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This paper offers a framework for measuring global growth and inflation, built on standard index number theory, national accounts principles, and the concepts and methods for international macro-economic comparisons. Our approach provides a sound basis for purchasing power parity (PPP)- and exchange rate (XR)-based global growth and inflation measures. The Sato–Vartia index number system advocated here offers very similar results to a Fisher system but has the added advantage of allowing a complete decomposition with PPP or XR effects. For illustrative purposes, we present estimates of global growth and inflation for 141 countries over the years 2005 and 2011. The contribution of movements in XRs and PPPs to global inflation are presented. The aggregation properties of the method are also discussed.
To evaluate whether incorporating mandatory prior authorization for Clostridioides difficile testing into antimicrobial stewardship pharmacist workflow could reduce testing in patients with alternative etiologies for diarrhea.
Single center, quasi-experimental before-and-after study.
Tertiary-care, academic medical center in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Adult and pediatric patients admitted between September 11, 2019 and December 10, 2019 were included if they had an order placed for 1 of the following: (1) C. difficile enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in patients hospitalized >72 hours and received laxatives, oral contrast, or initiated tube feeds within the prior 48 hours, (2) repeat molecular multiplex gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GIPAN) testing, or (3) GIPAN testing in patients hospitalized >72 hours.
A best-practice alert prompting prior authorization by the antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) for EIA or GIPAN testing was implemented. Approval required the provider to page the ASP pharmacist and discuss rationale for testing. The provider could not proceed with the order if ASP approval was not obtained.
An average of 2.5 requests per day were received over the 3-month intervention period. The weekly rate of EIA and GIPAN orders per 1,000 patient days decreased significantly from 6.05 ± 0.94 to 4.87 ± 0.78 (IRR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56–0.93; P = .010) and from 1.72 ± 0.37 to 0.89 ± 0.29 (IRR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37–0.77; P = .001), respectively.
We identified an efficient, effective C. difficile and GIPAN diagnostic stewardship approval model.
Depression is known to be associated with low serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and elevated levels of cortisol. Yoga has been shown to be associated with significant antidepressant effect as well as increase in serum BDNF levels and reduction in serum cortisol levels in these patients.
Aims and Objectives
We examined the association between serum cortisol and BDNF levels in patients with depression who were on treatment with antidepressants, yoga therapy, and both in combination.
Fifty-one consenting drug-naive outpatients (29 males) aged between 18-55 years, diagnosed with Major Depression received antidepressant medication alone (n=15), yoga therapy with (n=18), or without (n=18) concurrent antidepressants. Subjects in the yoga groups practiced a specific Yoga module for three months. Depression was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Serum BDNF & cortisol levels were obtained before and after three months using sandwich ELISA method. The group differences were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Correlations between Serum BDNF & cortisol levels were analyzed using Pearson's correlation.
Significant negative correlations were observed between baseline BDNF & cortisol levels in the Yoga+Medication group (r=0.569*; P=0.01), and between change in BDNF and cortisol level in the Yoga alone group (r=0.582*; P=0.01). No other significant correlations were found.
There is a significant association between serum cortisol and BDNF levels in patients with depression who underwent Yoga with or without antidepressants. This suggests that Yoga may have stress reduction and neuroplastic effects alone or in combination with medications in depressed patients.
The design of high energy Li-ion batteries (LIBs) by coupling high voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) cathode and Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) anode ensures effective and safe energy-storage. LTO–LNMO full-cells (FCs) with difference in electrode grain sizes and presence of excess Mn3+ in cathode were studied using micron-sized commercial LTO, nanostructured LTO donuts (LTOd), P4332 LNMO nanopowders, and nanostructured Fd3m LNMO caterpillars (LNMOcplr). Among the studied FCs, LTOd–LNMOcplr was detected with a stable capacity of 69 mA h/g (1C rate), 99% coulombic efficiency, and 87% capacity retention under 200 cycles of continuous charge–discharge studies. The superior electrochemical performance observed in LTOd–LNMOcplr FC was due to the low charge transfer resistance, which is corroborated to the effect of grain sizes and the longer retention of Mn3+ in the electrodes. An effective and simple FC design incorporating both nanostructuring and in situ conductivity in electrode materials would aid in developing future high-performance LIBs.
