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The COVID-19 pandemic has presented unique challenges to pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) departments. The purpose of this study was to identify these challenges and ascertain how centers overcame barriers in creating solutions to continue to provide high-quality care and keep their workforce safe during the early pandemic.
This is a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with physicians in leadership positions who have disaster or emergency management experience. Participants were identified through purposive sampling. Interviews were recorded and transcribed electronically. Themes and codes were extracted from the transcripts by two independent coders. Constant comparison analysis was performed until thematic saturation was achieved. Member-checking was completed to ensure trustworthiness.
14 PEM-trained physicians participated in this study. Communication, leadership and planning, clinical practice, and personal adaptations were the principal themes identified. Recommendations elicited include: improving communication strategies; increasing emergency department (ED) representation within hospital-wide incident command; preparing for a surge and accepting adult patients; personal protective equipment supply and usage; developing testing strategies; and adaptations individuals made to their practice to keep themselves and their families safe.
By sharing COVID-19 experiences and offering solutions to commonly encountered problems, pediatric emergency departments may be better prepared for future pandemics.
Sealings recovered from the Omo M10 temple, a provincial center of the Andean Tiwanaku state (AD 500–1100), and from the Muru Ut Pata neighborhood of the Tiwanaku capital, as well as a signet ring from the Akapana East complex of Tiwanaku's highland capital, shed light on the hitherto undocumented use of seals and sealings in Central Andean complex society. The identification of Tiwanaku sealings related to the signet ring seal has implications for understanding the transmission of identity, authority, and authenticity over time and distance in early Andean states.
South African competition law has played a modest role in the arena of labour relations in response to agreements between companies relating to employees’ salaries, terms of compensation, employee benefits, and undertakings not to solicit or hire employees from companies that could be considered to be competitors. By contrast, the South African Constitution affords a comprehensive umbrella of rights protection to workers. These rights have been supplemented by far reaching provisions in a chapter of the Competition Act of 1998 which sets out the regulatory framework for mergers and which through its public interest provisions protect workers who are employed by the merging companies. This chapter examines this interface between these two areas of law. It locates this regulatory framework read as a whole within the context of traditional forms of employment .In turn this prompts an examination the question of the role of competition law in response to the changing nature of work which falls outside the scope of the constitutionally protected area of labour relations. In turn this raises questions about competition law and the regulation of these new forms of labour relations.
Anhedonia – a diminished interest or pleasure in activities – is a core self-reported symptom of depression which is poorly understood and often resistant to conventional antidepressants. This symptom may occur due to dysfunction in one or more sub-components of reward processing: motivation, consummatory experience and/or learning. However, the precise impairments remain elusive. Dissociating these components (ideally, using cross-species measures) and relating them to the subjective experience of anhedonia is critical as it may benefit fundamental biology research and novel drug development.
Using a battery of behavioural tasks based on rodent assays, we examined reward motivation (Joystick-Operated Runway Task, JORT; and Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task, EEfRT) and reward sensitivity (Sweet Taste Test) in a non-clinical population who scored high (N = 32) or low (N = 34) on an anhedonia questionnaire (Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale).
Compared to the low anhedonia group, the high anhedonia group displayed marginal impairments in effort-based decision-making (EEfRT) and reduced reward sensitivity (Sweet Taste Test). However, we found no evidence of a difference between groups in physical effort exerted for reward (JORT). Interestingly, whilst the EEfRT and Sweet Taste Test correlated with anhedonia measures, they did not correlate with each other. This poses the question of whether there are subgroups within anhedonia; however, further work is required to directly test this hypothesis.
Our findings suggest that anhedonia is a heterogeneous symptom associated with impairments in reward sensitivity and effort-based decision-making.
This study examined the effectiveness of an integrated care pathway (ICP), including a medication algorithm, to treat agitation associated with dementia.
Analyses of data (both prospective and retrospective) collected during routine clinical care.
Geriatric Psychiatry Inpatient Unit.
Patients with agitation associated with dementia (n = 28) who were treated as part of the implementation of the ICP and those who received treatment-as-usual (TAU) (n = 28) on the same inpatient unit before the implementation of the ICP. Two control groups of patients without dementia treated on the same unit contemporaneously to the TAU (n = 17) and ICP groups (n = 36) were included to account for any secular trends.
