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We have previously shown higher intake of cruciferous vegetables is inversely associated with carotid artery intima-media thickness. To further test the hypothesis that an increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with reduced indicators of structural vascular disease in other areas of the vascular tree, we aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association between cruciferous vegetable intake and extensive calcification in the abdominal aorta. Dietary intake was assessed, using a food frequency questionnaire, in 684 older women from the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study. Cruciferous vegetables included cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower and broccoli. Abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) was scored using the Kauppila AAC24 scale on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) lateral spine images, and was categorised as “not extensive” (0-5) or “extensive” (≥6). Mean age was 74.9 (SD 2.6) y, median cruciferous vegetable intake was 28.2 (IQR 15.0-44.7) g/d, and 128/684 (18.7%) women had extensive AAC scores. Those with higher intakes of cruciferous vegetables (>44.6 g/d) were associated with a 46% lower odds of having extensive AAC in comparison to those with lower intakes (<15.0 g/d) after adjustment for lifestyle, dietary and cardiovascular disease risk factors (ORQ4 vs Q1=0.54, 95%CI 0.30, 0.97, P=0.036). Total vegetable intake and each of the other vegetable types were not related to extensive AAC (P>0.05 for all). This study strengthens the hypothesis that higher intake of cruciferous vegetables may protect against vascular calcification.
The interest in biodiesel production from oil-bearing seeds rather than soybean necessitates the scientific validation of other good quality protein sources that could substitute soybean meal in animal diets, particularly, broiler chickens where soybean meal constitutes a large portion of their diet. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of sun-dried Azolla leaf meal (ALM) as an unconventional dietary protein source in broiler chicken diet on growth performance, meat quality, skeletal muscle cell growth and protein synthesis through regulation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6 kinase α). A total of 120 male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments. Each treatment had four cages (i.e. replicates) with 10 birds/cage. The control group was fed with a corn–soy-based diet, the AZ5 group was supplemented with 5% ALM and the AZ10 group was supplemented with 10% ALM for 37 days. A 5-day trial was also conducted to measure the apparent nutrient digestibility. Growth performance parameters were measured weekly. At the end of the experiment, 12 birds from each group (3/cage) were euthanized and used for samplings. Inclusion of ALM tended to improve BW gain (P = 0.06) and increased feed intake (P < 0.01). Additionally, ALM decreased the percentage of breast meat cooking loss linearly (P < 0.01). In addition, ALM at a dose of 5% increased the production of propionate in the cecum (P = 0.01). Activation of breast muscle p70S6 kinase was higher when ALM was included in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). The inclusion of ALM increased breast meat redness (P < 0.01); however, the lightness was within the normal range in all groups. Findings from our study suggest that ALM could be included in a broiler chicken diet up to 5% without any major negative effect on meat quality or performance, and it regulates muscle protein synthesis through activation of mammalian target of rapamycin/6S kinase signaling.
Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolia Raddi) is an invasive shrub that is problematic in both freshwater wetlands and brackish mangrove communities. The complex structure, geographic remoteness, and general herbicide sensitivity of mangrove systems have resulted in great technical challenges for managers attempting selective S. terebinthifolia control. Recent advances in auxin herbicide technologies warrant herbicide screening to address this growing problem. Therefore, greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 to evaluate four non-target mangrove species and S. terebinthifolia response to the three herbicides: aminocyclopyrachlor, aminopyralid, and florpyrauxifen-benyzl. Aminocyclopyrachlor controlled S. terebinthifolia, but was highly injurious to black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.], red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle L.), white mangrove [Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F. Gaertn.], and buttonwood mangrove (Conocarpus erectus L.). Aminopyralid also controlled S. terebinthifolia but its impact varied across mangrove species. Laguncularia racemosa and C. erectus were highly sensitive to aminopyralid, R. mangle exhibited dose-dependent tolerance, and A. germinans was highly tolerant. Florpyrauxifen-benzyl failed to control
S. terebinthifolia and resulted in severe injury to all four mangrove species. These results indicate differential responses to newer auxins in both the target response and non-target plant community of interest. The efficacy of aminopyralid on S. terebinthifolia, coupled with its selectivity on A. germinans warrants further testing.
