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Rapidly-flowing ice streams are an important mechanism through which ice sheets lose mass, and much work has been focussed on elucidating the processes that increase or decrease their velocity. Recent work using standard inverse methods has inferred previously-unrecognised regular patterns of high basal shear stress (‘sticky spots’ >200 kPa) beneath a number of ice streams in Antarctica and Greenland, termed ‘traction ribs’. They appear at a scale intermediate between smaller ribbed moraines and much larger mega-ribs observed on palaeo-ice sheet beds, but it is unclear whether they have a topographic expression at the bed. Here, we report observations of rib-like bedforms from DEMs along palaeo-ice stream beds in western Canada that resemble both the pattern and dimensions of traction ribs. Their identification suggests that traction ribs may have a topographic expression that lies between, and partly overlaps with, ribbed moraines and much larger mega-ribs. These intermediate-sized bedforms support the notion of a ribbed bedform continuum. Their formation remains conjectural, but our observations from palaeo-ice streams, coupled with those from modern ice masses, suggest they are related to wave-like instabilities occurring in the coupled flow of ice and till and modulated by subglacial meltwater drainage. Their form and pattern may also involve glaciotectonism of subglacial sediments.
In this paper, we investigate the effect of neighbourhood density (ND) on vocabulary size in a computational model of vocabulary development. A word has a high ND if there are many words phonologically similar to it. High ND words are more easily learned by infants of all abilities (e.g. Storkel, 2009; Stokes, 2014). We present a neural network model that learns general phonotactic patterns in the exposure language, as well as specific word forms and, crucially, mappings between word meanings and word forms. The network is faster at learning frequent words, and words containing high-probability phoneme sequences, as human word learners are, but, independently of this, the network is also faster at learning words with high ND, and, when its capacity is reduced, it learns high ND words in preference to other words, similarly to late talkers. We analyze the model and propose a novel explanation of the ND effect, in which word meanings play an important role in generating word-specific biases on general phonological trajectories. This explanation leads to a new prediction about the origin of the ND effect in infants.
In 1976, David Sugden and Brian John developed a classification for Antarctic landscapes of glacial erosion based upon exposed and eroded coastal topography, providing insight into the past glacial dynamics of the Antarctic ice sheets. We extend this classification to cover the continental interior of Antarctica by analysing the hypsometry of the subglacial landscape using a recently released dataset of bed topography (BEDMAP2). We used the existing classification as a basis for first developing a low-resolution description of landscape evolution under the ice sheet before building a more detailed classification of patterns of glacial erosion. Our key finding is that a more widespread distribution of ancient, preserved alpine landscapes may survive beneath the Antarctic ice sheets than has been previously recognized. Furthermore, the findings suggest that landscapes of selective erosion exist further inland than might be expected, and may reflect the presence of thinner, less extensive ice in the past. Much of the selective nature of erosion may be controlled by pre-glacial topography, and especially by the large-scale tectonic structure and fluvial valley network. The hypotheses of landscape evolution presented here can be tested by future surveys of the Antarctic ice sheet bed.
This paper considers methods to measure output and productivity in the delivery of health services, with an application to NHS hospital sector. It first develops a theoretical framework for measuring quality adjusted outputs and then considers how this might be implemented given available data. Measures of input use are discussed and productivity growth estimates are presented for the period 1998/9-2003/4. The paper concludes that available data are unlikely fully to capture quality improvements.
Lacustrine sediments from southeastern Arabia reveal variations in lake level corresponding to changes in the strength and duration of Indian Ocean Monsoon (IOM) summer rainfall and winter cyclonic rainfall. The late glacial/Holocene transition of the region was characterised by the development of mega-linear dunes. These dunes became stabilised and vegetated during the early Holocene and interdunal lakes formed in response to the incursion of the IOM at approximately 8500 cal yr BP with the development of C3 dominated savanna grasslands. The IOM weakened ca. 6000 cal yr BP with the onset of regional aridity, aeolian sedimentation and dune reactivation and accretion. Despite this reduction in precipitation, the lake was maintained by winter dominated rainfall. There was a shift to drier adapted C4 grasslands across the dune field. Lake sediment geochemical analyses record precipitation minima at 8200, 5000 and 4200 cal yr BP that coincide with Bond events in the North Atlantic. A number of these events correspond with changes in cultural periods, suggesting that climate was a key mechanism affecting human occupation and exploitation of this region.
