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Our contribution to this symposium speaks to the origins of international organization (IO) reputation. The one explored by Daugirdas is agency slack: when people delegated power and authority within an organization—in her example, UN peacekeepers and their surrounding bureaucracy—abuse their privilege and stain the institution's character. We explore another that can spark similar reactions and consequences, but which emanates from the behavior of the principals themselves (rather than their agents): the member states. The company an IO keeps—how members behave—can bolster or stain the organization's reputation. That in turn can have consequences, especially for organizations seeking to provide a venue for members to make credible commitments.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Suggestibility, defined as the inclination to accept and internalize messages, has not been assessed much in relation to alcohol use. Prior research has shown that suggestibility to social cues and peer influence may play a role in driving alcohol consumption. Our previous work has shown associations between suggestibility and alcohol consumption in social drinkers. This study aims to examine how suggestibility and social susceptibility are related to ideas alcohol consumption and consequences across the spectrum of alcohol use and misuse. We hypothesize that those with higher suggestibility and social susceptibility reports will also have higher alcohol consumption and consequences, and that the impact of susceptibility is lower in dependent compared to non-dependent drinkers. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Study participants enrolled in the NIAAA screening and assessment protocol (N=157) completed questionnaires on suggestibility and alcohol consumption, The Multidimensional Iowa Suggestibility Scale (MISS) is a 95-question self-report assessment of suggestibility which draws from subcategories of consumer suggestibility, perceivability, physiological suggestibility, physiological reactivity, and peer conformity. Alcohol measures included 90-day Timeline Followback interviews and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). Participants also underwent the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV or DSM-5 disorders, and were stratified into two groups: alcohol dependent (N = 86) and non-dependent (N=71). Median split by age was additionally used to explore age’s relationship with suggestibility and alcohol with the under 36 (N = 45) and over 36 (N = 26) non-dependent groups. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Initial analyses showed marked differences between the dependent and non-dependent groups in the relationship between the MISS total score and AUDIT total score. The non-dependent group showed significant positive correlations between MISS and AUDIT scores (r = 0.460, p < 0.001), while the dependent group did not show any correlation between MISS and AUDIT scores. Further examination of these relationships in the nondependent group revealed that MISS scores were also significantly positively correlated with AUDIT subscores of consumption, harm, and dependence. Age was found to have a significant negative correlation with MISS score (r = −0.354, p < 0.01). To better understand the role of age, the sample was split based on the median age (36 yrs), and analyzed separately. Results indicated robust relationships between MISS score and AUDIT (r = 0.457, p < 0.01) in the younger age group. In addition, the younger age group also showed significant relationships between MISS score and 90-day TLFB measures of total drinks, days drinking, and heavy drinking days. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In non-dependent individuals, there was a significant positive relationship between suggestibility and alcohol measures, and these effects were amplified in younger individuals. No relationship was found between suggestibility and alcohol measures in the alcohol dependent individuals. This may be related to a greater impact of social and external contextual cues in younger social drinkers compared to dependent drinkers where tolerance and craving may have greater impact on alcohol consumption. These findings have important implications for traits that may put individuals at risk for developing harmful patterns of alcohol use and misuse. Future analyses will aim to examine biobehavioral underpinnings of the relationship between suggestibility and alcohol consumption.
Let p be an odd prime and let G be a non-abelian finite p-group of exponent p2 with three distinct characteristic subgroups, namely 1, Gp and G. The quotient group G/Gp gives rise to an anti-commutative 𝔽p-algebra L such that the action of Aut (L) is irreducible on L; we call such an algebra IAC. This paper establishes a duality G ↔ L between such groups and such IAC algebras. We prove that IAC algebras are semisimple and we classify the simple IAC algebras of dimension at most 4 over certain fields. We also give other examples of simple IAC algebras, including a family related to the m-th symmetric power of the natural module of SL(2, 𝔽).