Depression is reported to be associated with increased mortality, but underlying mechanisms are uncertain. Associations between anxiety and mortality are also uncertain. In a large population study, we investigated associations between anxiety, depression and mortality over a 3-6 year period. We utilized a unique link between a large regional community survey and a comprehensive national mortality database.
Baseline information on mental and physical health was collected in a population-based health study (n=61,349) (the HUNT-2 study) of adults aged 20 years and over. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were ascertained using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Records were linked with the Norwegian national mortality database.
Case-level depression was a risk-factor for mortality, but case-level anxiety was not (having adjusted for confounding factors). The association between anxiety symptoms and mortality was U-shaped, and anxiety comorbid with depression was associated with lower mortality compared to depression alone. Associations between depression and mortality were partly but not entirely explained by somatic symptoms and conditions, and also physical impairment, but not by smoking, obesity, cholesterol level or blood pressure.
Depression predicted general mortality after adjustment for multiple potential confounding factors. Associations between anxiety symptoms and mortality were U-shaped. Lower mortality was found in comorbid anxiety and depression than in depression alone.
The epidemiology of panic disorder has not been investigated in the past in the UK using a nationally representative sample of the population. The aim of the present paper was to examine the epidemiology, comorbidity and functional impairment of subthreshold panic and panic disorder with or without agoraphobia.
We used data from the 2000 Office for National Statistics Psychiatric Morbidity survey (N = 8580). Panic disorder and agoraphobia were assessed with the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R).
The prevalence of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia was 1.70% (95% confidence interval: 1.41–2.03%). Subthreshold panic was more common. Economic inactivity was consistently associated with all syndromes. The comorbidity pattern of the panic syndromes and the associated functional impairment show that panic-related conditions are important public health problems, even in subthreshold status.
The findings show that efforts to reduce the disability associated with psychiatric disorders should include detection and management of panic disorder.
Depression is reported to increase general mortality. For cause-specific mortality, there is evidence for the effect of depression on cardiac mortality and suicide. Less is known as to other mortality diagnoses. The literature on anxiety in relation to mortality is scarce and conflicting. This study investigates empirically the association between anxiety/depression and cause-specific mortality with particular attention to underlying mechanisms and causes of death.
Employing a historical cohort design we utilized a unique link between a large epidemiological cohort study and a comprehensive national mortality database. Baseline information on physical and mental health (HADS) was gathered from the population based health study (N=61349). Causes of death were registered with ICD-10 diagnoses during 4.4 year follow-up.
Case-level depression increased mortality for all major disease-related causes of death, whereas case-level anxiety and comorbid anxiety/depression did not. The effect of depression was equal in cardiac mortality compared to all other causes combined, and confounding factors were also markedly similar. Accidents and suicide was predicted by comorbid anxiety depression.
Depression is a risk factor for all major disease-related causes of death, and is not limited to cardiac mortality or suicide. Case-level anxiety imposes no increased disease-related mortality, but comorbid anxiety depression predicts external causes of death. As the association between depression and cardiac mortality was comparable to the other causes of death combined, and confounding and mediating factors are markedly similar, future investigation as to mechanisms underlying the effect of depression on mortality should not be limited to CVD mortality.
Somatic comorbidities are common among elderly patients with mental health problems, namely dementia and depression. Quite often, somatic problems are associated with a substantial impairment in daily routines, as well as to a worse outcome of the neuropsychiatric condition.
to investigate the level of impairment due to comorbid somatic problems in the elderly, as part of the implementation of the 10/66- Dementia Research Group Population-based Research Protocol in Portuguese settings.
A cross-sectional survey was implemented of all residents aged 65 in a semi-rural area in Southern Portugal. Evaluation included a cognitive module and the Geriatric Mental State-AGECAT (GDS). Training of the field researchers was conducted with the supervision of the 10/66-DRG coordinators (CF, MP).
703 elderly participants were evaluated. Interference with daily activities was present in every area assessed, with moderate to severe impact in the following areas: Arthritis or rheumatism (36,9%), eyesight problems (19,8%), hypertension (10,5%) and gastro-intestinal conditions (10,4%). 48,9% of the participants had at least one contact with a primary care health centre in the last three months, and 22,5% had at least one contact with a doctor in a general hospital.
