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This study aimed to examine the effects of re-ensiling time and Lactobacillus buchneri on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages. The experiment was set up as a repeated measure design consisting of four air-exposure periods (EP)(0, 6, 12, and 24 h) microbial additive (A) (L. buchneri; or lack of there), with five replicates. Sugarcane was ground through a stationary forage chopper and ensiled in four plastic drums of 200-L capacity. After 210 days of storage, the drums were opened and half of the silage mass was treated with L. buchneri at the concentration of 105 cfu/g of forage. Subsequently, the silages were divided into stacks. The re-ensiling process was started immediately, at 0, 6, 12 and 24-hour intervals, by transferring the material to PVC mini-silos. Silos were opened after 120 days of re-ensiling. The use of L. buchneri reduced butyrate concentration but did not change ethanol or acetic acid concentrations and aerobic stability. An interaction effect between L. buchneri and re-ensiling time was observed for dry matter (DM) losses and composition. Lactobacillus buchneri is not effective in improving aerobic stability in re-ensiled sugarcane silages. However, less DM is lost in silages treated with L. buchneri and exposed to air for 24 h. Re-ensiling sugar cane in up to 24 h of exposure to air does not change final product quality.
We evaluated the differences between the supplementation of urea in rumen and/or abomasum on forage digestion, N metabolism and urea kinetics in cattle fed a low-quality tropical forage. Five Nellore heifers were fitted with rumen and abomasum fistulas and assigned to a Latin square design. The treatments were control, continuous infusion of urea in the abomasum (AC), continuous infusion of urea in the rumen, a pulse dose of urea in the rumen every 12 h (PR) and a combination of PR and AC. The control exhibited the lowest (P < 0·10) faecal and urinary N losses, which were, overall, increased by supplementation. The highest urinary N losses (P < 0·10) were observed when urea was either totally or partially supplied as a ruminal pulse dose. The rumen N balance was negative for the control and when urea was totally supplied in the abomasum. The greatest microbial N production (P < 0·10) was obtained when urea was partially or totally supplied in the abomasum. Urea supplementation increased (P < 0·10) the amount of urea recycled to the gastrointestinal tract and the amount of urea-N returned to the ornithine cycle. The greatest (P < 0·10) amounts of urea-N used for anabolism were observed when urea was totally and continuously infused in the abomasum. The continuous abomasal infusion also resulted in the highest (P < 0·10) assimilation of microbial N from recycling. The continuous releasing of urea throughout day either in the rumen or abomasum is able to improve N accretion in the animal body, despite mechanism responsible for that being different.
The description of the growth of the Japanese quails is necessary to characterize the genetic potential of these birds raised in different countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the genetic potential of Japanese quails by conducting a meta-analysis considering studies conducted in different countries. Only data about the subspecies Coturnix coturnix japonica were considered; studies regarding Coturnix coturnix coturnix were not examined. The criteria investigated were BW (W), age (t), year of publication and location of the study. Each set of genetic material within a publication was coded as one study. The Gompertz function was used to interpret the growth of laying quails; thus, each study was represented by Gompertz parameters. The W and t data were applied to estimate the values of Gompertz growth parameters, including BW at maturity (Wm), BW at birth (Wi), maturity rate (B) and inflection point (IP). The age at which the maximum growth rate was achieved (t*) was calculated considering the parameters Wm, Wi and B. To estimate these parameters, random regression was used to randomize the parameter Wm. The parameters estimated for each assay were used in exploratory, grouping, and principal component analyses. The values of Wi ranged from 4.1 to 11.6 g. The values of B ranged from 0.0393 to 0.1039/day, and consequently, the values of t* and IP ranged from 14 to 31 days and 9.21 to 31.03 g, respectively. These results show that there is considerable variability in the growth potential of Japanese quails. To better understand this variation, two groups were examined: Brazil and other countries, according to the grouping of Wi, Wm, B and t*; parameter B was the variable that presented the highest specificity, indicating that both groups modified the maturity rate. For the principal component analysis, the year of publication showed a relationship with the growth parameters but only for studies performed in Brazil. For studies carried out in other countries, the changes in growth parameters were not related to the year of publication. In Brazilian studies, there was a decrease in the maturity rate, but the weight at maturity was higher. Therefore, it appears that different strategies of genetic selection were adopted in Brazil compared to other countries.
