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A cross-sectional socio-economic study of fascioliasis in livestock was carried out at the Livestock Development Cooperation (SODEPA) slaughterhouse in Etoudi, Yaoundé during the periods covering the beginning and late dry season in the northern and eastern regions of Cameroon. A total of 768 cattle and 267 sheep were inspected for the presence of Fasciola species. The overall infection rate in cattle and sheep was 18% (n = 767) and 27% (n = 267), respectively. For the animals that were Fasciola positive, a total of 267.86 kg of liver in cattle was condemned, resulting in a loss of US$1124, while a total of 57 kg of liver was condemned from the sheep population, amounting to a loss of US$114. A total of US$76,097 was determined as losses incurred from condemnation of liver for both cattle and sheep per annum based on the total number slaughtered each year. The findings indicate that fascioliasis is present in cattle and sheep slaughtered in Cameroon and that it causes great economic losses due to condemnation of liver. The local climatic conditions, husbandry systems and the presence of snails (intermediate hosts) are probably the main factors influencing the incidence of the disease and may account for the epidemiological significance found in this study.
The Troodos ophiolite Cyprus hosts the type locality for Cyprus-type, mafic volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. Regional soil geochemical data for Troodos are highly variable with the Solea graben, one of three regional graben structures on Cyprus, showing enrichment in Te and Se. Of the three VMS sampled within the Solea graben, Apliki exhibits the most significant enrichment in Se. Samples from the South Apliki Breccia Zone; a zone of hematite-rich breccia containing euhedral pyrite and chalcopyrite, contain up to 4953 and 3956 ppm Se in pyrite and chalcopyrite, respectively. Four paragenetic stages are identified at Apliki and different generations of pyrite are distinguishable using trace-element chemistry analysed via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results indicate stage I pyrite formed under reduced conditions at high temperatures >280°C and contains 182 ppm (n = 22 σ = 253) Se. Late stage III pyrite which is euhedral and overprints chalcopyrite and hematite is enriched in Se (averaging 1862 ppm; n = 23 σ = 1394). Sulfide dissolution and hematite formation displaced large amounts of Se as hematite cannot accommodate high concentrations of Se in its crystal structure. The mechanisms proposed to explain the pronounced change in redox are twofold. Fault movement leading to localized seawater ingress coupled with a decreasing magmatic flux that generated locally oxidizing conditions and promoted sulfide dissolution. A Se/S ratio of 9280 indicates a probable magmatic component for late stage III pyrite, which is suggested as a mechanism explaining the transition from oxidizing back to reduced conditions. This study highlights the significance of changes in redox which promote sulfide dissolution, mobilization and enrichment of Se.
Developing countries are experiencing an increase in total demand for livestock commodities, as populations and per capita demands increase. Increased production is therefore required to meet this demand and maintain food security. Production increases will lead to proportionate increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions unless offset by reductions in the emissions intensity (Ei) (i.e. the amount of GHG emitted per kg of commodity produced) of livestock production. It is therefore important to identify measures that can increase production whilst reducing Ei cost-effectively. This paper seeks to do this for smallholder agro-pastoral cattle systems in Senegal; ranging from low input to semi-intensified, they are representative of a large proportion of the national cattle production. Specifically, it identifies a shortlist of mitigation measures with potential for application to the various herd systems and estimates their GHG emissions abatement potential (using the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model) and cost-effectiveness. Limitations and future requirements are identified and discussed. This paper demonstrates that the Ei of meat and milk from livestock systems in a developing region can be reduced through measures that would also benefit food security, many of which are likely to be cost-beneficial. The ability to make such quantification can assist future sustainable development efforts.
The livestock sector is one of the fastest growing subsectors of the agricultural economy and, while it makes a major contribution to global food supply and economic development, it also consumes significant amounts of natural resources and alters the environment. In order to improve our understanding of the global environmental impact of livestock supply chains, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations has developed the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model (GLEAM). The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of GLEAM. Specifically, it explains the model architecture, methods and functionality, that is the types of analysis that the model can perform. The model focuses primarily on the quantification of greenhouse gases emissions arising from the production of the 11 main livestock commodities. The model inputs and outputs are managed and produced as raster data sets, with spatial resolution of 0.05 decimal degrees. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model v1.0 consists of five distinct modules: (a) the Herd Module; (b) the Manure Module; (c) the Feed Module; (d) the System Module; (e) the Allocation Module. In terms of the modelling approach, GLEAM has several advantages. For example spatial information on livestock distributions and crops yields enables rations to be derived that reflect the local availability of feed resources in developing countries. The Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model also contains a herd model that enables livestock statistics to be disaggregated and variation in livestock performance and management to be captured. Priorities for future development of GLEAM include: improving data quality and the methods used to perform emissions calculations; extending the scope of the model to include selected additional environmental impacts and to enable predictive modelling; and improving the utility of GLEAM output.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
This scoping literature review, through finding and assessing researched bereavement service outcomes, sought to determine the state of bereavement services evaluation, to catalogue service types, and to identify which service or services, if any, demonstrate clear evidence of effectiveness.
