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Physical and chemical characterization of a spring flood event, Bench Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A.: evidence for water storage

  • Suzanne Prestrud Anderson (a1), Katherine M.H. Fernald (a1), Robert S. Anderson (a1) and Neil F. Humphrey (a2)

Abstract

Previous studies of alpine glaciers have demonstrated that as water discharge increases through the summer, the predominant mode of subglacial drainage shifts from a distributed system to a more efficient conduit drainage system. We observed an early-melt-season speed-up and flood event lasting roughly 2 days in a small, uncomplicated Alaskan glacier that appears to have resulted from a sudden shift of the subglacial system in response to a significant accumulation of meltwater within the glacier. Calculated melt-water inputs exceeded discharge before the event; the implied change in storage over this 10 day period was equivalent to roughly 0.13 m averaged over the entire glacier bed. The pattern of discharge and suspended-sediment variations and the appearance of large ice chunks in the stream suggest that the speed-up occurred during a period of establishment of new subglacial conduits. A culminating flood and associated suspended-sediment pulse appear to have marked the final establishment of the new section of subglacial conduit. The flood ended the episode of high sliding velocity, but released water with high solute concentrations that reflect relatively long contact time with sediments. Discharge of stored water, inferred from high solute concentrations and lack of diurnal variation in discharge, continued for at least 3 days. While events such as this must recur through the melt season as the conduit system extends up-glacier and the locus of meltwater inputs shifts, their manifestations in the outlet stream will likely be more subdued later in the season.

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References

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