This study presents two years of characterization of a warm temperate rhodolith bed in order to analyse how certain environmental changes influence the community ecology. The biomass of rhodoliths and associated species were analysed during this period and in situ experiments were conducted to evaluate the primary production, calcification and respiration of the dominant species of rhodoliths and epiphytes. The highest total biomass of rhodoliths occurred during austral winter. Lithothamnion crispatum was the most abundant rhodolith species in austral summer. Epiphytic macroalgae occurred only in January 2015, with Padina gymnospora being the most abundant. Considering associated fauna, the biomass of Mollusca increased from February 2015 to February 2016. Population densities of key reef fish species inside and around the rhodolith beds showed significant variations in time. The densities of grouper (carnivores/piscivores) increased in time, especially from 2015 to 2016. On the other hand, grunts (macroinvertebrate feeders) had a modest decrease over time (from 2014 to 2016). Other parameters such as primary production and calcification of L. crispatum were higher under enhanced irradiance, yet decreased in the presence of P. gymnospora. Community structure and physiological responses can be explained by the interaction of abiotic and biotic factors, which are driven by environmental changes over time. Biomass changes can indicate that herbivores play a role in limiting the growth of epiphytes, and this is beneficial to the rhodoliths because it decreases competition for environmental resources with fleshy algae.
Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is constituted by a set of specific metabolic alterations being postulated that the main dysfunction is insulin resistance. Estimates point to higher prevalence of MS in bipolar patients, between 30 to 35%. Cost-effective screening methods, not recurring to blood test, have been researched.
Analyse knowledge and importance given to MS in bipolar patients. Test the viability of MS screening without blood tests.
Observational, cross-sectional study. Random sample of 15 adult bipolar patients, in euthymic phase. Semi-structured interview, YMRS, HAMD were applied. MS diagnosis investigated according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. MS screening was defined positive if blood pressure ≥ 130/85 or anti-hypertensive medication and abdominal perimeter > 90 in males or > 80 in females. A questionnaire about knowledge, attitudes and concerns on MS was applied.
14 patients completed the investigation protocol. Five (36%) met IDF criteria for metabolic syndrome. Screening sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Twelve patients (80%) were overweigh or obese. Mean IMC in patients that met IDF criteria for MS was 30 while in the other group mean IMC was 26. Only 3 (20%) have ever heard about MS, but the majority of the patients were concerned, in decreasing order, about weight gain, blood pressure cholesterol and hyperglycemia control.
Although limited by small sample size, this study strengthens the idea that MS screening can be effective in clinical practice, it also indicates the need to educate BP patients about MS and to prevent overweight.
Studying inpatient clinical population's features allows a better understanding of readmissions. Factors associated with higher levels of readmission may give clues concerning better treatment planning and follow-up.
To detect psychosocial and clinic factors associated with readmissions in an inpatient general psychiatric population.
107 patients consecutively admitted to an inpatient unit were characterized in terms of psychosocial, clinical, treatment and discharge plan features. Readmission was defined as the number of previous admittances in the last two years.
Patients characteristics: Average age 44 (SD: 16); 58% female; 10 (SD:5) years of education; average disease duration of 128 (SD:115) months. Main diagnosis: 30,8% schizophrenia; 14% bipolar I disorder; 13,1% major depression; 11,2% recurrent major depression; 5,6% cluster B personality; 3,8% bipolar II disorder and 2,9% schizoaffective disorder. From more to less frequent diagnosis implicated in readmissions were schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, recurrent major depression, bipolar I, bipolar II and major depression episode. Readmissions were not associated with inpatient treatment or disease duration, nor toxics or axis II diagnosis. Nonetheless, beginning a depot antipsychotic medication was related to an increase in previous admissions.
These are preliminary results of a small sample, but they point towards the usefulness of a systematic evaluation of inpatient populations, mainly in what concerns complex clinical situations like major pathology readmissions.
Several studies associated Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) with an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 (IL-6). Serum IL-6 levels were found to be significantly increased in subjects with MDD and with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD). Moreover, ketamine, a drug with fast-acting antidepressant properties, has proven to reduce IL-6 levels in rat prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. However, despite the clear influence of IL-6 in the pathophysiology of depression and in antidepressant response, studies evaluating the impact of IL-6 functional genetic polymorphisms on treatment response phenotypes are scarce.