With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
This article investigates to what extent austerity-oriented measures introduced in the Portuguese health sector during the recent economic crisis were associated with changes in the public opinion on healthcare. We conducted multivariate regression analyses of cross-sectional, biannual data from the European Social Survey (2002–2015) for 13,271 individuals living in private households in Portugal. In line with our expectations, healthcare evaluations of the general population improved until 2010 but declined with the implementation of comprehensive austerity measures introduced under the Memorandum of Understanding after 2011. Healthcare evaluations of vulnerable social groups – older and retired individuals, individuals with poor health, low income and education – declined particularly strongly. In addition, differences in healthcare evaluations between more and less vulnerable social groups were more pronounced after 2011. Interestingly, healthcare evaluations of the general population and of some of the most vulnerable groups ‘recovered’ in 2015, when most of the Memorandum measures were implemented. Our findings contribute to the literature on the effects of austerity measures on welfare attitudes and stress the need to analyse the differential impact of crisis-induced welfare state reforms across social groups.
Transitional turbulence in shear flows is supported by a network of unstable exact invariant solutions of the Navier–Stokes equations. The network is interconnected by heteroclinic connections along which the turbulent trajectories evolve between invariant solutions. While many invariant solutions in the form of equilibria, travelling waves and periodic orbits have been identified, computing heteroclinic connections remains a challenge. We propose a variational method for computing orbits dynamically connecting small neighbourhoods around equilibrium solutions. Using local information on the dynamics linearized around these equilibria, we demonstrate that we can choose neighbourhoods such that the connecting orbits shadow heteroclinic connections. The proposed method allows one to approximate heteroclinic connections originating from states with multi-dimensional unstable manifold and thereby provides access to heteroclinic connections that cannot easily be identified using alternative shooting methods. For plane Couette flow, we demonstrate the method by recomputing three known connections and identifying six additional previously unknown orbits.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Peer groups are one of the strongest determinants of alcohol use and misuse. Furthermore, social influence plays a significant role in alcohol use across the lifespan. One of the factors that most consistently predicts successful treatment outcomes for alcohol use disorders is one’s ability to change their social network. However, the concept of social influence as defined by suggestibility or susceptibility to social influence has not yet been studied as it relates to drinking behavior and acute subjective response to alcohol. Our objective was to examine the relationship between suggestibility and alcohol consumption and responses, using an intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA) paradigm in social drinkers. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Healthy, social drinkers (n=20) completed a human laboratory session in which they underwent the IV-ASA paradigm. This consisted of an initial 25-minute priming phase, where participants were prompted to push a button to receive individually standardized IV alcohol infusions, followed by a 125-minute phase during which they could push the button for additional infusions. IV-ASA measures included the peak and average breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) and number of button presses. Subjective responses were assessed using the Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ) and Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (AUQ) collected serially during the session. Participants completed the Multidimensional Iowa Suggestibility Scale (MISS) to assess suggestibility. The Alcohol Effects Questionnaire (AEFQ) was used to assess alcohol expectancies and the Timeline Followback questionnaire measured recent drinking history. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: After controlling for drinking history, greater suggestibility significantly predicted greater average BrAC, greater peak BrAC, and a greater number of button presses (p=0.03, p=0.02, p=0.04, respectively) during the early open bar phase. Suggestibility significantly predicted subjective alcohol effects following the priming phase which included “Feel,” “Want,” “High,” and “Intoxicated” and was trending for “Like” (p=0.02, p=0.03, p=0.01, p=0.03, p=0.054, respectively) as well as AUQ (p=0.03). After controlling for drinking history, suggestibility significantly predicted “Feel,” “Like,” “High,” and “Intoxicated” peak scores during the open bar phase (p=0.03, p=0.009, p=0.03, p=0.03, respectively). There was no association between suggestibility and “Want More” alcohol. Suggestibility was positively associated with three positive expectancies (global positive; p=0.04, social expressiveness; p=0.005, relaxation; p=0.03), and one negative expectancy (cognitive and physical impairment; p=0.02). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These results indicate that social drinkers that were more suggestible had higher alcohol consumption, greater acute subjective response to alcohol, and more positive alcohol expectancies. As such, susceptibility to social influence may be an important determinant of alcohol consumption, and may provide insight into harmful drinking behavior such as binge drinking. Future analyses should examine the impact of suggestibility on alcohol-related phenotypes across the spectrum of drinking from social to binge and heavy drinking patterns.