Our methods included: (1) a literature search for published English-language research articles from 2005–2015; (2) critical appraisal of articles to identify findings; (3) compilation of findings; and (4) determination of the relevance of our findings.
Some 38 papers were found, and all were retained to identify the outcomes researched and research findings. Many different outcomes were studied in the 18 quantitative, 11 qualitative, and 9 mixed-methods investigations undertaken worldwide. Ten studies focused on level of grief, six on stress/distress level, six on grief knowledge, six on level of depression, and five on somatization or physical symptoms. Most commonly, a group of bereavement services was evaluated as a whole, followed by group therapy, individual counseling, written information, and other less common services. No group of services or individual service was determined to yield clear and convincing evidence of effectiveness. Regardless, all but one service were shown to have value—most often related to gaining grief information and/or emotional support. Until high-quality research studies have repeatedly revealed evidence of effectiveness, it is possible that the positive outcomes of bereavement services will be largely based on bereaved people receiving helpful educational information and emotional support from organizations and people prepared to help them.
Significance of results:
This project outlines existing bereavement service types and the state of science in relation to determination of outcomes. It offers suggestions to advance the state of science to validate or refine bereavement services. It brings to light the issue that bereavement service outcomes need to be carefully researched so that evidence can drive service refinement and expansion. It also highlights the importance of effective bereavement services.
The Nublang is a unique dual-purpose breed of Bos indicus cattle found in Bhutan. They have been crossed with Mithun (Bos frontalis) and Bos taurus breeds in an effort to improve milk production leading to a decline in the population of purebred Nublang. An alternative to crossbreeding would be the genetic improvement of milk yield within purebred Nublang, thus allowing conservation and sustainable utilization of the pure breed. It is important to measure the genetic variability (heritability) of milk yield to assess the potential for genetic improvement within Nublang. Therefore this study estimated phenotypic and genetic parameters of milk yield using 2 052 test day milk yields from 66 cows recorded from 1997 to 2013 in the National Nublang Farm, Tashiyangphu. The average daily milk yield (DMY) was 2.12 ± 0.7 litres (N 2 052, range: 0.3–5.0 L, CV: 34 percent). Parity, month in milk and year all had a significant effect on DMY (P < 0.05). The average lactation milk yield (LMY) was 519.2 ± 151 L (N: 261, range: 115–881.7, CV: 29.1 percent) and average lactation length was 239 days. LMY was significantly influenced by parity (P < 0.05) and season of calving. The heritability of DMY and LMY was 0.22 ± 0.16 and 0.13 ± 0.20, respectively. The repeatability estimates were 0.45 ± 0.05 and 0.49 ± 0.08 for DMY and LMY, respectively. Overall the heritability and repeatability estimates of milk yields indicate potential for genetic improvement of milk yield in Nublang cattle through selection. However, it is recommended that a larger dataset is generated to enable more precise estimates of genetic parameters.
Background: Transitioning from medical school to residency is difficult and stressful, necessitating innovation in easing this transition. In response, a Canadian neurosurgical Rookie Camp was designed and implemented to foster acquisition of technical, cognitive and behavioral skills among incoming Canadian post graduate year one (PGY-1) neurosurgery residents. Methods: The inaugural Rookie Camp was held in July 2012 in Halifax. The curriculum was developed based on a national needs-assessment and consisted of a pre-course manual, 7 case-based stations, 4 procedural skills stations and 2 group discussions. The content was clinically focused, used a variety of teaching methods, and addressed multiple CanMEDS competencies. Evaluation included participant and faculty surveys and a pre-course, post-course, and 3-month retention knowledge test. Results: 17 of 23 PGY-1 Canadian neurosurgical residents participated in the Camp. All agreed the course content was relevant for PGY-1 training and the experience prepared them for residency. All participants would recommend the course to future neurosurgical residents. A statistically significant improvement was observed in knowledge related to course content (F(2,32) = 7.572, p<0.002). There were no significant differences between post-test and retention-test scores at three months. Conclusion: The inaugural Canadian Neurosurgery Rookie Camp for PGY-1 residents was successfully delivered, with engagement from participants, training programs, the Canadian Neurosurgical Society, and the Royal College. In addition to providing fundamental knowledge, which was shown to be retained, the course eased junior residents’ transition to residency by fostering camaraderie and socialization within the specialty.
The overarching aim of biomimetic approaches to materials synthesis is to mimic simultaneously the structure and function of a natural material, in such a way that these functional properties can be systematically tailored and optimized. In the case of synthetic spider silk fibers, to date functionalities have largely focused on mechanical properties. A rapidly expanding body of literature documents this work, building on the emerging knowledge of structure–function relationships in native spider silks, and the spinning processes used to create them. Here, we describe some of the benchmark achievements reported until now, with a focus on the last five years. Progress in protein synthesis, notably the expression on full-size spidroins, has driven substantial improvements in synthetic spider silk performance. Spinning technology, however, lags behind and is a major limiting factor in biomimetic production. We also discuss applications for synthetic silk that primarily capitalize on its nonmechanical attributes, and that exploit the remarkable range of structures that can be formed from a synthetic silk feedstock.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
A clearer understanding of the basis for the association between cannabis use and psychotic experiences (PEs) is required. Our aim was to examine the extent to which associations between cannabis and cigarette use and PEs are due to confounding.
