To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Non-invasive survey in the Stonehenge ‘Triangle’, Amesbury, Wiltshire, has highlighted a number of features that have a significant bearing on the interpretation of the site. Geophysical anomalies may signal the position of buried stones adding to the possibility of former stone arrangements, while laser scanning has provided detail on the manner in which the stones have been dressed; some subsequently carved with axe and dagger symbols. The probability that a lintelled bluestone trilithon formed an entrance in the north-east is signposted. This work has added detail that allows discussion on the question of whether the sarsen circle was a completed structure, although it is by no means conclusive in this respect. Instead, it is suggested that it was built as a façade, with other parts of the circuit added and with an entrance in the south.
Since the publication of “A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals” in 2008, prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) has become a national priority. Despite improvements, preventable HAIs continue to occur. The 2014 updates to the Compendium were created to provide acute care hospitals with up-to-date, practical, expert guidance to assist in prioritizing and implementing their HAI prevention efforts. They are the product of a highly collaborative effort led by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC), the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), the Society for Hospital Medicine (SHM), and the Surgical Infection Society (SIS).
Integrated non-invasive survey in the Stonehenge ‘triangle’, Amesbury, Wiltshire, has highlighted a number of features that have a significant bearing on the interpretation of the site. Among them are periglacial and natural topographical structures, including a chalk mound that may have influenced site development. Some geophysical anomalies are similar to the post-holes in the car park of known Mesolithic date, while others beneath the barrows to the west may point to activity contemporary with Stonehenge itself. Evidence that the ‘North Barrow’ may be earlier in the accepted sequence is presented and the difference between the eastern and western parts of the enclosure ditch highlighted, while new data relating to the Y and Z Holes and to the presence of internal banks that mirror their respective circuits is also outlined.
Since the publication of “A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals” in 2008, prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) has become a national priority. Despite improvements, preventable HAIs continue to occur. The 2014 updates to the Compendium were created to provide acute care hospitals with up-to-date, practical, expert guidance to assist in prioritizing and implementing their HAI prevention efforts. They are the product of a highly collaborative effort led by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), the Society for Hospital Medicine (SHM), and the Surgical Infection Society (SIS).
Establishment potential is one of the primary components of invasive species risk assessment. Models that predict establishment of potentially invasive ornamental crops often ignore differences among cultivars and the variability in plant response to site-specific factors. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which differences among cultivars and habitat characteristics affect establishment of 5 cultivars of ornamental cleome. Experiments were conducted to compare germination, survival, and growth of cultivars in cultivated (gardens) and noncultivated (roadsides and prairies) environments and, in prairies, the effects of competition (low, intermediate, and high). In the first experiment, germination, survival, and growth were recorded in gardens, prairies, and roadsides in four locations in Minnesota. In the second experiment, the effects of competition with resident species were studied in five seed lots from three cultivars in three prairie sites. Additionally, a quantitative description of germination and transplantable seedling quality, when grown under greenhouse production standards, was obtained and compared with results from the cultivated and noncultivated outdoor environments. Germination in greenhouse conditions was significantly greater (78%) than in garden, prairies, or roadsides (< 46%). Mortality was greater in noncultivated than in cultivated environments (3% wk−1 and 1.4% wk−1, respectively). Survival was affected by competition, which reduced population establishment. Cultivar differences were most pronounced at seedling emergence, whereas habitat characteristics were more influential at later stages of the life cycle. Germination and plant height were similar among noncultivated environments. Variability in seedling emergence, survival, and growth in response to cultivar, habitat, and competition are important determinants of establishment potential. Among the cultivars studied, the native cleome, roughseed clammyweed, has a greater establishment potential than the nonnative cleome, spiderflower.
Efforts to institute a system for the control and prohibition of khat in Kenya are examined in this article. Prohibition was introduced in the 1940s after an advocacy campaign led by prominent colonial officials. The legislation imposed a racialized view of the effect of khat, seeking to protect an allegedly ‘vulnerable’ community in the north of the country while allowing khat to be consumed and traded in other areas, including Meru where ‘traditional’ production and consumption was permitted. Colonial policy took little account of African opinion, although African agency was evident in the failure and ultimate collapse of the prohibition in the face of widespread smuggling and general infringement. Trade in khat became ever more lucrative, and in the final years of colonial rule economic arguments overcame the prohibition lobby. The imposition of prohibition and control indicates the extent to which colonial attitudes towards and beliefs about cultural behaviour among Africans shaped policies, but the story also illustrates the fundamental weakness of the colonial state in its failure to uphold the legislation.
We have proposed that a dialectic perspective on innovation may serve well as a first step of an integrative framework for research on innovation and for effective practice. We would like to thank all commentators for their stimulating and challenging ideas and SIOP for enabling this dialog. In keeping with the process view inherent to dialectic thinking, we would like to use this reply to refine and extend the core ideas presented in the focal article by means of integrating explanatory concepts, by critically examining the add-on value of a dialectic perspective, and by pointing out future research needs and ideas for management.