Cohen Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI), Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPIQ), and assessment of motor symptoms were completed during the ICP implementation. Chart review was used to obtain length of inpatient stay and rates of psychotropic polypharmacy.
Patients in the ICP group experienced a reduction in their scores on the CMAI and NPIQ and no changes in motor symptoms. Compared to the TAU group, the ICP group had a higher chance of an earlier discharge from hospital, a lower rate of psychotropic polypharmacy, and a lower chance of having a fall during hospital stay. In contrast, these outcomes did not differ between the two control groups.
These preliminary results suggest that an ICP can be used effectively to treat agitation associated with dementia in inpatients. A larger randomized study is needed to confirm these results.
Risk and risk management are essential elements of farming. We show that strategies to cope with risk often go beyond the level of the individual farm. Cooperation, learning and sharing of risks play a vital role in European agriculture. An enabling environment should support cooperative approaches, enable a diversity of risk management solutions and harness novel technological opportunities.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) are critical to multiple myeloma (MM) disease control. IMiDs act by inducing Cereblon-dependent degradation of IKZF1 and IKZF3, which leads to IRF4 and MYC downregulation (collectively termed the “Ikaros axis”). We therefore hypothesized that IMiD treatment fails to downregulate the Ikaros axis in IMiD resistant MM. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To measure IMiD-induced Ikaros axis downregulation, we designed an intracellular flow cytometry assay that measured relative protein levels of IKZF1, IKZF3, IRF4 and MYC in MM cells following ex vivo treatment with the IMiD Pomalidomide (Pom). We established this assay using Pom-sensitive parental and dose-escalated Pom-resistant MM cell lines before assessing Ikaros axis downregulation in CD38+CD138+ MM cells in patient samples (bone marrow aspirates). To assess the Ikaros axis in the context of MM intratumoral heterogeneity, we used a 35-marker mass cytometry panel to simultaneously characterize MM subpopulations in patient samples. Lastly, we determined ex vivo drug sensitivity in patient samples via flow cytometry. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Our hypothesis was supported in MM cell lines, as resistant lines showed no IMiD-induced decrease in any Ikaros axis proteins. However, when assessed in patient samples, Pom treatment caused a significant decrease in IKZF1, IKZF3 and IRF4 regardless of IMiD sensitivity. Mass cytometry in patient samples revealed that individual Ikaros axis proteins were differentially expressed between subpopulations. When correlating this with ex vivo Pom sensitivity of MM subpopulations, we observed that low IKZF1 and IKZF3 corresponded to Pom resistance. Interestingly, most of these resistant populations still expressed MYC. We therefore assessed whether IMiD resistant MM was MYC dependent by treating with MYCi975. In 88% (7/8) of patient samples tested, IMiD resistant MM cells were sensitive to MYC inhibition. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: While our findings did not support our initial hypothesis, our data suggest a mechanism where MYC expression becomes Ikaros axis independent to drive IMiD resistance, and resistant MM is still dependent on MYC. This suggests targeting MYC directly or indirectly via a mechanism to be determined may be an effective strategy to eradicate IMiD resistant MM.
To assess the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on head and neck urgent suspected cancer referral pathways in rural areas of Wales.
A retrospective audit was conducted of 2234 head and neck urgent suspected cancer referrals received from January 2019 to November 2020.
The referrals dropped by 35 per cent in 2020 compared to the same period in 2019. The time from general practitioner referral to the first ENT appointment improved during the pandemic (8.0 vs 10.0 days; p < 0.001). Of referrals, 92.1 per cent were seen within a 14-day period in 2020, compared with 79.6 per cent in 2019 (p < 0.001). There were no differences between 2020 and 2019 in terms of: the (confirmed cancer) conversion rate (10.6 per cent vs 9.7 per cent; p = 0.60), general practitioner referral to multidisciplinary team discussion time (35.5 vs 41.5 days; p = 0.40) or general practitioner referral to initiation of treatment time (68.0 vs 78.0 days; p = 0.16).
Whilst coronavirus disease 2019 reduced the number of overall head and neck urgent suspected cancer referrals, the pathways were generally unchanged, if not slightly improved, in rural Wales.