We aim to evaluate the role of IL6-174G>C, IL6-6331T>C and IL6R D358A A>C functional polymorphisms in antidepressant treatment phenotypes, specifically remission, relapse and TRD.
We genotyped the referred polymorphisms in a subset of 80 MDD patients followed at Hospital Magalhães Lemos, Portugal, within a period of 18 months.
We found that patients carrying IL6-174 GG genotype are more prone to develop TRD (OR=4.125; 95%CI: [1.151-14.786]; p=0.038). We also observed that patients carrying IL6-6331 TC genotype have a higher risk of relapse (OR=3.988; 95%CI: [1.176-13.516]; p=0.022), and present a lower time to relapse, TC: 26 weeks vs. TT: 45 weeks (p=0.041, Log-rank test). No association was found between IL6R D358A genetic polymorphism and any of treatment phenotypes.
The IL6-174G>C and IL6-6331T>C polymorphisms influence antidepressant treatment response in our subset of MDD patients. These polymorphisms may possibly contribute to the elevated IL-6 levels found in patients with TRD. This research was partially supported by an AstraZeneca Grant
Recent studies suggested that immune activation and cytokines might be involved in depression. The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) is less reported in depression but is still relevant since it is expressed in the brain and serum levels of IL-18 have been found to be increased in patients with moderate to severe depression. Therefore, it seems reasonable that IL-18 promoter SNPs may have an effect in antidepressant response phenotypes.
We aim to evaluate the role of IL18-607C>A and IL18-137G>Cpromoter polymorphisms in antidepressant treatment phenotypes, specifically remission, relapse and treatment resistant depression (TRD).
We genotyped the referredpolymorphisms in a subset of 80 MDD patients followed at Hospital Magalhães Lemos, Portugal, within a period of 27 months.
We found that patients carrying IL18-607CA or AA genotypes are more prone to relapse after AD treatment (OR=4.145; 95%CI: [1.038-16.555]; p=0.043) and present a lower time to relapse than patients carrying CC genotype (69 vs 115 weeks, p=0.019, Log-rank test). We also observed that patients carrying IL18-137GC or CC genotypes have a higher risk of relapse (OR=3.988; 95%CI: [1.176-13.516]; p=0.022) and display relapse earlier than the ones carrying GG genotype (64 vs 112 weeks, p=0.006, Log-rank test). No association was found between the evaluated genetic polymorphisms and remission or TRD.
The IL18-607A>C and IL18-137G>Cpolymorphisms seems to influence relapse after antidepressant treatment in our subset of depressed patients. These polymorphisms may possibly contribute to the elevated IL-18 levels found in patients with moderate to severe depression.
Psychogenic polydipsia associated with hyponatremia is a potentially dangerous and fatal condition observed on patients with psychiatric illness, specially schizophrenia. This results on a peripheral oedema and can lead to cerebral oedema, mental status deterioration and intracranial hypertension if not identified and treated urgently. We present a case of polydipsia as first signal of psychosis.
20-year-old man without significant past medical or psychiatric history attended to emergency service presenting exuberant lower limbs oedemas. The analytical study stated an hyponatremia and hipo-osmotic urine. A psychiatric evaluation was made after organic illness exclusion. The patient presented serious behaviour changes, delusions and eating disturbances (“eat raw meat to recover the red cells that they had stolen from him”), polydipsia and auditory hallucinations with 2 weeks of evolution. The patient was compulsory hospitalized, treated with risperidone and lorazepam and discharged 28 days after admission without psychotic symptoms.
The recognition and management of the polydipsia as a first signal of psychosis are difficult because sometimes patients are uncooperative and tend to hide their water intake, but is important to be awhare to this signal to prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.
Psychogenic excoriations are also called neurotic excoriations, dermatillomania or skin picking syndrome. Psychogenic excoriations are lesions caused by scratching, picking, lancing, rubbing or squeezing, usually, in areas that patient can easily reach (face, upper back and upper and lower extremities). They are initiated because an urge to excoriate an irregularity of the skin or by a disturbing sensation in the skin. The classic lesions are characterized by clean, linear erosions, scabs and scars that can be hypopigmented or hyperpigmented and are usually similar in size and shape. Association with psychiatric comorbidities are common, particularly mood and anxiety disorders. It is estimated to occur in 2% of dermatology clinic patients and is associated with functional impairment, medical complications (e.g. infection) or substantial distress. Psychotropic medications (e.g. SSRIs) and appropriate counseling can be effective treatments.
