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The present work aims to explore the mechanism of action of C-cinnamoyl glycoside as an antifilarial agent against the bovine filarial nematode Setaria cervi. Both apoptosis and autophagy programmed cell death pathways play a significant role in parasitic death. The generation of reactive oxygen species, alteration of the level of antioxidant components and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential may be the causative factors that drive the parasitic death. Monitoring of autophagic flux via the formation of autophagosome and autophagolysosome was detected via CYTO ID dye. The expression profiling of both apoptotic and autophagic marker proteins strongly support the initial findings of these two cell death processes. The increased interaction of pro-autophagic protein Beclin1 with BCL-2 may promote apoptotic pathway by suppressing anti-apoptotic protein BCL-2 from its function. This in turn partially restrains the autophagic pathway by engaging Beclin1 in the complex. But overall positive increment in autophagic flux was observed. Dynamic interaction and regulative balance of these two critical cellular pathways play a decisive role in controlling disease pathogenesis. Therefore, the present experimental work may prosper the chance for C-cinnamoyl glycosides to become a potential antifilarial therapeutic in the upcoming day after detail in vivo study and proper clinical trial.
Innovation Concept: Free open access medical education (FOAM) is a quickly growing field. While there is an abundance of resources online, and on social media, the quality of those resources should always be questioned and reviewed. Furthermore, as medical learners progress in their training, they become lead consumers and producers of FOAM. Our educational innovation concept was the introduction of two FOAM streams into our residency program to assist learners to produce their own content with mentorship from our emergency medicine faculty. Methods: Medical students and residents training in the emergency department were encouraged to submit content to either our department website in the form of a clinical PEARL, or a research paper to the departmental Cureus online journal. All website content was reviewed by an attending physician and all Cureus content was submitted for further peer review and publication if approved. All published content was shared on social media through our department's Twitter account. A select number of residents were also mentored in reviewing and editing FOAM content and publishing it to our departmental website. Curriculum, Tool or Material: sjrhem.ca is the Saint John Regional Hospital Department of Emergency Medicine's website. A portion of the website is dedicated to posts arising from departmental rounds, case reviews as well as posts from learners in the form of clinical PEARLS. They are designed as succinct and informative clinical summaries and allow learners to share their content to a wider audience online. Cureus.com is an online journal of medical science, with a dedicated Dalhousie Emergency Medicine Channel. The editors are local emergency medicine faculty and senior residents, while reviewers are independent. In the last year, the clinical pearls received 5672 views, and the Cureus channel received 1143 content views. Conclusion: Feedback from learners regarding publication of their own FOAM has been positive and has allowed them to share their content to a much wider audience through our Departmental Website, Cureus Channel and Twitter stream. Furthermore, we are helping to prepare residents to produce their own high quality content, allowing our FOAM program to grow.
In this article, the material distributive topology-based design optimization of ultra-wide band (UWB) antenna is proposed by using improved binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) with finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. In the improved BPSO implementation, the velocity of each particle is calculated based on complete set of bits of particle position vector. The V-shaped transfer function is employed to transform all real values of velocities to values in the interval [0,1]. The fitness function of all the particles in BPSO algorithm are computed parallely by using FDTD simulation. The usage of FDTD and the parallel computation helps in analyzing the broadband frequency characteristics of the antenna with a single simulation run. The return loss of the optimized UWB antenna obtained from FDTD, Computer Simulation Technology (CST) simulation and practical measurement are in good agreement and show good impedance matching.
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with high rates of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia in up to 30% of individuals with the syndrome. Despite this, we know relatively little about trajectories and predictors of persistence of psychiatric disorders from middle childhood to early adulthood. Accordingly, we followed youth over four timepoints, every 3 years, to assess long-term trajectories of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, mood, and psychosis-spectrum disorders (PSDs), as well as medication usage.
Eighty-seven youth with 22q11DS and 65 controls between the ages of 9 and 15 years at the first timepoint (T1; mean age 11.88 ± 2.1) were followed for 9 years (mean age of 21.22 ± 2.01 years at T4). Baseline cognitive, clinical, and familial predictors of persistence were identified for each class of psychiatric disorders.