Results showed a relevant degree of impairment due to somatic conditions, and a high use of services, namely at primary care level. The significant prevalence of comorbid somatic conditions should be taken into account regarding the organization of services directed to older patients with mental health problems, that has been considered a priority in the Portuguese Mental Health Plan 2007–2016.
Above 60 years, prevalence rates of neuropsychiatric disorders double with every 5.1 years of age (from 0.7% at 60-65 years to 23.6% for those aged 85 or older). As aged people are dramatically increasing in Portugal, a Country under a serious financial crisis, it is important to understand whether health services are being used appropriately.
to characterize the use of health services among the elderly, as part of the implementation of the 10/66-Dementia Research Group Population-based Research Protocol in Portugal.
A cross-sectional survey was implemented of all residents aged 65 or more in a semi-rural area in Southern Portugal. Core evaluation included a cognitive module and the Geriatric Mental State-AGECAT (GDS). A structured questionnaire assessed the use of services, including health care providers (public, private), inpatient episodes, medication and costs.
703 participants were evaluated. Almost half of the participants (48,9%) were in contact with public primary care facilities, but only 22,5% had a contact with a hospital service. In both settings, nurses and other non-doctor professionals were rarely involved (6,4%) as principal care providers. 11,8% had at least one contact with a private doctor. Inpatient episodes in the last 3 months were very infrequent (3%). The National Health Service covered most costs.
Previous research strongly suggests that health services are not provided equitably to people with mental disorders, namely the elderly. Reliable and cross-culturally comparable information about patterns of care may guide the implementation of adequate management in this area in Portugal.
The burden of neuropsychiatric disorders in the elderly is high, considering patients, their families, and close or extended networks. In Portugal, the 10/66-Dementia Research Group population-based research programmes are running since 2011, with the community prevalence study. The protocol allows for valid diagnoses of dementia and depression, using comprehensive assessments which include the Geriatric Mental State- AGECAT.
Objectives and aims:
We aimed to analyse informal caregiving arrangements and the psychological experience of caregiving in a subsample drawn from the ongoing 10/66 studies.
We report on 580 residents aged 65 + years of a defined catchment area in Portugal (Mora). Assessments included questionnaires on demographic and caregiving issues, the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ) on psychological distress and the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) on the caregiving experience.
In this subsample, 94 participants were in need of informal caregiving (dementia accounted for 28 cases, depression for 31, and other chronic physical/psychiatric conditions for the remainder). Most primary caregivers were family relatives (mostly wives and daughters) and were living with the patient. A large number were elderly people themselves (mean age 64.1±16.3years). Median scores were 3 on the SRQ (range 0-16) and 8 on the ZBI (range 0-66). Those who were caring for participants with more severe disabilities scored significantly higher on both measures.
These preliminary results of the 10/66 epidemiological community studies support previous suggestions that caregiver strain is also high in subgroups of community samples. Most overburdened families (and individual caregivers) lacked appropriate, tailored interventions. Final results will be available soon.
This study examines the influence of chronic health conditions and socio-economic status on overnight admission and length of stay among Canadian seniors. Incremental multivariate logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models assessed the relationship between selected predictors, overnight admission, and duration of stay. The findings show that all chronic health conditions and socio-economic factors examined were significantly associated with overnight hospital admission. However, seniors with cardiovascular health conditions, the very old, and seniors living in lower-income households had a greater risk of longer stays. Canadian seniors diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, diabetes, and stroke had greater risk of longer overnight hospital stays. Seniors aged 75 to 79 years, 80 years or older, and those living in lower-income households (≤ $39,999) were more likely to have a longer overnight hospital stay. Findings suggest that improving seniors’ health and socio-economic status may reduce the risk of overnight admission and longer stays of hospitalisation.