The purpose of the poster is to highlight the existence and characteristics of psychogenic excoriations. A
condition that can be chronic, causes significant impairment and is believed to be common but unreported.
Here we report the case of a 27 year-old woman, with a 10 years history of self-inflicted excoriations, associated to high anxiety levels, treated with an SSRI with good response.
Although it does not appear as a diagnostic category in DSM- IV, psycogenic excoriations is indeed a treatable condition that, isolated or associated with psychiatric comorbidity can cause marked distress, impairment and psychological suffering.
Paraphrenia is a disorder similar to paranoid schizophrenia characterized by phantastic, paralogical and extraordinary imaginative delusions, with better-preserved affect and rapport and much less personality and cognitive deterioration. Most affected patients are women, with onset of symptoms in late adulthood. It was firstly systematically described by Kraepelin in 1913 in order to define a group of psychotic patients who exhibited characteristic symptoms of dementia praecox, but with minimal disturbances of emotion and volition, and marked delusions. Later, it was considered to be unfounded and the term paraphrenia was not included in the current DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria. However, several authors suggest that the concept of paraphrenia has not lost its usefulness and it seems to be that some psychiatrists recognize the illness, but labelled it as atypical psychosis or delusional disorder for the lack of a better diagnostic category.
The aim of this poster is to underline the modernity of Kraepelin's paraphrenia concept, suggesting that it could be possible to define and recognize the illness if practitioners would be induced to use a viable diagnostic entity.
Herein we report a case of a 51-year-old woman who presented three years ago with a psychotic disorder whose clinical features resemble de classical description of paraphrenia.
Very few systematic studies on paraphrenia have been carried out in the past 70 years. Further research in this field is needed in order to recognize the viability of this diagnosis and provide patients a better care and therapeutic management.
Eating disorders are characterized by a persistent disturbance of eating behaviour that results in altered consumption of food and that significantly impairs physical health or psychosocial functioning. Treatment of eating disorders is complex and challenging and sometimes patient's hospitalization is needed. The Santa Maria Hospital's Eating Disorders Unit is a specialized multidisciplinary team with long experience in the treatment of such disorders.
To present and discuss the results of the inpatient treatment program for patients with eating disorders held at the Santa Maria Hospital's Eating Disorders Unit.
review of clinical files of all patients hospitalised at Santa Maria Hospital's Eating Disorders Unit during a twelve month period and statistical analysis of data collected using SPSS program.
The sample included mainly female patients with anorexia nervosa with a significantly low body weight. In this presentation we show the results of the statistical analysis performed for sample characterization (both demographic and clinical variables), evaluation of patient's clinical outcome and features associated with good or poor prognosis.
The results of this study show the importance of inpatient care especially for patients with anorexia nervosa with a significantly low body weight.
Capgras syndrome is a misidentification syndrome typically characterized by the delusional belief that a close relative has been replaced by an impostor. This monothematic delusion can be found in numerous disorders such as paranoid schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, affective disorders, Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body dementia, head trauma, epilepsy, cerebrovascular disease and dementia, pituitary tumor, multiple myeloma, multiple sclerosis, viral encephalitis, frontal lobe pathology and AIDS. We present a case of a patient that presents Capgras Syndrome at the first psychiatric evaluation in the context of three-decades untreated paranoid schizophrenia.
A 56-year-old woman was brought to the psychiatric department for evaluation for aggressive behavior directed to relatives. She has a history of auditory hallucinations, experiences of self-reference and paranoid delusions with more than 30 years of evolution. More recently, she started becoming aggressive with relatives, saying her real family members had been taken by strangers to an unknown hospital. She also said that her ID photo had been replaced by another person's photo. After detailed psychiatric evaluation, blood analysis and imaging study, the diagnosis of Paranoid Schizophrenia was established. She was treated with olanzapine 20mg/day with behavioral improvement.
Although Capgras Syndrome is not a psychiatric diagnosis but a feature of several different conditions, psychiatrists should be aware of this syndrome as it can signalize underlying psychiatric disorders and is usually associated with violent behaviors that should be managed.
Empowerment has been defined as the ability to act autonomously, the willingness to take risks and being aware of responsibility. The importance of this construct in psychosis has been emphasized by recovery models. An integrant part of the Clinical Interview for Psychotic Disorders (CIPD), the EWPSS is a visual analog scale in which the participants assess their sense of empowerment regarding symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms and disorganization). EWPSS focuses on personal empowerment (self-worth and self-efficacy) as it could apply to symptoms.
