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Sleep disturbance is a symptom of and a well-known risk factor for depression. Further, atypical functioning of the HPA axis has been linked to the pathogenesis of depression. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of adolescent HPA axis functioning in the link between adolescent sleep problems and later depressive symptoms. Methods: A sample of 157 17–18 year old adolescents (61.8% female) completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) and provided salivary cortisol samples throughout the day for three consecutive days. Two years later, adolescents reported their depressive symptoms via the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results: Individuals (age 17–18) with greater sleep disturbance reported greater depressive symptoms two years later (age 19–20). This association occurred through the indirect effect of sleep disturbance on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) (indirect effect = 0.14, 95%CI [.02 -.39]). Conclusions: One pathway through which sleep problems may lead to depressive symptoms is by up-regulating components of the body’s physiological stress response system that can be measured through the cortisol awakening response. Behavioral interventions that target sleep disturbance in adolescents may mitigate this neurobiological pathway to depression during this high-risk developmental phase.
A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
All accredited cancer institutions are required to screen patients for psychosocial distress. This paper describes the development, implementation, and preliminary outcomes of the University of California San Diego Health Moores Cancer Center Wellbeing Screening Program.
Essential steps learned in a formal National Cancer Institute–funded training workshop entitled “Implementing Comprehensive Biopsychosocial Screening” were followed to ensure successful program implementation. These steps included identification of stakeholders; formation of a working committee; establishment of a vision, process, and implementation timeline; creation of a screening tool; development of patient educational material; tool integration into an electronic medical record system; staff training and pilot testing of tool administration; and education about tool results and appropriate follow-up actions. Screening data were collected and analyzed retrospectively for preliminary results and rapid cycle improvement of the wellbeing screening process.
Over an 8-month implementation and assessment period, the screening tool was administered 5,610 times of 7,664 expected administrations (73.2%.) to 2,394 unique patients. Visits in which the questionnaire was administered averaged 39.6 ± 14.8 minutes, compared with 40.3 ± 15.2 minutes for visits in which the questionnaire was not administered (t = −1.76, df = 7,662, p = 0.079).
Significance of results
This program provides a process and a tool for successful implementation of distress screening in cancer centers, in a meaningful way for patients and providers, while meeting accreditation standards. Further, meaningful data about patient distress and tool performance were able to be collected and utilized.
Factors associated with relapse among children who are discharged after reaching a threshold denoted ‘recovered’ from moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are not well understood. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with sustained recovery, defined as maintaining a mid-upper-arm circumference≥12·5 cm for 1 year after release from treatment. On the basis of an observational study design, we analysed data from an in-depth household (HH) survey on a sub-sample of participants within a larger cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) that followed up children for 1 year after recovery from MAM. Out of 1497 children participating in the cRCT, a subset of 315 children participated in this sub-study. Accounting for other factors, HH with fitted lids on water storage containers (P=0·004) was a significant predictor of sustained recovery. In addition, sustained recovery was better among children whose caregivers were observed to have clean hands (P=0·053) and in HH using an improved sanitation facility (P=0·083). By contrast, socio-economic status and infant and young child feeding practices at the time of discharge and HH food security throughout the follow-up period were not significant. Given these results, we hypothesise that improved water, sanitation and hygiene conditions in tandem with management of MAM through supplemental feeding programmes have the possibility to decrease relapse following recovery from MAM. Furthermore, the absence of associations between relapse and nearly all HH-level factors indicates that the causal factors of relapse may be related mostly to the child’s individual, underlying health and nutrition status.
The presence of an extrasolar planet can be revealed when it passes in front of its host star, reducing the star's apparent brightness by ∼ 1%. We are monitoring a large sample (of order 104) of stars using our own 0.5 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory, Australia, in search of such transiting planets.
From measurements of Tautenburg Schmidt plates with the APM facility in Cambridge we obtained absolute proper motions of the Galactic globular clusters M 3 and M 92 directly with respect to large numbers of background galaxies (Scholz et al. 1993, 1994). We have extended our work to the dSphs in Draco and Ursa Minor (Scholz & Irwin 1994) and to other Galactic globular clusters using Tautenburg, Palomar and UK Schmidt plates. Combining our absolute proper motion of a cluster with its known radial velocity and distance (using common parameters of the solar motion) we derive the cluster orbit in the Galaxy (cf. Odenkirchen & Brosche 1992).
Using automated scans of Tautenburg Schmidt plates with the APM facility in Cambridge (UK) the mean tangential motion of two globular clusters, M3 and M92, is determined directly with respect to a well defined extragalactic reference frame. In both fields five pairs of plates centred on the cluster with epoch differences from 20 to 27 years were measured. In the independent proper motion determination with 1200 to 2300 reference galaxies for each pair of plates we used 3rd order polynomials and a stepwise regression method. The mean absolute cluster p.m. corrected for systematic effects dependent on the coordinates was obtained with an accuracy of ±0.03 arcsec/century for M3 and ±0.06 arcsec/century for M92.
