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Looking for a substantial increase in the reliability and validity of voice analysis measurements in depression, we have developed a new experimental paradigm. The paradigm is based on two vocal tasks with different levels of cognitive processing and a baseline verbal task. It has been applied to 40 subjects, 20 patients with affective disorders and 20 normal individuals. We have found that an important set of vocal parameters, at different intervals, discriminates patients from normal subjects. Here, we discuss four of them – those that have been especially consistent; the patients had longer reaction times, a higher proportion of relative spectral energy (at a very low frequency band), narrower fundamental frequency range and higher proportion of omissions. Under the proposed paradigm, the acoustic analysis could be a promising instrument for the development of quantitative indicators of depression.
Depression is the most prevalent mental disorder in Primary Care (PC), with 60% of depressed patients receiving treatment in PC Units. Suicide is the most serious consequence of depression. The European Commission funded the European Alliance Against Depression (EAAD), a preventive program on depression and suicide that has been applied in 18 European countries. In Spain, this program has been implemented in Catalonia and the Balearic Islands (Majorca and Menorca).
To present the results obtained in the program implementation in Majorca.
This program was applied in June 2009 within the urban area of Palma (222,100 inhabitants). Phase 1 entailed data collection of suicide, suicide attempts and antidepressant consumption since 2006. Phase 2 implied the development of specific training courses for General Practitioners on suicide prevention in high-risk population, and the launch of a public advertising campaign with the collaboration of mass media.
Based on data collected since 2006, there are nearly 300 suicide attempts in the Balearic Islands every year. Within the area of intervention suicide attempts decreased a 24.8% between 2009 and 2010. Conversely, antidepressant prescription and consumption increased from a frequent 2–3% per year to a 5%.
Obtained results are consistent with findings in other areas where this program has been applied. Data available next years about number of suicides will help to assess the final impact of this program. It is important to continue designing and implementing preventive programs aimed to reduce suicide risk including specific training for health care providers.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by deficits in social interaction and behavioral impairments. Several studies have reported differences in white matter generalized Fractional Anisotropy (gFA) in ASD.
We studied white matter microstructural integrity in individuals with ASD.
We conducted the first DWI-based whole brain tractography study to compare gFA in 22 deep white matter tracts in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD to controls and individuals with ASD. Futhermore, we replicated our significants results in an independant sample.
Fifty-one first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD, 29 controls and 14 individuals with ASD participated.
We performed q-ball imaging whole-brain tractography based on 1.5 T diffusion weighted MRI over 32 non-colinear directions. Then, we computed mean gFA along 22 main deep white matter tracts. A linear mixed model using group, gender, age and IQ as fixed effects and family as a random effect was used and Bonferroni correction applied. We also recruited a replication sample comprising 23 individuals with ASD and 32 controls.
We demonstrated a significantly reduced mean gFA along the left IFOF in first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD and individuals with ASD compared with controls and replicated this finding in an independant sample of patients. A decrease in mean gFA was also observed in the left CST when we compared first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD to controls (no such decrease was present in patients).
Our work suggests that structural fronto-occipital disconnectivity may be an endophenotype of ASD.
Chronic non-malignant pain (CNMP) is defined as pain lasting a minimum of three months. In general, chronic pain affects 20% adult worldwide population. Moreover, pain is more common in patients with depression, anxiety, and substance-use disorders and with low socioeconomic status. We aimed to better understand the influence of pain on substance use and treatment use patterns of individuals who experienced clinically recognized pain and have substance use disorder.
Patients with pain disturbances were identified in Electronic Health Records (EHR) through ICD-9 code 338*, medical written diagnoses, or diagnoses of fibromyalgia. A patient was considered to have a substance use disorder if he received treatment for illicit drug or alcohol abuse or dependence. We combined 2010–2012 (EHR) data from primary care and specialty mental health setting in a Boston healthcare system (n = 131,966 person-years) and a specialty mental health care setting in Madrid, Spain (n = 43,309 person-years).