To preliminarily assess the psychometric properties of the EWPSS in a sample of participants with psychosis.
The sample comprised 22 participants (68.2% male), 72.7% single, 50% employed, between 19 and 47 years old (M = 31.05; SD = 7.088), with 4–17 years of education (M = 11.77; SD = 3.176). The most prevalent diagnosis was schizophrenia (68.2%) and the participants had a mean of 1.90 hospitalizations (SD = 2.548). The participants were assessed with the CIPD (EWPSS) and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21.
EWPSS has shown acceptable reliability for all dimensions (with alphas ranging between .54 and .78). Empowerment with delusions was associated with the other dimensions, excepting for empowerment with negative symptoms (which in turn was not associated significantly with any dimension). Empowerment regarding hallucinations and with disorganization were only associated with empowerment with delusions, which was also associated with anxiety symptoms (r = –.52, P = .016).
The EWPSS presented adequate reliability and validity. Further studies intended to explore the factorial structure of the EWPSS are under development.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Although being highly consensual that antipsychotic adherence is an important outcome predictor in psychosis, existing reviews have found mean rates of adherence around 40–60%. Several aspects, such as patient-related, medication-related, environmental-related variables have been described as important predictors.
This study aim is to develop, administer and present preliminary psychometric properties of a new scale for antipsychotic medication adherence that includes different types of predictors (clinical, psychosocial, and practical among others).
The “AMAS” was developed by a multidisciplinary team and was based on recent research on factors influencing antipsychotic adherence. The scale evolved from multiple drafts and experts were contacted in order to improve the final version. Over 50 patients with a diagnosis of a psychotic-spectrum disorder taking antipsychotic medication will be assessed with the “AMAS” and the Medication Adherence Rating Scale. Additionally, each patient's psychiatrist will fill in a form with demographic and clinical variables (such as type of symptoms, previous adherence problems, current adherence, insight and other relevant variables).
This is an ongoing study and the sample is still being collected (scheduled finish date: February/2016). Our statistical analysis’ plan includes: reliability analysis (Chronbach's alpha, alpha if item deleted, inter item correlations and covariances and item-total correlations); validity (convergent validity); factorial analysis.
It is hypothesized that the “AMAS” will be a practical, reliable and valid unidimentional instrument with clinical utility assessing adherence to antipsychotics. The “AMAS” can be also useful in assessing intervention targets (e.g. psychoterapeutical, psychoeducational) to enhance adherence.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Suicide risk is an important variable to consider both in assessment and throughout the therapeutic process in psychotic disorders. The SRS-P is an 18-item scale computed from the patient and clinician-rated scores obtained in the CIPD. The scale comprises lifetime assessment of depressed mood, anhedonia and its current interference and severity, current and past feelings of hopelessness, suicidal ideation, ‘voices’ about suicide, and suicide-related behaviors.
To assess reliability and convergent validity of the SRS-P in a sample of participants with psychosis.
The sample comprised 22 participants (68.2% male), single (72.7%), between 19 and 47 years old (M = 31.05; SD = 7.088), with 4–17 years of education (M = 11.77; SD = 3.176), employed (50%). The most prevalent diagnosis was schizophrenia (68.2%) and the participants had a mean of 1.90 hospitalizations (SD = 2.548). The mean age of illness onset was 23.57 years (SD = 5.555). The participants were assessed with the CIPD, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21, Forms of Self-Criticism and Reassurance Scale, Self-Compassion Scale, Other as Shamer Scale and the Empowerment with Psychotic Symptoms Scales.
The SRS-P has shown good reliability (α = .87) and validity in relation to depressive symptoms (r = .67; P = .001), anxiety (r = .74; P < .001), stress (r = .59; P = .004), inadequate self (r = .43; P = .046), hated self (r = .54; P = .009), reassured self (r = –.65; P = .001), self-compassion (r = –.63; P = .002), shame (r = .46; P = .033) and empowerment regarding positive symptoms (r = –.54; P = .015).