While SrTiO3 exhibits promising electronic transport properties, its high thermal conductivity (κ) is detrimental for its use as a thermoelectric material. Here, we investigate the influence of oxygen non-stoichiometry on κ in bulk SrTiO3 ceramics. A significant reduction in κ was achieved in oxygen deficient SrTiO3−δ, owing to the presence of oxygen vacancies that act as phonon scattering centers. Upon oxidation of SrTiO3−δ, the κ of pristine SrTiO3 was recovered, suggesting that oxygen vacancies were indeed responsible for the reduction in κ. Raman spectroscopy was used as an independent tool to confirm the reduction of oxygen vacancies in SrTiO3−δ upon oxidation.
To study infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and their association with nutritional status among young children.
A community-based, cross-sectional study was carried out in ten states of India, using a multistage random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements such as length/height and weight were conducted and nutritional assessment was done using the WHO child growth standards.
National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau survey, 2011–2012.
Children aged <3 years and their mothers.
Only 36 % of infants received breast-feeding within an hour of birth and 50 % were exclusively breast-fed up to 6 months. Prevalence of underweight, stunting and wasting was 38, 41 and 22 %, respectively. The chance of undernutrition among <3-year-old children was significantly higher among those from scheduled caste/scheduled tribe communities, the lowest-income group, with illiterate mothers and lack of sanitary latrine. Among infants, the chance of undernutrition was significantly higher among low-birth-weight babies, and among children whose mother had not consumed iron–folic acid tablets during pregnancy. Immunization practices and minimum dietary diversity were observed to be associated with undernutrition among 12–23-month-old children.
Undernutrition is still an important public health problem in India and observed to be associated with low socio-economic status, illiteracy of mother, low birth weight and dietary diversity. Improving socio-economic and literacy status of mothers can help in improving maternal nutrition during pregnancy and thus low birth weight. Also, improving knowledge of mothers about IYCF practices will help in improving children’s nutritional status.
Nitrification potential of a tropical vertisol saturated with water was estimated during sequential reduction of nitrate (NO3−), ferric iron (Fe3+), sulphate (SO42−) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in terminal electron-accepting processes (TEAPs). In general, the TEAPs enhanced potential nitrification rate (PNR) of the soil. Nitrification was highest at Fe3+ reduction followed by SO42− reduction, NO3− reduction and lowest in unreduced control soil. Predicted PNR correlated significantly with the observed PNR. Electron donor Fe2+ stimulated PNR, while S2− inhibited it significantly. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism targeting the amoA gene of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) highlighted population dynamics during the sequential reduction of terminal electron acceptors. Only the relative abundance of AOA varied significantly during the course of soil reduction. Relative abundance of AOB correlated with NO3− and Fe2+. Linear regression models predicted PNR from the values of NO3−, Fe2+ and relative abundance of AOA. Principal component analysis of PNR during different reducing conditions explained 72.90% variance by PC1 and 19.52% variance by PC2. Results revealed that AOA might have a significant role in nitrification during reducing conditions in the tropical flooded ecosystem of a vertisol.
Every year the growth of the poultry industry is severely threatened by a number of infectious viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases. There are a number of vaccines to control these diseases including inactivated virus vaccines, attenuated virus vaccines, live virus vaccines, and subunit vaccines, but they are often relatively expensive and require cold storage and trained people to administer them, especially in developing countries. Plant-based vaccines provide a better option to control these diseases in low profit margin poultry industry. Still there are some challenges in the field of plant-based, so called ‘green’ vaccines. Injection-based oral priming is a big challenge for commercialisation of green vaccines so, new techniques are needed in the field of plant-based vaccine to pass these barriers for commercialisation. This discusses the potential for plant-based vaccines and whether they are good option to control poultry diseases.