We identified that 35.3% of individuals with clinically recognized pain also report substance use disorder, compared to only 10.6% of individuals without clinically recognized pain (P < 0.01). Those with co-morbid pain and substance use disorder were significantly more likely than their specialty care counterparts without co-morbid pain and substance disorders to be seen in the emergency room (56.5% vs. 36.6%, respectively, P < 0.01).
The findings suggest that CNMP is associated with an increase risk of substance abuse disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Ducks are waterfowl belonging to the Anatidae family of cosmopolitan distribution. In duck production systems, obtaining ducklings at one-day-old is determinant for the productive chain. The egg production in some species of ducks reaches about 250 to 300 eggs per year. Obtaining one-day-old ducklings can be done by natural incubation with a broody female duck or artificially in an incubator. During artificial incubation, fertility and hatchability are the most important indicators that must be controlled, because they influence the supply of ducklings to the farm. Many factors are related to fertility and hatching, such as environmental conditions, production system, season, nutrition, management of broodstock, storage time of egg and cleaning of eggs before the incubation. According to some reports, Pekin eggs have greater hatchability than Muscovy eggs. The eggs of Muscovy have presented values lower than 22.7% of hatchability. The hatchability of Pekin duck eggs was 78.0% in the spring, while in summer it was around 46.5%. The best hatchability is observed during the winter (57.68%), as in the summer it decreases to 54.14%. The reproductive characteristics of flocks, age, external and internal quality of the egg, male female relation, and presence of lethal genes are factors that directly involve breeders. Larger sexual ratios between males and females of 1:4.3 to 1: 10 cause reduced egg fertility from 75.9% down to 49.6%. Successful production of day-old ducklings starts with the proper selection and management of breeding stock, proper post-lay handling of fertile eggs and the correct incubation process. There are different methods used to improve the hatchability such as dipping eggs in nutrients during the incubation period.
Neighbourhood greenness or vegetative presence has been associated with indicators of health and well-being, but its relationship to depression in older adults has been less studied. Understanding the role of environmental factors in depression may inform and complement traditional depression interventions, including both prevention and treatment.
This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood greenness and depression diagnoses among older adults in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA.
Analyses examined 249 405 beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare, a USA federal health insurance programme for older adults. Participants were 65 years and older, living in the same Miami location across 2 years (2010–2011). Multilevel analyses assessed the relationship between neighbourhood greenness, assessed by average block-level normalised difference vegetative index via satellite imagery, and depression diagnosis using USA Medicare claims data. Covariates were individual age, gender, race/ethnicity, number of comorbid health conditions and neighbourhood median household income.
Over 9% of beneficiaries had a depression diagnosis. Higher levels of greenness were associated with lower odds of depression, even after adjusting for demographics and health comorbidities. When compared with individuals residing in the lowest tertile of greenness, individuals from the middle tertile (medium greenness) had 8% lower odds of depression (odds ratio 0.92; 95% CI 0.88, 0.96; P = 0.0004) and those from the high tertile (high greenness) had 16% lower odds of depression (odds ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.79, 0.88; P < 0.0001).
Higher levels of greenness may reduce depression odds among older adults. Increasing greenery – even to moderate levels – may enhance individual-level approaches to promoting wellness.
The Centro de Laseres Pulsados in Salamanca, Spain has recently started operation phase and the first user access period on the 6 J 30 fs 200 TW system (VEGA 2) already started at the beginning of 2018. In this paper we report on two commissioning experiments recently performed on the VEGA 2 system in preparation for the user campaign. VEGA 2 system has been tested in different configurations depending on the focusing optics and targets used. One configuration (long focal length
cm) is for underdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a low density gas-jet generating electron beams (via laser wake field acceleration mechanism) with maximum energy up to 500 MeV and an X-ray betatron source with a 10 keV critical energy. A second configuration (short focal length
cm) is for overdense laser–matter interaction where VEGA 2 is focused onto a
thick Al target generating a proton beam with a maximum energy of 10 MeV and temperature of 2.5 MeV. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results.