The SRS-P presented adequate reliability and convergent-divergent validity. Further studies are planned in order to test the factorial structure of the scale and confirm the presented results in a larger sample.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Despite their legal protection status, protected areas (PAs) can benefit from priority ranks when ongoing threats to their biodiversity and habitats outpace the financial resources available for their conservation. It is essential to develop methods to prioritize PAs that are not computationally demanding in order to suit stakeholders in developing countries where technical and financial resources are limited. We used expert knowledge-derived biodiversity measures to generate individual and aggregate priority ranks of 98 mostly terrestrial PAs on Madagascar. The five variables used were state of knowledge (SoK), forest loss, forest loss acceleration, PA size and relative species diversity, estimated by using standardized residuals from negative binomial models of SoK regressed onto species diversity. We compared our aggregate ranks generated using unweighted averages and principal component analysis (PCA) applied to each individual variable with those generated via Markov chain (MC) and PageRank algorithms. SoK significantly affected the measure of species diversity and highlighted areas where more research effort was needed. The unweighted- and PCA-derived ranks were strongly correlated, as were the MC and PageRank ranks. However, the former two were weakly correlated with the latter two. We recommend using these methods simultaneously in order to provide decision-makers with the flexibility to prioritize those PAs in need of additional research and conservation efforts.
The current study was carried out to examine the effect of cottonseed processing and chitosan supplementation on lamb performance, digestibility and nitrogen digestion. Eighty uncastrated Santa Inês lambs (23 ± 2.2 kg average weight, 4 months old) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement that consisted of two cottonseed processing forms (whole or ground) and two chitosan levels (0 or 136 mg/kg live weight). Higher dry matter and organic matter apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) was achieved with the diets containing the whole cottonseed. Ether extract ADC was higher in the animals fed the chitosan-containing diet. There was an interaction effect on the ADC of neutral detergent fibre corrected for ash and protein, which increased with chitosan inclusion associated with the whole cottonseed. The lambs that received the treatment containing the whole cottonseed showed higher microbial protein synthesis. Chitosan addition increased nitrogen retention. The animals fed chitosan-containing diets showed higher microbial protein synthesis. There was an interaction effect on microbial protein synthesis. Whole cottonseed associated with chitosan in lamb diets increases ether extract ADC and microbial protein synthesis.
This study aimed to evaluate the transcriptional changes occurring in isolated perfused mammary alveolar tissue in response to inoculation with S. agalactiae and to identify the most affected biological functions and pathways after 3 h. Four udders taken at slaughter from cows with healthy mammary gland were perfused ex situ with warmed and gassed Tyrode's solution. Mammary alveolar tissue samples were taken from the left fore and rear quarters (IQ-inoculated quarters) before inoculation (hour 0) and at 3 h post inoculation (hpi) and at the same times from control right fore and rear quarters (not inoculated: NIQ). A total of 1756 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between IQ and NIQ at 3 hpi using edgeR package. Within this set of DEGs, 952 were up regulated and mainly involved with innate immune response and inflammatory response, e.g., CD14, CCL5, TLR2, IL-8, SAA3, as well as in transcriptional regulation such as FOS, STAT3 and NFKBIA. Genes down-regulated (804) included those involved with lipid synthesis e.g., APOC2, SCD, FABP3 and FABP4. The most affected pathways were chemokine signaling, Wnt signaling and complement and coagulation cascades, which likely reflects the early stage response of mammary tissue to S. agalactiae infection. No significant gene expression changes were detected by RNA-Seq in the others contrasts. Real time-PCR confirmed the increase in mRNA abundance of immune-related genes: TLR2, TLR4, IL-1β, and IL-10 at 3 hpi between IQ and NIQ. The expression profiles of Casp1 and Bax for any contrasts were unaffected whereas Bcl2 was increased in IQ, which suggests no induction of apoptosis during the first hours after infection. Results provided novel information regarding the early functional pathways and gene network that orchestrate innate immune responses to S. agalactiae infection. This knowledge could contribute to new strategies to enhance resistance to this disease, such as genomic selection.
The causes of the beaching and death of sea turtles have not been fully clarified and continue to be studied. Mild, moderate and severe lesions caused by spirorchiidiosis have been seen for decades in different organs and were recently defined as the cause of death of a loggerhead turtle. In the present study, eyes and optic nerves were analysed in green sea turtles with spirorchiidiosis and no other debilitating factors. Injuries to the optic nerve and choroid layer were described in 235 animals (90%) infected with spirorchiids. Turtles with ocular spirorchiidiosis are approximately three times more likely to be cachectic than turtles with spirorchiidiosis without ocular involvement.