The interaction of laser radiation with low density aerogels is of crucial importance in areas such as the creation of coherent radiation sources in the X-ray range, simulation of astrophysical as well as nuclear fusion phenomena in laboratory and fundamental studies of the properties of soft condensed matter under dynamic pressure in the Mbar range. In the present paper, the experimental results on the X-ray emission of laser induced plasma in TEOS based, MTMS based aerogels and solid quartz targets, are reported. The aerogels were produced by the sol-gel processing of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) followed by supercritical drying. Silica alcogels were produced using 0.001 M oxalic acid (C2H4O4), 0.5 M ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) catalysts. Different densities of aerogels varying from 0.02 to 0.06 g/cm3 have been obtained using different molar ratios of TEOS, MTMS, ethanol and catalysts. The laser, with intensity up to 2 x 1014 W/m2, interaction with TEOS and MTMS based aerogels have been conducted using 30J/500 ps Nd : glass laser system. The resulting soft (0.8 – 1.56 Kev) and hard (>4 Kev) X-ray emissions have been measured using semiconductor photodiodes. It has been observed that the soft X-ray yield increases by a factor of two for the silica aerogel targets compared to the X-ray emission from the solid quartz target, whereas the hard X-ray yield reduces. The enhanced soft X-ray yield in silica aerogel targets is attributed to the large volume heating.
Objectives: Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) demonstrate poorer learning and memory skills relative to never-depressed comparisons (NDC). Previous studies report decreased volume and disrupted function of frontal lobes and hippocampi in MDD during memory challenge. However, it has been difficult to dissociate contributions of short-term memory and executive functioning to memory difficulties from those that might be attributable to long-term memory deficits. Methods: Adult males (MDD, n=19; NDC, n=22) and females (MDD, n=23; NDC, n=19) performed the Semantic List Learning Task (SLLT) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The SLLT Encoding condition consists of 15 lists, each containing 14 words. After each list, a Distractor condition occurs, followed by cued Silent Rehearsal instructions. Post-scan recall and recognition were collected. Groups were compared using block (Encoding-Silent Rehearsal) and event-related (Words Recalled) models. Results: MDD displayed lower recall relative to NDC. NDC displayed greater activation in several temporal, frontal, and parietal regions, for both Encoding-Silent Rehearsal and the Words Recalled analyses. Groups also differed in activation patterns in regions of the Papez circuit in planned analyses. The majority of activation differences were not related to performance, presence of medications, presence of comorbid anxiety disorder, or decreased gray matter volume in MDD. Conclusions: Adults with MDD exhibit memory difficulties during a task designed to reduce the contribution of individual variability from short-term memory and executive functioning processes, parallel with decreased activation in memory and executive functioning circuits. Ecologically valid long-term memory tasks are imperative for uncovering neural correlates of memory performance deficits in adults with MDD. (JINS, 2016, 22, 412–425)
The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectionally whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) might favorably modify amyloid-β (Aβ)-related decrements in cognition in a cohort of late-middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Sixty-nine enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention participated in this study. They completed a comprehensive neuropsychological exam, underwent 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, and performed a graded treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise test was used as the index of CRF. Forty-five participants also underwent lumbar puncture for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, from which Aβ42 was immunoassayed. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the association between Aβ and cognition was modified by CRF. There were significant VO2peak*PiB-PET interactions for Immediate Memory (p=.041) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p=.025). There were also significant VO2peak*CSF Aβ42 interactions for Immediate Memory (p<.001) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p<.001). Specifically, in the context of high Aβ burden, that is, increased PiB-PET binding or reduced CSF Aβ42, individuals with higher CRF exhibited significantly better cognition compared with individuals with lower CRF. In a late-middle-aged, at-risk cohort, higher CRF is associated with a diminution of Aβ-related effects on cognition. These findings suggest that exercise might play an important role in the prevention of AD. (JINS, 2015, 21, 841–850)
To assess trends in nutrient intakes and nutritional status of rural adult women (≥18–60 years) and the association of sociodemographic characteristics with overweight/obesity.
Community-based cross-sectional studies carried out during 1975–79 to 2011–12 by the National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB) were used. Anthropometric measurements such as height, weight and waist circumference, carried out during the surveys, were used. Association and logistic regression analyses between sociodemographic characteristics and overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity were conducted using a complex samples procedure.
Ten NNMB states of India.
Non-pregnant and non-lactating rural women aged ≥18–60 years covered during the above periods from ten states in India.
The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined from 52 % during 1975–79 to 34 % during 2011–12, while that of overweight/obesity has increased from 7 % to 24 % during the same period. Median intakes of most of the nutrients have increased over the same period, although they were below recommended levels. The chance of overweight/obesity and abdominal obesity was significantly (P<0·01) higher among women aged 40–60 years, those belonging to Christian religion and other backward communities, women living in pucca houses, literate women, women engaged in service and business, and those having higher per capita income.