A cohort study of 1756 adolescents with data on cannabis use, cigarette use and PEs.
Cannabis use and cigarette use at age 16 were both associated, to a similar degree, with PEs at age 18 [odds ratio (OR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18–1.86 for cannabis and OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.31–1.98 for cigarettes]. Adjustment for cigarette smoking frequency (OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.91–1.76) or other illicit drug use (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.91–1.73) substantially attenuated the relationship between cannabis and PEs. The attenuation was to a lesser degree when cannabis use was adjusted for in the cigarette PE association (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.05–1.92). However, almost all of the participants used cannabis with tobacco, including those who classed themselves as non-cigarette smokers.
Teasing out the effects of cannabis from tobacco is highly complex and may not have been dealt with adequately in studies to date, including this one. Complementary methods are required to robustly examine the independent effects of cannabis, tobacco and other illicit drugs on PEs.
Peaks in northern bottlenose whale, Hyperoodon ampullatus, strandings are found between August and September in the UK and August and November in The Netherlands, consistent with a hypothesized southward migration. However, results on diet suggest that several whales stranded during these months were not travelling from northern latitudes prior to stranding. We analysed the stomach contents of ten whales stranded in the north-east Atlantic (Scotland, N = 6, England, N = 1, Ireland, N = 2 and The Netherlands, N = 1). All but one of the analysed whales (live-stranded in the River Thames in January 2006) stranded between August and October. Food remains consisted almost entirely of cephalopod mandibles. Twenty-one cephalopod species (16 families) were recorded, the most abundant taxa being Gonatus spp., Teuthowenia spp. and Taonius pavo. No fish and few crustacean remains were found. Small amounts of cephalopod flesh were found in three of the stomachs and none in the others. Given that cephalopod beaks can remain within the stomach for several days, and that there was no evidence of inshore feeding (no coastal species were present among the prey), the whales may not have fed for several days prior to stranding. Three whales had remains of warm-temperate water cephalopods (e.g. Vampyroteuthis infernalis, Heteroteuthis sp.) in their stomachs, while three individuals showed a high diversity of prey in their stomachs, suggesting that several of the whales could have been either travelling north or consistently feeding in temperate latitudes prior to stranding. As previously recorded in other deep diving teuthophagous cetaceans, two animals had ingested small amounts of plastic debris.
Information on the incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is essential for models of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening programmes. We developed two independent estimates of CT incidence in women in England: one based on an incidence study, with estimates ‘recalibrated’ to the general population using data on setting-specific relative risks, and allowing for clearance and re-infection during follow-up; the second based on UK prevalence data, and information on the duration of CT infection. The consistency of independent sources of data on incidence, prevalence and duration, validates estimates of these parameters. Pooled estimates of the annual incidence rate in women aged 16–24 and 16–44 years for 2001–2005 using all these data were 0·05 [95% credible interval (CrI) 0·035–0·071] and 0·021 (95% CrI 0·015–0·028), respectively. Although, the estimates apply to England, similar methods could be used in other countries. The methods could be extended to dynamic models to synthesize, and assess the consistency of data on contact and transmission rates.
When the Royal Society of Edinburgh was founded, the art of beer brewing had already been practised for well ov,er five thousand years, initially in Mesopotamia, then in Egypt and, for the last two millennia, in Continental Europe and in Britain. The procedures used were —and still are —essentially simple. First, barley is malted by growing the grain to allow it to form an assortment of enzymes, some of which, particularly the proteinases and β-glucanases, gradually free the starch granules of the endosperm from their enclosing organic matrix. The enzyme-amylase is also synthesised during malting and, though it has a limited action on the starch in the intact grain, it assumes major importance later during mashing. As a result of the enzymic activity during malting, the endosperm becomes friable instead of tough and the germinated barley, now known as malt, is kiln-dried so that it can be safely stored.
Studies have been made of the microstructures developed in directionally solidified monotectic Al-In, Al-Bi and Zn-Bi alloys, as a function of growth velocity and temperature gradient. With increasing growth velocity and decreasing gradient the microstructures show transitions from regular rod-like arrangements of the lower melting point phase, through arrays of aligned droplets to coarse irregular droplet dispersions. Intermediate stages show rods with longitudinal shape perturbations of a classic Rayleigh-type instability. The changes are discussed in terms of oscillatory instabilities at the solid-liquid interface (enhanced by increasing growth velocity and decreasing temperature gradient) coupled with ripening effects in the solid + liquid region behind the interface.