Baseline age and parent-rated hyperactivity scores predicted ADHD persistence [area under curve (AUC) = 0.81]. The presence of family conflict predicted persistence of anxiety disorders (ADs) whereas parent ratings of child internalizing symptoms predicted persistence of both anxiety and mood disorders (MDs) (AUC = 0.84 and 0.83, respectively). Baseline prodromal symptoms predicted persistent and emergent PSDs (AUC = 0.83). Parent-reported use of anti-depressants/anxiolytics increased significantly from T1 to T4.
Psychiatric, behavioral, and cognitive functioning during late childhood and early adolescence successfully predicted children with 22q11DS who were at highest risk for persistent psychiatric illness in young adulthood. These findings emphasize the critical importance of early assessments and interventions in youth with 22q11DS.
To summarize ways that networks of community-based organizations (CBO), in partnership with public health departments, contribute to community recovery from disaster.
The study was conducted using an online survey administered one and 2 years after Hurricane Sandy to the partnership networks of 369 CBO and the New York Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. The survey assessed the structure and durability of networks, how they were influenced by storm damage, and whether more connected networks were associated with better recovery outcomes.
During response and recovery, CBOs provide an array of critical public health services often outside their usual scope. New CBO partnerships were formed to support recovery, particularly in severely impacted areas. CBOs that were more connected to other CBOs and were part of a long-term recovery committee reported greater impacts on the community; however, a partnership with the local health department was not associated with recovery impacts.
CBO partners are flexible in their scope of services, and CBO partnerships often emerge in areas with the greatest storm damage, and subsequently the greatest community needs. National policies will advance if they account for the dynamic and emergent nature of these partnerships and their contributions, and clarify the role of government partners. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:635–643)
We present simultaneous multi-frequency observations of PSR J1822–2256 for the first time, utilizing the unique capabilities of upgraded Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (uGMRT). No emission is detected in about 10 % of pulses. At least two drift modes and a possibly third rare mode, occur for 66, 21 and 2 % pulses respectively (P3 ~ 17, 7.5 and 5 P0 respectively). The three drift modes and the nulls occur concurrently from 250 to 1500 MHz. Modal average profiles are distinct with their widths increasing with drift rate. These sub-pulse drift related profile mode-changes can provide independent probes of beam geometry and polar gap physics.
Sub-pulse drift related profile mode-changes provide a useful probe of pulsar radio emission. Measurements on modal profiles of PSRs B0031–07, J1822–2256 and B2319+60 are presented for different drift modes in this communication. The width of profile increases with the drift rate, while no such trend is seen for the pulsed flux density for all these pulsars. A brief discussion of implications for models is presented.
In this paper, we present our study on multi-frequency scatter-broadening observations of a large sample of pulsars, made using the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT) and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). For each pulsar, the scatter-broadening time scales (τsc) have been estimated at different observing frequencies and the dependence of τsc with the observing frequency, i.e., the frequency scaling index (α) has been obtained. We report estimates of α for a set of 39 pulsars, of which 31 are completely new and provide the first-time measurement on about 50% of the sample. This enhanced sample suggests that almost 65% of the pulsars have an α much lower than the conventional value of 4.4 for a Kolmogorov type turbulence spectrum, and a considerably large scattering strength. An increase in scattering strength is observed with the distance to the pulsar in the Galaxy.
Bovine calf scours reported to be caused by multiple aetiologies resulting in heavy mortality in unweaned calves and huge economic loss to the dairy farmers. Among these, cryptosporidiosis is an emerging waterborne zoonoses and one of the important causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea. Poor immune response coupled with primary cryptosporidial infections predispose neonatal calves to multiple secondary infections resulting in their deaths. In the present study, faecal samples from 100 diarrhoeic calves randomly picked up out of 17 outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea in periurban Ludhiana, Punjab in Northern India were subjected to conventional (microscopy, modified Zeihl–Neelsen (mZN) staining) and immunological and molecular techniques (faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR) for detection of primary Cryptosporidium parvum infection as well as other frequently reported concurrent pathogens, viz. rotavirus and coronavirus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria spp. The faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR revealed 35% prevalence of C. parvum in contrast to 25% by mZN staining with a relatively higher prevalence (66·7%) in younger (8–14-day-old) calves. The detection rate of the other enteropathogens associated with C. parvum was 45·71% for C. perfringens followed by Salmonella spp (40·0%), rotavirus (36·0%), coronavirus (16·0%), E. coli (12·0%) and Eimeria spp (4·0%) The sensitivity for detection of C. parvum by ELISA and mZN staining in comparison to PCR was 97·14% and 72·72%, respectively. An important finding of the study was that C. parvum alone was found in only 10% of the diarrhoeic faecal samples, whereas, majority of the samples (90%) showed mixed infections ranging from a combination of two to five agents. This is the first documentary proof of C. parvum and associated pathogens responsible for severe periurban outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea culminating in heavy mortality from Northern India.