Health insurance schemes are important for bridging gaps in health-care needs between the rich and poor, especially in contexts where poverty is higher among seniors (persons aged 65 years and above). In this study we examined (a) gender-based predictors of unmet health-care need among seniors and (b) whether access was influenced by wealth status (measured by income quintiles). Gender-specific negative log–log regression models were fitted to data from the Study on Global Ageing and Health to examine associations between unmet health-care need and health insurance status controlling for theoretically relevant covariates. Insurance status was an important determinant of men and women's unmet health-care need but the relationship was moderated by income quintile for women and not men. While occupation was important for men, religion, marital status and income quintile were significantly associated with women's unmet health-care need. Based on the observed gender differences, we recommend the implementation of programmes aimed at improving the economic situation of older people, particularly women.
The pyridine carboxylic acid (PCA) herbicide family can exhibit differential activity within and among plant species, despite molecular resemblances. Aminocyclopyrachlor (AMCP), a pyrimidine carboxylic acid, is a recently discovered compound with similar use patterns to those of the PCA family; however, relative activity among PCAs and AMCP is not well understood. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify relative activity among aminopyralid, picloram, clopyralid, triclopyr, and AMCP in canola, squash, and okra using dose-response whole-plant bioassays. Clopyralid was less active than all other herbicides in all species and did not fit dose-response models. Aminopyralid and picloram performed similarly in squash (ED50 = 21.1 and 23.3 g ae ha−1, respectively). Aminopyralid was 3.8 times and 1.7 times more active than picloram in canola (ED50 = 60.3 and 227.7 g ha−1, respectively) and okra (ED50 = 10.3 and 17.3 g ha−1, respectively). Triclopyr (ED50 = 37.3 g ha−1) was more active than AMCP (ED50 = 112.9 g ha−1) and picloram in canola. Aminocyclopyrachlor (ED50 = 6.6 g ha−1) and triclopyr (ED50 = 7.8 g ha−1) were more active in squash than aminopyralid and picloram. In okra, AMCP (ED50 = 14.6 g ha−1) and aminopyralid (ED50 = 10.3 g ha−1) performed similarly but were more active than triclopyr (ED50 = 88.2 g ha−1). Herbicidal activity among AMCP and PCAs was vastly different despite molecular similarities that could be due to variable target-site sensitivity among species.
Burmareed [Neyraudia reynaudiana (Kunth) Keng ex Hitchc.] is an aggressive invader of pine rockland communities in south Florida. Currently, it is managed by clipping the stems and later returning, when plants have regrown to approximately 50 cm in height, to administer applications of glyphosate to new foliar growth (a “cut–return–treat,” or CRT, strategy). This multi-visit strategy is time-consuming and may result in off-target effects due to the broad-spectrum nature of glyphosate. With this study we evaluated a cut-stem (CS) approach, in which stems are cut and immediately treated with herbicide. Further, we tested the efficacy of the selective graminicides sethoxydim and fluazifop-P-butyl. In a pot study, CS treatments included: glyphosate (239.7 g ae L−1) in water, sethoxydim (9.0 g ai L−1) or fluazifop-P-butyl (12.1 g ai L−1) in either basal oil or water, and triclopyr (47.9 g ae L−1) in basal oil. All CS treatments provided mortality and growth reduction comparable to the best CRT treatments (glyphosate, sethoxydim, and fluazifop-P-butyl) and were therefore evaluated under field conditions using the same application rates. Mortality was low in the field (≤30%) regardless of herbicide treatment. Overall, fluazifop-P-butyl provided greater control than sethoxydim, resulting in 71% and 94% relative growth reduction in total shoot length with oil and water carriers, respectively, compared with 50% and 43% reduction for sethoxydim. Fluazifop also provided control similar to triclopyr and glyphosate (≥65% reduction in total shoot length). Results suggest that CS treatments may be a viable strategy for managing N. reynaudiana and reducing management costs. However, more research is needed to optimize rates. Further, fluazifop-P-butyl allows for a more selective option than glyphosate that may decrease off-target effects on native understory vegetation in pine rocklands.
Paediatric hearing loss rates in Ghana are currently unknown.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana; children (aged 3–15 years) were recruited from randomly selected households. Selected children underwent otoscopic examination prior to in-community pure tone screening using the portable ShoeBox audiometer. The LittlEars auditory questionnaire was also administered to caregivers and parents.