Pigeon pea (PP), Cajanus cajan, is a plant that is cultivated for human food and animal feed. It exists as a wide range of cultivars, and their flexibility for use in animal rearing systems have made PP popular, especially for small-scale farmers. PP is grown widely in India and in parts of Africa and Central America. The main producers of PP in the world are India, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya, Malawi, Ethiopia, Mozambique, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, the West Indies in the Caribbean and Latin America region, Indonesia and the Philippines and Australia. Analysis has shown that PP contains 17.9-24.3% crude protein (CP) in whole grain, and 21.1-28.1% in split seeds, and high protein genotypes contain 32.5%. Optimal levels of utilisation have been shown to improve broiler performance and may reduce daily feed cost. However, PP contains anti-nutritional factors that negatively affect feed efficiency. The use of processing methods such as fermentation, boiling, milling, soaking, and roasting can minimise any harmful effects and improve its nutritive quality, positively enhancing performance parameters. Studies on the use of PP suggested that it can be included at 7.5% of the diet or as 50% substitution for soybean meal in broiler diets.
In the foothills of the Cumberland Mountains, in central Appalachia (a region that spans 13 states in the US), sits an economically distressed and rural community of the United States. Once a thriving coal-mining area, this region now is reported as one of the hardest places to live in the US. Southeastern Kentucky, located in a remote, rocky, mountainous area surrounded by rivers and valleys and prone to flooding, experienced a major flood in Spring 2013 causing significant damage to homes and critical infrastructure.
Aims of the study were to: (1) identify and better understand the contextual variables compounding the impact of a disaster event that occurred in Spring 2013; (2) identify ways participants managed antecedent circumstances, risk, and protective factors to cope with disaster up to 12 months post-event; and (3) further determine implications for community-focused interventions that may enhance recovery for vulnerable populations to promote greater outcomes of adaptation, wellness, and readiness.
Using an ethnographic mixed-methods approach, an inter-collaborative team conducted face-to-face interviews with (N=12) Appalachian residents about their disaster experience, documented observations and visual assessment of need on an observation tool, and used photography depicting structural and environmental conditions. A Health and Emergency Preparedness Assessment Survey Tool was used to collect demographic, health, housing, environment, and disaster readiness assessment data. Community stakeholders facilitated purposeful sampling through coordination of scheduled home visits.
Triangulation of all data sources provided evidence that the community had unique coping strategies related to faith and spirituality, cultural values and heritage, and social support to manage antecedent circumstances, risk, and protective factors during times of adversity that, in turn, enhanced resilience up to 12 months post-disaster. The community was found to have an innate capacity to persevere and utilize resources to manage and transcend adversity and restore equilibrium, which reflected components of resilience that deserve greater recognition and appreciation.
Resilience is a foundational concept for disaster science. A model of resilience for the rural Appalachia community was developed to visually depict the encompassing element of community-based interventions that may enhance coping strategies, mitigate risk factors, integrate protective factors, and strengthen access. Community-based interventions are recommended to strengthen resilience, yielding improved outcomes of adaptation, health and wellness, and disaster readiness.
BanksLH, DavenportLA, HayesMH, McArthurMA, ToroSN, KingCE, VaziraniHM. Disaster Impact on Impoverished Area of US: An Inter-Professional Mixed Method Study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(6):583–592.
The Solar Orbiter is the next solar physics mission of the European Space Agency, ESA, in collaboration with NASA, with a launch planned in 2018. The spacecraft is designed to approach the Sun to within 0.28 AU at perihelion of a highly eccentric orbit. The proximity with the Sun will also allow its observation at uniformly high resolution at EUV and visible wavelengths. Such observations are central for learning more about the magnetic coupling of the solar atmosphere. At a later phase in the mission the spacecraft will leave the ecliptic and study the enigmatic poles of the Sun from a heliographic latitude of up to 33○.