Background: To determine whether exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) in CSF of patients with FTD can serve as diagnostic biomarkers, we assessed miRNA expression in the Genetic FTD Initiative (GENFI) cohort and in sporadic FTD. Methods: GENFI participants were either carriers of a pathogenic mutation or at risk of carrying a mutation because a first-degree relative was a symptomatic mutation carrier. Exosomes were isolated from CSF of 23 -pre-symptomatic and 15 symptomatic mutation carriers, and 11 healthy non-mutation carriers. Expression of miRNAs was measured using qPCR arrays. MiRNAs differentially expressed in symptomatic compared to pre-symptomatic mutation carriers were evaluated in 17 patients with sporadic FTD, 13 patients with sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and 10 healthy controls (HCs). Results: In the GENFI cohort, miR-204-5p and miR-632 were significantly decreased in symptomatic compared to pre-symptomatic mutation carriers. Decrease of miR-204-5p and miR-632 revealed receiver operator characteristics with an area of 0.89 [90% CI: 0.79-0.98] and 0.81 [90% CI: 0.68-0.93], and when combined an area of 0.93 [90% CI: 0.87-0.99]. In sporadic FTD, only miR-632 was significantly decreased compared to sporadic AD and HCs. Decrease of miR-632 revealed an area of 0.89 [90% CI: 0.80-0.98]. Conclusions: Exosomal miR-204-5p and miR-632 have potential as diagnostic biomarkers for genetic FTD and miR-632 also for sporadic FTD.
A combination of intimate partner violence (IPV) and depression is a common feature of the perinatal period globally. Understanding this association can provide indications of how IPV can be addressed or prevented during pregnancy. This paper aims to determine the prevalence and correlates of IPV among pregnant low-income women with depressive symptoms in Khayelitsha, South Africa, and changes in IPV reports during the course of the perinatal period.
This study is a secondary analysis of data collected as part of a randomised controlled trial testing a psychosocial intervention for antenatal depression. IPV, socio-demographic measures, depression and other mental health measures were collected at recruitment (first antenatal visit), 8 months gestation, and 3 and 12 months postpartum. IPV was defined as a sexual or physical violence perpetrated by the participant's partner in the past 3 months. Descriptive statistics are reported.
Of 425 recruited depressed participants, 59 (13.9%) reported IPV at baseline, with physical IPV being the most frequently reported (69.5%). Reported IPV was associated with greater emotional distress, potentially higher food insecurity and higher rates of alcohol abuse. There were clear longitudinal trends in reported IPV with the majority of women no longer reporting IPV postpartum. However, some women reported IPV at later assessment points after not reporting IPV at baseline.
There is a strong association between IPV and depression in pregnancy. IPV reports remit over time for the women in this study, although the reason for this reduction is not clear and requires further investigation.
This paper examines the marine reservoir effect for Tomales Bay, a 25.5-km-long tidal estuary along the northern coast of California. We determined the regional ∆R through radiocarbon (14C) measurements of pre-1950 shells from a museum collection as well as archaeologically recovered shell samples from a historical railroad grade of known construction date. These results are compared against four sets of paired shell and bone samples from two local archaeological sites. Our results indicate little spatial variation along the inner bay, but the proposed ∆R value is lower than those previously reported for nearby areas along the Pacific Coast. We also note potential variability in regional ∆R of approximately 200 14C years for the late Holocene, and comparison with an older paired bone and shell sample points toward more significant temporal variation earlier in time.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.