Innovation, the development and intentional introduction of new and useful ideas by individuals, teams, and organizations, lies at the heart of human adaptation. Decades of research in different disciplines and at different organizational levels have produced a wealth of knowledge about how innovation emerges and the factors that facilitate and inhibit innovation. We propose that this knowledge needs integration. In an initial step toward this goal, we apply a dialectic perspective on innovation to overcome limitations of dichotomous reasoning and to gain a more valid account of innovation. We point out that individuals, teams, and organizations need to self-regulate and manage conflicting demands of innovation and that multiple pathways can lead to idea generation and innovation. By scrutinizing the current use of the concept of organizational ambidexterity and extending it to individuals and teams, we develop a framework to help guide and facilitate future research and practice. Readers expecting specific and universal prescriptions of how to innovate will be disappointed as current research does not allow such inferences. Rather, we think innovation research should focus on developing and testing principles of innovation management in addition to developing decision aids for organizational practice. To this end, we put forward key propositions and action principles of innovation management.
Perspectives from 22 countries on aspects of the legal environment for selection are presented in this article. Issues addressed include (a) whether there are racial/ethnic/religious subgroups viewed as “disadvantaged,” (b) whether research documents mean differences between groups on individual difference measures relevant to job performance, (c) whether there are laws prohibiting discrimination against specific groups, (d) the evidence required to make and refute a claim of discrimination, (e) the consequences of violation of the laws, (f) whether particular selection methods are limited or banned, (g) whether preferential treatment of members of disadvantaged groups is permitted, and (h) whether the practice of industrial and organizational psychology has been affected by the legal environment.
Metacognition can be defined simply as thinking about thinking (Anderson, 2002, 2005). It is the ability to reflect on what is known, and does not simply involve thinking back on an event, describing what happened, and the feelings associated with it. Metacognition results in critical but healthy reflection and evaluation of thinking that may result in making specific changes in how learning is managed, and in the strategies chosen for this purpose (for a discussion of strategies, see Griffiths, this volume).
Strong metacognitive skills empower language learners: when learners reflect upon their learning, they become better prepared to make conscious decisions about what they can do to improve their learning. O'Malley and Chamot (1990, p. 8) emphasize the importance of metacognition when they state: “students without metacognitive approaches are essentially learners without direction or opportunity to plan their learning, monitor their progress, or review their accomplishments and future learning directions.” Metacognition, in language learning, as illustrated in Figure 1 (see p. 100), can be divided into five primary and intersecting components:
preparing and planning for learning
selecting and using strategies
Views of metacognition
In his great work Les Miserables, Victor Hugo wrote, “Where the telescope ends, the microscope begins. Which of the two has the grander view?” (Hugo, 1992, p. 767). The metaphorical telescope and microscope are useful for looking at the concept of metacognition.
Literacy development is increasingly mediated in digital, online environments such as learning management systems (LMS). These systems have been criticized for their lack of social presence, thereby reducing their impact for literacy and subject content learning. This chapter examines the definitions and descriptions of LMS and their characteristics. It then describes a blended model of on-campus and online delivery of courses in Australia and Singapore and examines some issues concerning advantages and disadvantages of LMS, with particular reference to enhancing the social elements or ‘social presence’ embedded in the system. Student feedback, survey data and a literature review inform an examination of issues such as ease of access, equity and the critical notion of ‘social presence’ in online spaces. Feedback was collected from public postings on a discussion board, online surveys, e-mail communications and paper-based surveys. This involved 495 students across three subjects in an Australian teacher pre-service preparation undergraduate course and one subject from a Singapore-based Master of Education subject.
In the past, online learning environments have been characterized by a wide variety of features depending on the operating system, software tools and experience of the creator. Often, in educational contexts the knowledge of effective pedagogy has not been matched by equivalent knowledge of programming, web design or competency in using appropriate online tools. This sometimes created a tension between educators on one hand and technicians on the other, when the technical construction of online environments was outsourced or created in teams.
Learning management systems have developed as a means to cater for the needs of educators who may not have a high level of knowledge, or the time to construct their own custom-made e-learning environment. These systems provide a standardized ‘shell’ that includes a set of tools commonly used in online courses. Terms and definitions attributed to these systems are still in a state of evolution and are sometimes confusing or contradictory.
Merely paying attention to technical competencies and efficiencies in some cases has led to barren and impersonal environments with few opportunities for students to develop literacy and subject knowledge in ways that take advantage of social and cultural shared understandings and engagement. Lankshear (2003, 183) emphasizes the ‘socio-cultural approach to literacy’ within ‘new literacies’ that he describes as ‘literacies associated with new communication and information technologies, or in more general terms, the digital apparatus’.
There has been much discussion about the productivity and training value of protected research sessions at specialist registrar (SpR) level. We used questionnaire survey to investigate the research experience of senior psychiatric SpRs and first-year psychiatric consultants in Scotland.
The survey had an 80% response rate. Two-thirds of respondents were able to take protected research sessions, and a similar proportion had published research work during their higher training. Specific difficulties in conducting research are identified and discussed.
Scottish SpRs in psychiatry are usually able to protect research sessions, but experience difficulties with lack of experience, resources and supervision. Almost a third of those near the end of their training have published nothing. It is important to explore options other than research projects to gain relevant research experience.
We report the case of an 85 year old woman, admitted to hospital with a two month history of a depressive illness. Within one week of commencing treatment with citalopram 20mg daily, she had developed a widespread rash, bilateral ankle oedema and a range of biochemical and haematological abnormalities, including marked elevations of plasma urea and creatinine and increased neutrophil and eosinophil counts. Following withdrawal of citalopram, her physical state returned to normal within two weeks. The episode is suggestive of acute interstitial nephritis triggered by citalopram, a phenomenon not previously reported in association with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.