This article reconsiders sentimentalism in the light of the writings of Adam Smith and the career of Abd al-Halim Hafiz, Egypt’s ‘Dark Nightingale’ and film-star crooner of the 1950s and 60s. It explores competing representations of emotionality, the limits of enchantment, and the contemporary politics of nostalgia and melodrama in Egyptian public culture. Eighteenth-century sentimental theory provides a critical and productive angle on twentieth-century popular musical culture, angles that this paper explores by imagining Adam Smith watching Abd al-Halim Hafiz’s first film, Lahn al-Wafā‘ (1955).
Models of factors controlling late Pleistocene pluvial lake-level fluctuations in the Great Basin are evaluated by dating lake levels in Jakes Valley. “Jakes Lake” rose to a highstand at 13,870 ± 50 14C Yr B.P., receded to a stillstand at 12,440 ± 50 14C yr B.P., and receded steadily to desiccation thereafter. The Jakes Lake highstand is roughly coincident with highstands of lakes Bonneville, Lahontan and Russell. The rise to highstand and recession of Jakes Lake were most likely controlled by a storm track steered by the polar jet stream. The final stillstand of Jakes Lake helps constrain timing of northward retreat of the polar jet stream during the Pleistocene–Holocene transition.
Three sightings of Mesoplodon beaked whales are reported from the Bay of Biscay, north-east Atlantic. All sightings comprised one or two animals, breaching repeatedly in proximity to the survey vessel, and occurred at between 2200 and 4100 m water depth. Descriptive and photographic data are compared with published accounts of Mesoplodon species in the north-east Atlantic, and the identification of the animals as True's beaked whale (Mesoplodon mirus) concurs with all observed features. Within the north-east Atlantic, True's beaked whale is the only Mesoplodon species that could produce the single, closely-spaced parallel-paired scar observed on one animal. Our observations are consistent with the first live sightings of True's beaked whale in the Bay of Biscay, and only the second documented record worldwide.
The reflexive turn in recent years has dramatically repositioned the question of Theory. Despite the banality of the widespread recognition that ‘Theory’ is now a mass media performance art, and a global one at that, questions of what happens when garage bands read Hebdige, the Kaluli ponder Sound and Sentiment, and visual artists incorporate quotations from Foucault into their pictures and installations continue to press hard on issues of theoretical production. Who is ‘doing theory’ here? Can theory really do what it once claimed to be able to do, to explain and point the way forward? And is there any way of redrawing the line which once comfortably separated culture and theory? Clearly enough, Theory doesn't so much explain the world, but constitutes an important and inseparable part of what, itself, requires explanation and/or interpretation. Quite what it is that articulates that explanation, if no longer ‘Theory’, is far from clear and will no doubt remain so, to the consternation of many academic theorists. For others, both within and outside universities, the situation affords the hope that a more or less structured, more or less global, and more or less democratic conversation may emerge between those involved, and that the scope of this involvement is extended substantially beyond its current electronic horizons. In the process, clearly enough, the distinction between Theory as metadiscourse and the exclusive property of the privileged few, and Culture as a bounded field of largely implicit meaning shared by ‘the rest’, will disappear.
The Na+,K+-ATPase is a transmembrane protein, located in the plasma membrane of virtually all animal cells, which controls Na+ and K+ gradients. It is a member of the P-type ATPase family of ion pumps, a group of enzymes which pump ions against a concentration gradient, forming a phosphorylated intermediate during the pumping cycle. For each mole of ATP hydrolysed, 3 Na + ions are moved out of the cell and 2 K+ ions are moved into the cell. Unlike most other members of this family, which have one subunit, Na+, K+-ATPase is a heterodimer of α and β subunits. The a subunit consists of 1020 amino acids and has been predicted to have 10 membrane-spanning a-helices as well as a large cytoplasmic headpiece which forms the ATP binding and phosphorylation site. The α subunit, 300 amino acids in length, has one membrane spanning helix and has most of its mass located on the extracellular side of the membrane.