We present spectroscopic observations of ~200 giant stars in two fields toward the Galactic bulge. The positions of fields 588 and 589 are at l,b = (8,7) and (12,3), respectively, which corresponds to a Galactocentric distance of ~1.6 kpc for the stars in the bulge. The K giants were selected from color-magnitude and color-color diagrams produced by scans of B, R and I plates from the APM machine. The spectra were obtained with the MX multi-object spectrograph at the Steward 90″ telescope, and with the Red Channel spectrograph at the MMT. Radial velocities good to ≪ 10 km/s were obtained from cross-correlation techniques. A grid of ~100 standard stars was built to calibrate spectrophotometric indices that provide abundances and luminosities.
4MOST is a new wide-field, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility for the VISTA telescope of ESO. Starting in 2022, 4MOST will deploy 2400 fibres in a 4.1 square degree field-of-view using a positioner based on the tilting spine principle. In this contribution we give an outline of the major science goals we wish to achieve with 4MOST in the area of Galactic Archeology. The 4MOST Galactic Archeology surveys have been designed to address long-standing and far-reaching problems in Galactic science. They are focused on four major themes: 1) Near-field cosmology tests, 2) Chemo-dynamical characterisation of the major Milky Way stellar components, 3) The Galactic Halo and beyond, and 4) Discovery and characterisation of extremely metal-poor stars. In addition to a top-level description of the Galactic surveys we provide information about how the community will be able to join 4MOST via a call for Public Spectroscopic Surveys that ESO will launch.
The popular front strategy, by which the French Communist party (PCF) came to mean a tactical alliance of the left including the Socialists and the left-leaning elements of the petty bourgeoisie represented by the Radical party, was pursued only briefly by the PCF in the 1930s, from 1934 to 1936. This is ironic, since it is by the slogan of the Front Populaire that the period of the 1930s in French history was to be subsequently known and remembered. The popular front was actually a transitional strategy between the famous (or infamous) “Third Period” of Comintern history from 1928–34, characterized in France by the class-against-class policy, and the policy of Front National, in which the PCF pursued a policy of alliance with anyone, including the right, against fascism at home and abroad. The PCF launched the national front in August 1936, and although the slogan did not catch on and was withdrawn, the party pursued that strategy for the remainder of the period until the war. But it was the popular front that would be remembered as having resulted in a wave of social legislation following the Blum government's assumption of power in June 1936 and which has ever since become a point of reference for the PCF. The wage increases, rights to unionize, paid vacations, forty hour week and nationalizations remain accomplishments for the party, to be built upon in each successive experience of participating in, or supporting the French government.
Results are presented from our ongoing studies of Titan using ALMA during the period 2012-2015, including a confirmation of the previous detection of vinyl cyanide (C2H3CN), as well as the first spatial map for this species on Titan. Simultaneous mapping of HC3N, CH3CN and C2H5CN reveal characteristic abundance patterns for each species that provide insight into their individual photochemical lifetimes, and help inform our understanding of Titan’s unique, time-variable atmospheric chemistry and global circulation. A time-sequence of HC3N maps covering 38 months reveals a dramatic change in the distribution of this gas consistent with high-altitude photochemical production followed by advection towards the southern (winter) pole, combined with rapid loss in the north after Titan’s 2009 seasonal equinox. The 2015 C2H3CN and C2H5CN maps show abundance peaks in Titan’s southern hemisphere, similar to those observed for the short-lived HC3N molecule. The longer-lived CH3CN, on the other hand, remains more concentrated in the north.
Wapusk National Park is part of the Hudson Bay Lowlands in Manitoba and covers 11 475 km2. Lichen surveys were initiated in 2002 but none have reported all species incorporating broad habitat types or a baseline on which to make management decisions. The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine species diversity, including species richness and evenness of the lichens present; 2) to explore species distributions; and 3) to compare lichen growth form and substratum relationships among physiographic regions. Fifty-six locations in four habitat types (physiographic regions: open coastal beach ridge, forested coastal beach ridge, boreal transition forest, and peat plateau bog) and three burned locations were visited over nine years and specimens were collected at each location. A total of 276 species and subspecies were collected. One species is new to Canada (Buellia uberior Anzi) and ten species are new to Manitoba. Species diversity, evenness, and richness were highest in the coastal beach ridge. The open coastal beach ridge, boreal transition forest, and peat plateau bogs formed separate clusters in the non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) but the forested coastal beach ridge overlapped with the open coastal beach ridge. Unique species in each region may serve as indicators to monitor long-term changes. While the coastal beach ridge facilitates travel along the coast, it also represents the region with the highest need for intervention to conserve species diversity.
We present results from orbit integrations for the globular clusters M 3 and M 92. Absolute proper motions recently measured from Tautenburg Schmidt plates and a three-component mass model for the Galaxy have been used to derive the galactic orbits of these clusters. Orbital parameters and the influence of observational uncertainties on the determination of the orbits are discussed.
Radial velocities of 20 stars members of young clusters and associations located in the inter-Cloud region within 2h < R.A. < 5h tend to be lower than the HI velocities in the same direction. The stellar velocities do not show a pronounced velocity gradiant as observed for the HI from the SMC to the LMC. This suggests that the stellar components belong to the SMC wing. Our photometry and spectroscopy support the view that one of the stars at 4h20m is a foreground HB star.
We present deep CCD photometry of three associations lying between the Magellanic Clouds and sitting on the HI ridge. ZAMS fittings show that these clusters are located at the distance of the Clouds. Furthermore, a slight distance gradient is observed. Main sequences matched to isochrones reveal that these aggregates are very young, no more than 108 years old. An age difference from east to west is also suggested.