Data were collected from 387 children. After conditioning, 362 children were screened using monaural pure tones presented at 25 dB. Twenty-five children could not be conditioned to behavioural audiometric screening. Eight children were referred based on audiometric screening results. Of those, four were identified as having hearing loss. Four children scored less than the maximum mark of 35 on the LittleEars questionnaire. Of those, three had hearing loss as identified through pure tone screening. The predominant physical finding on otoscopy was ear canal cerumen impaction.
Paediatric hearing loss is prevalent in Ghana, and should be treated as a public health problem warranting further evaluation and epidemiology characterisation.
There is limited evidence of the safety and impact of task-shared care for people with severe mental illnesses (SMI; psychotic disorders and bipolar disorder) in low-income countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and impact of a district-level plan for task-shared mental health care on 6 and 12-month clinical and social outcomes of people with SMI in rural southern Ethiopia.
In the Programme for Improving Mental health carE, we conducted an intervention cohort study. Trained primary healthcare (PHC) workers assessed community referrals, diagnosed SMI and initiated treatment, with independent research diagnostic assessments by psychiatric nurses. Primary outcomes were symptom severity and disability. Secondary outcomes included discrimination and restraint.
Almost all (94.5%) PHC worker diagnoses of SMI were verified by psychiatric nurses. All prescribing was within recommended dose limits. A total of 245 (81.7%) people with SMI were re-assessed at 12 months. Minimally adequate treatment was received by 29.8%. All clinical and social outcomes improved significantly. The impact on disability (standardised mean difference 0.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35–0.65) was greater than impact on symptom severity (standardised mean difference 0.28; 95% CI 0.13–0.44). Being restrained in the previous 12 months reduced from 25.3 to 10.6%, and discrimination scores reduced significantly.
An integrated district level mental health care plan employing task-sharing safely addressed the large treatment gap for people with SMI in a rural, low-income country setting. Randomised controlled trials of differing models of task-shared care for people with SMI are warranted.
This paper examined the association between wealth and health insurance status and the use of traditional medicine (TM) among older persons in Ghana.
There have been considerable efforts by sub-Saharan African countries to improve access to primary health care services, partly through the implementation of risk-pooling community or national health insurance schemes. The use of TM, which is often not covered under these insurance schemes, remains common in many countries, including Ghana. Understanding how health insurance and wealth influence the use of TM, or otherwise, is essential to the development of equitable health care policies.
The study used data from the first wave of the World Health Organisation’s Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health conducted in Ghana in 2008. Descriptive statistics and negative loglog regression models were fitted to the data to examine the influence of insurance and wealth status on the use of TM, controlling for theoretically relevant factors.
Seniors who had health insurance coverage were also 17% less likely to frequently seek treatment from a TM healer relative to the uninsured. For older persons in the poorest income quintile, the odds of frequently seeking treatment from TM increased by 61% when compared to those in the richest quintile. This figure was 46%, 62% and 40% for older persons in poorer, middle and richer income quintiles, respectively, compared to their counterparts in the richest income quintile.
The findings indicate that TM was primarily used by the poor and persons who were not enrolled in the National Health Insurance Scheme. TM continues to be a vital health care resource for the poor and uninsured older adults in Ghana.
The Turkana Basin of northwestern Kenya is well known for its rich Neogene–Quaternary vertebrate fossil record; however, it also represents one of the few locations in sub-Saharan Africa where Cretaceous vertebrate fossils, including dinosaurs and other archosaurs, are preserved. These Cretaceous deposits are colloquially referred to as the ‘Turkana Grits’, and assumed to be Cretaceous in age based on their limited biostratigraphy. The ‘Turkana Grits’ are overlain by Palaeogene volcanic rocks (<35 Ma), which are widely considered to record the earliest evidence of plume-related volcanism in the East African Rift System. In this study, we present the results of an integrated sedimentary provenance investigation of two units within the ‘Turkana Grits’ called the Lapur and Muruanachok sandstones. Analysis of U–Pb ages and Lu–Hf initial ɛHf(t) values from 1106 detrital zircons demonstrate that sediments are primarily derived from Neoarchaean and Neoproterozoic basement sources, except for six Palaeogene grains from the upper Lapur Sandstone, which are of unknown provenance. Considered together, these data point to the Mozambique Belt, which makes up the nearby rift flanks, as the primary provenance source. This is consistent with palaeocurrent data, and suggests localized sediment input by alluvial fans, which fed into NNW-directed fluvial systems. Perhaps the most surprising finding is the identification of the late Paleocene detrital zircons, which not only demonstrate that the depositional age for the top of the formation is Paleocene rather than Cretaceous, but also provides possible evidence for the oldest Palaeogene volcanic activity within the East African Rift System.
