative functions could be considered by using this MEMSIC concept.
Tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) films were deposited onto p-type silicon substrates using reactive DC magnetron sputtering, and then annealed for one hour in a dry air ambient at temperatures of 730°C, 780°C, and 830°C. Annealing was shown to reduce stress from the as-deposited sample, and resulted in a compressive stress state for samples annealed at 730°C and a tensile stress state for the other samples. Hardness values were approximately 8 GPa, with the exception of the sample annealed at 780°C that demonstrated a hardness of 13 GPa. Leakage current generally decreased with annealing, especially at the lower temperatures. Electrical breakdown was observed for as-deposited and the 830°C annealed films. Resistivities of the films ranged from 6.5 × 109 to 6.1 × 1012 ω-cm, with the film annealed at 830°C being the most conductive. Annealing also led to an increase in dielectric constant. Dielectric constants varied from 9.3 for the as-deposited to greater than 30 for the 780°C and 830°C annealed sample. Annealing resulted in crystalline films that were close to stoichiometric.
We analysed a strain collection representative of the overall Neisseria meningitidis population circulating in an open community (46000 inhabitants, Spain) during an endemic period (30 isolates from patients and 191 from throat cultures of healthy individuals) by both phenotypic and molecular techniques. Almost all patient isolates were assigned to three hyper-virulent lineages (ET-5 complex, ET-37 complex and cluster A4) by both multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In contrast, MEE and PFGE assigned 20% and 15% respectively of carrier isolates to the hyper-virulent clones (4% for both methods together). There was also a higher correlation between PFGE and phenotypes associated with virulent clones. These notable differences between the two molecular methods were further observed in more than half the carrier isolates, suggesting that the associations between these strains were distorted by recombination events. However, almost one-third of total endemic strains from symptom-free carriers and almost all patient strains belonged to clones defined by MEE and PFGE, with no known epidemiological connection. These data indicate low transmission and a weak clonal structure for N. meningitidis.