Prevalence of chronic energy deficiency has declined significantly; however, overweight/obesity has increased during the same period. This increase in overweight/obesity may be attributed to increased consumption of fatty foods, sedentary lifestyle and improved socio-economic status. There is a need to educate the community about regular physical exercise, low intakes of fats and oils, and a balanced diet.
The stress generation hypothesis was tested in two different longitudinal studies examining relations between weekly depression symptom ratings and stress levels in adolescents and emerging adults at varied risk for depression. The participants in Study 1 included 240 adolescents who differed with regard to their mothers' history of depressive disorders. Youth were assessed annually across 6 years (Grades 6–12). Consistent with the depression autonomy model, higher numbers of prior major depressive episodes (MDEs) were associated with weaker stress generation effects, such that higher levels of depressive symptoms predicted increases in levels of dependent stressors for adolescents with two or more prior MDEs, but depressive symptoms were not significantly related to dependent stress levels for youth with three or more prior MDEs. In Study 2, the participants were 32 remitted-depressed and 36 never-depressed young adults who completed a psychosocial stress task to determine cortisol reactivity and were reassessed for depression and stress approximately 8 months later. Stress generation effects were moderated by cortisol responses to a laboratory psychosocial stressor, such that individuals with higher cortisol responses exhibited a pattern consistent with the depression autonomy model, whereas individuals with lower cortisol responses showed a pattern more consistent with the depression sensitization model. Finally, comparing across the two samples, stress generation effects were weaker for older participants and for those with more prior MDEs. The complex, multifactorial relation between stress and depression is discussed.
Crop biofortification is increasingly being recognized as a cost-effective and sustainable approach to address the widespread micronutrient malnutrition arising from Fe and Zn deficiencies. Pearl millet as a cereal crop species has higher Fe density than all other major cereals. Earlier studies in pearl millet have shown that breeding lines, hybrid parents, improved populations and composites having high Fe and Zn densities were often based largely or entirely on iniadi pearl millet germplasm. In an attempt to identify additional sources of high Fe density in this group of germplasm, 297 accessions were screened using Perl's Prussian Blue staining, of which 191 accessions (118 from Togo, 62 from Ghana and 11 from Burkina Faso) were re-evaluated during the 2010 rainy and 2012 summer seasons using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy method. On the basis of the mean performance over the two seasons (environments), large variability was observed for both Fe (51–121 mg/kg) and Zn (46–87 mg/kg) densities. There was a highly significant and positive correlation between the two micronutrients (r= 0.77, P< 0.01). Of these re-evaluated accessions, 49% had higher Fe density than the high-Fe control commercial cultivar ICTP 8203 (81 mg/kg), and most of these accessions also had Zn density ≥ 61 mg/kg (59 mg/kg for ICTP 8203). A total of 27 accessions (20 from Togo and seven from Ghana) having a Fe density of 95–121 mg/kg (1 standard error of difference above that for ICTP 8203) and a Zn density of 59–87 mg/kg were selected as a valuable germplasm resource for genetic improvement of these two micronutrients in pearl millet.
Monitoring of malaria intensity in terrain regions of Arunachal Pradesh, India is very difficult as the dynamics of mosquito populations varies to a large extent due to altitude and frequent changes in climatic conditions. There is a scarcity of information on the influence of climatic factors on malaria morbidity in Arunachal Pradesh. Hence, a pilot study was conducted from 2006 to 2010 to understand malaria transmission dynamics, seasonal distribution and disease morbidity. Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum are the two major parasites for malaria transmission in Arunachal Pradesh. Out of 142 558 malaria cases analysed from 2006 to 2010, P. vivax infection contributed 72·1% followed by P. falciparum (27·9%). However, the overall morbidity of malaria declined from 37/1000 in 2006 to 18/1000 population in 2010. From this study it was observed that the temporal distribution of malaria cases varied between districts and high morbidity rates were reported mostly during the wet season. To understand malaria transmission dynamics in the study area, the Richards model was used to predict malaria cases. The output of the results from this model predicted a higher number of malaria cases (K) during 2006 and a gradual decline in subsequent years. Similarly, the growth rate r, and exponential deviation α, were almost identical for all the years, which shows that the Richards model is the most suitable model for the prediction of malaria cases.