Radio and X-ray studies of young supernovae probe the interaction between the supernova shock waves and the surrounding medium and give clues to the nature and past of the progenitor star. Here we discuss the early emission from type Ic SN 2002ap and argue that repeated Compton boosting of optical photons by hot electrons presents the most natural explanation of the prompt X-ray emission. We describe the radio spectrum of another type Ic SN 2003dh (GRB030329) obtained with combined GMRT and VLA data. We report on the low frequency radio monitoring of SN 1995N and our objectives of distinguishing between competing models of X-ray emission from this SN and the nature of its progenitor by X-ray spectroscopy. Radio studies on SN 2001gd, SN 2001ig and SN 2002hh are mentioned.
We present a study performed to understand the role of magnetic field during a historical outburst of IBL S5 0716+714 witnessed in early 2015. The two month long profile of the outburst reveals several episodes of sub-flares superimposed over the diminishing trend of the peak-flux. The broadband X-ray spectrum from Swift + Nustar exhibits a break at 4.9+0.4−0.5 keV which is consistent with the valley in the SED predicted by model. The spectral index variations, closely correlated to the flux variations during the first prominent sub-flare, indicate the alterations in the particle energy distribution coinciding the onset of the flare. The PA rotations approximately at the same epoch are used to constrain the field and its geometry.
Local health departments (LHDs) have little guidance for operationalizing community resilience (CR). We explored how community coalitions responded to 4 CR levers (education, engagement, partnerships, and community self-sufficiency) during the first planning year of the Los Angeles County Community Disaster Resilience (LACCDR) Project.
Sixteen communities were selected and randomly assigned to the experimental CR group or the control preparedness group. Eight CR coalitions met monthly to plan CR-building activities or to receive CR training from a public health nurse. Trained observers documented the coalitions’ understanding and application of CR at each meeting. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze structured observation reports around the 4 levers.
Analysis of 41 reports suggested that coalitions underwent a process of learning about and applying CR concepts in the planning year. Groups resonated with ideas of education, community self-sufficiency, and engagement, but increasing partnerships was challenging.
LHDs can support coalitions by anticipating the time necessary to understand CR and by facilitating engagement. Understanding the issues that emerge in the early phases of planning and implementing CR-building activities is critical. LHDs can use the experience of the LACCDR Project’s planning year as a guide to navigate challenges and issues that emerge as they operationalize the CR model. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:812–821)
Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) is a diffraction phenomenon in which coherent electro-magnetic radiation, from a distant radio source, passes through the solar wind, which is a turbulent refracting medium, and suffers scattering. This results in random temporal variations of the signal intensity (scintillation) at the Earth. IPS observations to monitor the interplanetary medium (IPM), to measure solar wind velocities in the directions of a number of compact extra-galactic radio sources and to estimate the angular diameters of their compact components have been carried out for many years at 103 MHz using the IPS facility (Alurkar et al. 1989) of the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad, India. Over a period of approximately 10 years of such observations, it has been seen that PSR 0950+08 has always remained well within the noise level. We observed a sudden enhancement in its flux (Deshpande et al. 1994) on 29 July, 1992. The ionospheric observations which are being carried out on a regular basis at PRL using an ionosonde also recorded a steep increase in the absorption index Fmin, which is an indicator of the excess ionization produced due to X-rays. During this period, the Sun was exceptionally quiet, thereby raising the question about the origin of the X-ray flux responsible for the observed steep rise in Fmin during the transit of PSR 0950+08.