Understanding the relative longevity of different seed lots, perhaps of different species or genotypes, but also following production under different environments or using different cultivation methods, or following different post-harvest treatments, is relevant to anyone concerned with the retention of seed lot viability and vigour during storage. However, different scientists over the years have used different conditions to assess seed lot longevity, as well as different variables as the measure of ‘longevity.’ Here, we give some of the backgrounds to how two standard protocols, with an open and closed system respectively, were derived, and explain why we consider p50, defined as the time during storage when seed lot viability, as measured through a germination test, has declined to 50%, is a suitable longevity trait parameter.
Preconception and prenatal stress impact fetal and infant development, and women of color are disproportionately exposed to sociocultural stressors like discrimination and acculturative stress. However, few studies examine links between mothers’ exposure to these stressors and offspring mental health, or possible mitigating factors. Using linear regression, we tested associations between prenatally assessed maternal acculturative stress and discrimination on infant negative emotionality among 113 Latinx/Hispanic, Asian American, Black, and Multiethnic mothers and their children. Additionally, we tested interactions between stressors and potential pre- and postnatal resilience-promoting factors: community cohesion, social support, communalism, and parenting self-efficacy. Discrimination and acculturative stress were related to more infant negative emotionality at approximately 12 months old (M = 12.6, SD = .75). In contrast, maternal report of parenting self-efficacy when infants were 6 months old was related to lower levels of infant negative emotionality. Further, higher levels of parenting self-efficacy mitigated the relation between acculturative stress and negative emotionality. Preconception and prenatal exposure to sociocultural stress may be a risk factor for poor offspring mental health. Maternal and child health researchers, policymakers, and practitioners should prioritize further understanding these relations, reducing exposure to sociocultural stressors, and promoting resilience.
Describe nutrition and physical activity practices, nutrition self-efficacy and barriers and food programme knowledge within Family Child Care Homes (FCCH) and differences by staffing.
Baseline, cross-sectional analyses of the Happy Healthy Homes randomised trial (NCT03560050).
FCCH in Oklahoma, USA.
FCCH providers (n 49, 100 % women, 30·6 % Non-Hispanic Black, 2·0 % Hispanic, 4·1 % American Indian/Alaska Native, 51·0 % Non-Hispanic white, 44·2 ± 14·2 years of age. 53·1 % had additional staff) self-reported nutrition and physical activity practices and policies, nutrition self-efficacy and barriers and food programme knowledge. Differences between providers with and without additional staff were adjusted for multiple comparisons (P < 0·01).
The prevalence of meeting all nutrition and physical activity best practices ranged from 0·0–43·8 % to 4·1–16·7 %, respectively. Average nutrition and physical activity scores were 3·2 ± 0·3 and 3·0 ± 0·5 (max 4·0), respectively. Sum nutrition and physical activity scores were 137·5 ± 12·6 (max 172·0) and 48·4 ± 7·5 (max 64·0), respectively. Providers reported high nutrition self-efficacy and few barriers. The majority of providers (73·9–84·7 %) felt that they could meet food programme best practices; however, knowledge of food programme best practices was lower than anticipated (median 63–67 % accuracy). More providers with additional staff had higher self-efficacy in family-style meal service than did those who did not (P = 0·006).
Providers had high self-efficacy in meeting nutrition best practices and reported few barriers. While providers were successfully meeting some individual best practices, few met all. Few differences were observed between FCCH providers with and without additional staff. FCCH providers need additional nutrition training on implementation of best practices.
Resource-intensive interventions and education are susceptible to a lack of long-term sustainability and regression to the mean. The respiratory culture nudge changed reporting to “Commensal Respiratory Flora only: No S. aureus/MRSA or P. aeruginosa.” This study demonstrated sustained reduction in broad-spectrum antibiotic duration and long-term sustainability 3 years after implementation.
Maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) have been linked to both child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. Theory suggests that child attachment security may be a protective factor against the negative effects of MDS. This study examined child attachment security as a buffer of the link between MDS and child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at two time points in a predominantly African American sample. Participants included mothers (N = 164; Mage = 29.68 years; 76% African American) and their preschool-aged children (60% girls; Mage = 44.67 months) recruited from four Head Start centers in low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore, Maryland. MDS were concurrently associated with child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at both time points. No significant main effects of child attachment security on behavior problems emerged; however, child attachment moderated the association between MDS and child internalizing behavior problems at Time 2, such that MDS predicted greater child internalizing problems when attachment security was low, and the effect was attenuated when attachment security was high. No interaction emerged for child externalizing problems. Findings suggest that secure attachment in early childhood can serve as a protective factor in the context of parental risk. We discuss implications for intervention and the intergenerational transmission of psychopathology.