Common reed [Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.], an aggressive invader in North American wetlands, is likely to undergo a range expansion as the climate changes. Increased atmospheric [CO2] and temperature have been shown to cause morphological and physiological changes in many species, sometimes altering the way they respond to herbicides. To understand how climate-related environmental parameters may impact P. australis management, we grew two P. australis haplotypes (the Gulf Coast type and the Eurasian type) under ambient (400 ppm CO2, 32/21 C) or elevated (650 ppm CO2, 35/24 C) climate conditions. After 6 wk, the Gulf Coast type had reduced leaf area, increased stomatal conductance, and increased transpiration under the elevated conditions. The Eurasian type had lower Vcmax (the maximum carboxylation rate of Rubisco) and lower Jmax (the maximum electron transport rate of RuBP regeneration) under elevated climate conditions. Results likely reflected a greater impact of higher temperatures rather than increased [CO2]. After the 6-wk period, plants were either treated with glyphosate (0.57 kg ae ha−1) or remained an untreated control. Data were collected 30 d after treatment (DAT) and 60 DAT to evaluate herbicide efficacy. Overall, the Gulf Coast type was less responsive to glyphosate applications under the elevated climate conditions than under current climate conditions. The lower leaf area of the Gulf Coast type in these climate conditions may have resulted in less herbicide interception and uptake. Glyphosate efficacy was less impacted by climate treatment for the Eurasian type than for the Gulf Coast type.
The role of vegetable and fruit intake in reducing falls risk in elderly populations is uncertain. This study examined the associations of vegetable and fruit intake with falls-related hospitalisations in a prospective cohort study of elderly women (n 1429, ≥70 years), including effects on muscular function, which represented a potential causal pathway. Muscular function, measured using grip strength and timed-up-and-go (TUG), and vegetable and fruit intake, quantified using a validated FFQ, were assessed at baseline (1998). Incident falls-related hospitalisation over 14·5-year follow-up was captured by the Hospital Morbidity Data Collection, linked via the Western Australian Data Linkage System. Falls-related hospitalisation occurred in 568 (39·7 %) of women. In multivariable-adjusted models, falls-related hospitalisations were lower in participants consuming more vegetables (hazard ratio (HR) per 75 g serve: 0·90 (95 % CI 0·82, 0·99)), but not fruit intake (per 150 g serve: 1·03 (95 % CI 0·93, 1·14)). Only total cruciferous vegetable intake was inversely associated with falls-related hospitalisation (HR: per 20 g serve: 0·90 (95 % CI 0·83, 0·97)). Higher total vegetable intake was associated with lower odds for poor grip strength (OR: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·77, 0·97)) and slow TUG (OR: 0·88 (95 % CI 0·78, 0·99)). Including grip strength and TUG in the multivariable-adjusted model attenuated the association between total vegetable intake and falls-related hospitalisations. In conclusion, elderly women with higher total and cruciferous vegetable intake had lower injurious falls risk, which may be explained in a large part by better physical function. Falls reduction may be considered an additional benefit of higher vegetable intake in older women.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Educate the general public, investigators, and institutional leadership on the importance of clinical trial registration and results reporting. Share success as a means to develop national best practices. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Developed a Project Charter; Spoke to several peer institutions; Update institutional policy. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Since launching the Program in June 2016, the number of records submitted to ClinicalTrials.gov has increased 14% (852–971). At the same time, compliance with late results has increased by over 92% (111–9). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Clinical Trial registration and results reporting is sub-par at many institutions. We have established a successful program that others can emulate. Institutions can increase transparency of clinical trials as well as prevent civil monetary penalties ($11,569/d/study) and loss of grant funding.