A central instrument of Solar Orbiter} is the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager, SO/PHI. It will do full Stokes imaging in the Landé g = 2.5 Fe I 617.3 nm line. It is composed of two telescopes, a full-disk telescope and a high-resolution telescope, that will allow observations at a resolution as high as 200 km on the solar surface. SO/PHI will also be the first solar polarimeter to leave the Sun-Earth line, opening up new possibilities, such as stereoscopic polarimetry (besides stereoscopic imaging of the photosphere and stereoscopic helioseismology). Finally, SO/PHI will have a unique view of the solar poles, allowing not just more precise and exact measurements of the polar field than possible so far, but also enabling us to follow the dynamics of individual magnetic features at high latitudes and to determine solar surface and sub-surface flows right up to the poles.
In this paper an introduction to the science goals and the capabilities of SO/PHI will be given, as well as a brief overview of the instrument and of the current status of its development.
Thiocolchicoside (THC) is an important active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) used as a muscle relaxant because of its anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. The only entry for a THC-related compound present in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) corresponds to a THC ethanol solvate hydrate (refcode: THCLCS). The diffraction pattern recorded for the THC raw material (C27H33NO10S·xH2O) is different from the pattern calculated using the THCLCS crystallographic data contained in the CSD. The indexing of the THC raw material pattern, produced an orthorhombic unit cell with a = 28.018(7) Å, b = 12.519(2) Å, c = 8.519(1) Å, and V = 2988.01 Å3. All the diffraction maxima of the powder pattern of a phase recrystallized in water (C27H33NO10S·2H2O) can be indexed in an orthorhombic cell with a = 25.264(4) Å, b = 13.537(3) Å, c = 8.553(1) Å, and V = 2925.12 Å3. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that this compound is a dihydrate phase. Upon heating, a new anhydrous phase (C27H33NO10S) with a monoclinic cell and unit cell parameters: a = 17.090(5) Å, b = 19.485(5) Å, c = 8.526(3) Å, β = 100.30(2)°, and V = 2793.34 Å3 is obtained.
Few parts of Antarctica are not permanently covered in ice. The retreat of the ice sheet from Byers Peninsula on western Livingston Island, Maritime Antarctica, has provided a new area of seasonal snow cover. Snow surveys were conducted in late November 2008 at the time of peak accumulation across the 1 km2 Lake Limnopolar watershed. Topographic variables were derived from a digital elevation model to determine the variables controlling the presence or absence of snow and the distribution of snow depth. Classification with binary regression trees showed that wind related variables dominated the presence and depth of snow. The product of the sine of aspect and the sine of slope was the first variable in both regression trees. Density profiles were also measured and illustrated a relatively homogeneous snowpack over space at peak snow accumulation.
Many local breeds of farm animals have small populations and, consequently, are highly endangered. The correct genetic management of such populations is crucial for their survival. Managing an animal population involves two steps: first, the individuals who will be permitted to leave descendants are to be chosen and the number offspring they will be permitted to produce has to be determined; second, the mating scheme has to be identified. Strategies dealing with the first step are directed towards the maximisation of effective population size and, therefore, act jointly on the reduction in the loss of genetic variation and in the increase of inbreeding. In this paper, the most relevant methods are summarised, including the so-called ‘Optimum Contribution’ methodology (contributions are proportional to the coancestry of each individual with the rest), which has been shown to be the best. Typically, this method is applied to pedigree information, but molecular marker data can be used to complete or replace the genealogy. When the population is subjected to explicit selection on any trait, the above methodology can be used by balancing the response to selection and the increase in coancestry/inbreeding. Different mating strategies also exist. Some of the mating schemes try to reduce the level of inbreeding in the short term by preventing mating between relatives. Others involve regular (circular) schemes that imply higher levels of inbreeding within populations in the short term, but demonstrate better performance in the long term. In addition, other tools such as cryopreservation and reproductive techniques aid in the management of small populations. In the future, genomic marker panels may replace the pedigree information in measuring the coancestry. The paper also includes the results of several experiments and field studies on the effectiveness and on the consequences of the use of the different strategies.