The developmental origins of psychopathology begin before birth and perhaps even prior to conception. Understanding the intergenerational transmission of psychopathological risk is critical to identify sensitive windows for prevention and early intervention. Prior research demonstrates that maternal trauma history, typically assessed retrospectively, has adverse consequences for child socioemotional development. However, very few prospective studies of preconception trauma exist, and the role of preconception symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains unknown. The current study prospectively evaluates whether maternal preconception PTSD symptoms predict early childhood negative affectivity, a key dimension of temperament and predictor of later psychopathology. One hundred and eighteen women were recruited following a birth and prior to conception of the study child and were followed until the study child was 3–5 years old. Higher maternal PTSD symptoms prior to conception predicted greater child negative affectivity, adjusting for concurrent maternal depressive symptoms and sociodemographic covariates. In exploratory analyses, we found that neither maternal prenatal nor postpartum depressive symptoms or perceived stress mediated this association. These findings add to a limited prospective literature, highlighting the importance of assessing the mental health of women prior to conception and providing interventions that can disrupt the intergenerational sequelae of trauma.
Mood disorders are characterised by pronounced symptom heterogeneity, which presents a substantial challenge both to clinical practice and research. Identification of subgroups of individuals with homogeneous symptom profiles that cut across current diagnostic categories could provide insights in to the transdiagnostic relevance of individual symptoms, which current categorical diagnostic systems cannot impart.
To identify groups of people with homogeneous clinical characteristics, using symptoms of manic and/or irritable mood, and explore differences between groups in diagnoses, functional outcomes and genetic liability.
We used latent class analysis on eight binary self-reported symptoms of manic and irritable mood in the UK Biobank and PROTECT studies, to investigate how individuals formed latent subgroups. We tested associations between the latent classes and diagnoses of psychiatric disorders, sociodemographic characteristics and polygenic risk scores.
Five latent classes were derived in UK Biobank (N = 42 183) and were replicated in the independent PROTECT cohort (N = 4445), including ‘minimally affected’, ‘inactive restless’, active restless’, ‘focused creative’ and ‘extensively affected’ individuals. These classes differed in disorder risk, polygenic risk score and functional outcomes. One class that experienced disruptive episodes of mostly irritable mood largely comprised cases of depression/anxiety, and a class of individuals with increased confidence/creativity reported comparatively lower disruptiveness and functional impairment.
Findings suggest that data-driven investigations of psychopathological symptoms that include sub-diagnostic threshold conditions can complement research of clinical diagnoses. Improved classification systems of psychopathology could investigate a weighted approach to symptoms, toward a more dimensional classification of mood disorders.
To improve maternal health outcomes, increased diversity is needed among pregnant people in research studies and community surveillance. To expand the pool, we sought to develop a network encompassing academic and community obstetrics clinics. Typical challenges in developing a network include site identification, contracting, onboarding sites, staff engagement, participant recruitment, funding, and institutional review board approvals. While not insurmountable, these challenges became magnified as we built a research network during a global pandemic. Our objective is to describe the framework utilized to resolve pandemic-related issues.
We developed a framework for site-specific adaptation of the generalized study protocol. Twice monthly video meetings were held between the lead academic sites to identify local challenges and to generate ideas for solutions. We identified site and participant recruitment challenges and then implemented solutions tailored to the local workflow. These solutions included the use of an electronic consent and videoconferences with local clinic leadership and staff. The processes for network development and maintenance changed to address issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, aspects of the sample processing/storage and data collection elements were held constant between sites.
Adapting our consenting approach enabled maintaining study enrollment during the pandemic. The pandemic amplified issues related to contracting, onboarding, and IRB approval. Maintaining continuity in sample management and clinical data collection allowed for pooling of information between sites.
Adaptability is key to maintaining network sites. Rapidly changing guidelines for beginning and continuing research during the pandemic required frequent intra- and inter-institutional communication to navigate.