We present the results of a multi-wavelength investigation of the dwarf galaxy populations in three interacting galaxy groups: NGC 871/6/7, NGC 3166/9, NGC 4725/47. Using degree-scale Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope Hi mosaics and deep optical photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we measured the Hi and stellar properties of the gas-rich low-mass group members to classify each one as a classical dwarf galaxy, a short-lived tidal knot or a tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG). Our observations detect several dwarf irregulars and various tidal knots. We identify four potentially long-lived tidal objects in the three groups, implying that TDGs are not readily produced. The tidal objects examined in this small survey also appear to have a wider variety of properties than TDGs formed in current simulations.
Between the fourth century B.C. and second century A.D., changes in climate, culture and commerce converged to extend networks of influence and intensify social stratification in communities situated along the Silk Road. The horse-riding nomads and agro-pastoralists of what is now Southeastern Kazakhstan were important actors in the unfolding of these events. The settlements and kurgan burials of the Saka and Wusun could be found dotting the alluvial fans north of the Tien Shan Mountains just a short time before Alexander the Great founded outposts in the Ferghana Valley and Chinese emissaries formalized relations with their periphery. In other words, the appearance of Iron Age Saka-Wusun sites anticipated the formation of the Silk Road’s northern branch and subsequently helped mediate long-distance relationships connecting East and West. Historical accounts appear to confirm the presence of the Saka and Wusun in this role, but there is much that remains unknown regarding relationships both within and across their communities. Typological variability in their material culture has fed speculation concerning their position within trade networks, but there has been very little in the way of materials analysis to test the validity of these assumptions.
The ceramics recovered at Tuzusai near Almaty provide an excellent opportunity for examination of the impacts and implications of extended regional contacts throughout the region. Although no Persian or Chinese ceramic imports were identified, an extensive vocabulary of pot forms was locally produced. However, the pottery, particularly pitchers, drinking cups and bowls, and, especially with bright red surface decoration, is found in elaborate burial kurgans. The pottery is coarse, perhaps better called a “rock body” than a clay body, as very little clay is present. The frequency of sherds from the excavation (over 1000) and from surface survey is very low (e.g. 3 surface sherds for one-half days effort) compared with excavations in Southwest Asia or China. Rims are unusually worn. Thus, we suggest pottery was precious and high status, but difficult to make. A local survey of clay resources produced meager results. Tests showed that the finest sediments had perhaps 3% clay-sized particles. Among the adobe houses at Tuzusai is evidence of courtyard work areas for pottery production with fired remains of a possible firing pit or kiln and bone potting tools. Other courtyards were areas for dairying and spinning and some copper alloy and iron metal working. Our aim was to establish the life history, production sequences, status and uses of the pottery. Given our current understanding of local production resources and the technical difficulty associated with the production of thin walled forms using these materials, we suggest that these ceramics were high-status goods, many used in feasting activities, and valued not solely for their function in feasting activities, but for the labor and skill required to produce them. Study of the ceramics, clay sources, production methods, and decoration suggests greater social permeability of Saka-Wusun communities than was previously proposed and allows us to understand the formative dynamics of village along the Silk Road.
Two global (re-)emerging zoonoses, leptospirosis and hantavirus infections, are clinically indistinguishable. Thirty-one patients, hospitalized in Sri Lanka for acute severe leptospirosis, were after exclusion of other potentially involved pathogens, prospectively screened with IgM ELISA for both pathogens. Of these, nine (29·0%) were positive for leptospirosis only, one (3·2%) for hantavirus only, seven (22·5%) for both pathogens concomitantly, whereas 13 (41·9%) remained negative for both. Moreover, in a retrospective study of 23 former patients, serologically confirmed for past leptospirosis, six (26·0%) were also positive in two different IgG ELISA hantavirus formats. Surprisingly, European Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) results were constantly higher, although statistically not significantly different, than Asian Hantaan virus (HTNV), suggesting an unexplained cross-reaction, since PUUV is considered absent throughout Asia. Moreover, RT–PCR on all hantavirus IgM ELISA positives was negative. Concomitant leptospirosis-hantavirus infections are probably heavily underestimated worldwide, compromising epidemiological data, therapeutical decisions, and clinical outcome.