Genetic variation is vital for the populations to adapt to varying environments and to respond to artificial selection; therefore, any conservation and development scheme should start from assessing the state of variation in the population. There are several marker-based and pedigree-based parameters to describe genetic variation. The most suitable ones are rate of inbreeding and effective population size, because they are not dependent on the amount of pedigree records. The acceptable level for effective population size can be considered from different angles leading to a conclusion that it should be at least 50 to 100. The estimates for the effective population size can be computed from the genealogical records or from demographic and marker information when pedigree data are not available. Marker information could also be used for paternity analysis and for estimation of coancestries. The sufficient accuracy in marker-based parameters would require typing thousands of markers. Across breeds, diversity is an important source of variation to rescue problematic populations and to introgress new variants. Consideration of adaptive variation brings new aspects to the estimation of the variation between populations.
The Darwin theory of evolution by natural selection is based on three principles: (a) variation; (b) inheritance; and (c) natural selection. Here, I take these principles as an excuse to review some topics related to the future research prospects in Animal Breeding. With respect to the first principle I describe two forms of variation different from mutation that are becoming increasingly important: variation in copy number and microRNAs. With respect to the second principle I comment on the possible relevance of non-mendelian inheritance, the so-called epigenetic effects, of which the genomic imprinting is the best characterized in domestic species. Regarding selection principle I emphasize the importance of selection for social traits and how this could contribute to both productivity and animal welfare. Finally, I analyse the impact of molecular biology in Animal Breeding, the achievements and limitations of quantitative trait locus and classical marker-assisted selection and the future of genomic selection.
In this paper, the wave propagation on a plane dry bottom after a dam break is analysed. Two mathematical models have been used and compared with each other for simulating such a dam-break scenario. First, the fully three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations for a weakly compressible fluid have been solved using the new smooth particle hydrodynamics formulation, recently proposed by Ferrari et al. (Comput. Fluids, vol. 38, 2009, p. 1203). Second, the two-dimensional shallow water equations (SWEs) are solved using a third-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite-volume scheme. The numerical results are critically compared against the laboratory measurements provided by Fraccarollo & Toro (J. Hydraul. Res., vol. 33, 1995, p. 843). The experimental data provide the temporal evolution of the pressure field, the water depth and the vertical velocity profile at 40 gauges, located in the reservoir and in front of the gate. Our analysis reveals the shortcomings of SWEs in the initial stages of the dam-break phenomenon in reproducing many important flow features of the unsteady free-surface flow: the shallow water model predicts a complex wave structure and a wavy evolution of local free-surface elevations in the reservoir that can be clearly identified to be only model artefacts. However, the quasi-incompressible Navier–Stokes model reproduces well the high gradients in the flow field and predicts the cycles of simultaneous rapid decreasing and frozen stages of the free surface in the tank along with the velocity oscillations. Asymptotically, i.e. for ‘large times’, the shallow water model and the weakly compressible Navier–Stokes model agree well with the experimental data, since the classical SWE assumptions are satisfied only at large times.
The Sunrise balloon-borne solar observatory consists of a 1m aperture Gregory telescope, a UV filter imager, an imaging vector polarimeter, an image stabilization system and further infrastructure. The first science flight of Sunrise yielded high-quality data that reveal the structure, dynamics and evolution of solar convection, oscillations and magnetic fields at a resolution of around 100 km in the quiet Sun. Here we describe very briefly the mission and the first results obtained from the Sunrise data, which include a number of discoveries.