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Few of the previous studies of clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR) have explored whether outcomes other than conversion, such as poor functioning or treatment responses, are better predicted when using risk calculators. To answer this question, we compared the predictive accuracy between the outcome of conversion and poor functioning by using the NAPLS-2 risk calculator.
Three hundred CHR individuals were identified using the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms. Of these, 228 (76.0%) completed neurocognitive assessments at baseline and 199 (66.3%) had at least a 1-year follow-up assessment. The latter group was used in the NAPLS-2 risk calculator.
We divided the sample into two broad categories based on different outcome definitions, conversion (n = 46) v. non-conversion (n = 153) or recovery (n = 138) v. poor functioning (n = 61). Interestingly, the NAPLS-2 risk calculator showed moderate discrimination of subsequent conversion to psychosis in this sample with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.631 (p = 0.007). However, for discriminating poor functioning, the AUC of the model increased to 0.754 (p < 0.001).
Our results suggest that the current risk calculator was a better fit for predicting a poor functional outcome and treatment response than it was in the prediction of conversion to psychosis.
Due to the limitations of the existing methods (for example, the route binary tree method) that can only automatically generate routes based on a single chart, a method for automatically generating the shortest distance route based on an obstacle spatial database is proposed. Using this proposed method, the route between two arbitrary points at sea can be automatically generated. First, the differences in accuracy and updating time of charts are quantitatively analysed. Next, the mechanism for updating obstacles is designed, an obstacle spatial database is constructed, and the obstacle data extracted from multiple charts are fused. Finally, considering the effect of efficiency on the amount of obstacle data, a route window and an improved R-tree index are designed for quickly extracting and querying the obstacle database. The experimental results demonstrate that compared with existing methods, the proposed method can generate the shortest distance between two arbitrary points at sea and eliminates the limitation of the area of the chart. In addition, with data from multiple charts, the route generated by the proposed method is more reliable than that of the existing methods, and it is more efficient.
This study aim to derive and validate a simple and well-performing risk calculator (RC) for predicting psychosis in individual patients at clinical high risk (CHR).
From the ongoing ShangHai-At-Risk-for-Psychosis (SHARP) program, 417 CHR cases were identified based on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS), of whom 349 had at least 1-year follow-up assessment. Of these 349 cases, 83 converted to psychosis. Logistic regression was used to build a multivariate model to predict conversion. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to test the effectiveness of the SIPS-RC. Second, an independent sample of 100 CHR subjects was recruited based on an identical baseline and follow-up procedures to validate the performance of the SIPS-RC.
Four predictors (each based on a subset of SIPS-based items) were used to construct the SIPS-RC: (1) functional decline; (2) positive symptoms (unusual thoughts, suspiciousness); (3) negative symptoms (social anhedonia, expression of emotion, ideational richness); and (4) general symptoms (dysphoric mood). The SIPS-RC showed moderate discrimination of subsequent transition to psychosis with an AUC of 0.744 (p < 0.001). A risk estimate of 25% or higher had around 75% accuracy for predicting psychosis. The personalized risk generated by the SIPS-RC provided a solid estimate of conversion outcomes in the independent validation sample, with an AUC of 0.804 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.662–0.951].
The SIPS-RC, which is simple and easy to use, can perform in the same manner as the NAPLS-2 RC in the Chinese clinical population. Such a tool may be used by clinicians to counsel appropriately their patients about clinical monitor v. potential treatment options.
The collimated electron jets ejected from cylindrical plasma are produced in particle-in-cell simulation under the applied longitudinal magnetostatic field and radial electrostatic field, which is a process that can be conveniently performed in a laboratory. We find that the applied magnetostatic field contributes significantly to the jet collimation, whereas the applied electrostatic field plays a vital role in the jet formation. The generation mechanism of collimated jets can be well understood through energy gain of the tagged electrons, and we conclude that the longitudinal momentum of the electrons is converted from the transverse momentum via the transverse-induced magnetic field. It has been found that the ejecting velocity of the jets is close to the speed of light when the applied electrostatic field reaches 3 × 1010 V/m. The present scheme may also give us an insight into the formation of astrophysical jets in celestial bodies.
Chitooligosaccharides (COS) are multi-functional foods and nutrients and environmentally friendly biological abiotic-resistance inducing agents for plants. In the current study, the effects and possible mechanisms of COS on improving the cold resistance of rice (II YOU 1259) seedlings were investigated. Compared with the control, a COS pre-soaking treatment enhanced photosynthesis, reduced oxidation damage and led to accumulation of more osmotic regulation substances under chilling treatment. In addition, a novel Deg/HtrA family serine endopeptidase (DegQ) gene, related to COS enhanced rice cold resistance, was identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that transcription of DegQ and psbA (D1 protein encoding gene) were up-regulated in a time-dependent manner by COS treatment under cold stress. With increasing expression of the D1 protein, chlorophyll b content was enhanced correspondingly. The current results suggest that COS could enhance cold stress tolerance of rice by repairing the photodamaged photosystem II, altering osmotic regulation and reducing oxidation damage.
Nanosized Platinum (Pt) nanocrystals (NCs) have been extensively investigated in catalytic fields because of their high reactivity due to the unique electron structure. However, the rarity and the high cost of Pt limit its applications in industry. To reduce the usage of Pt in catalytic industry, research interests have been extended to Pt-based nanoalloys. Among various nanostructures, nanoframes (NFs) showed promising catalytic performance even with a lower metallic loading dose. Herein, we report a facile and robust method to transfer the Pt-Ni tetrahexahedral (THH) NCs into THH NFs in which carbon monoxide (CO) plays a role of the “etching reagent”. The driving force of the etching is a formation of gaseous metallic complex, Ni(CO)4, known as Mond Process, preferentially dealloying nickel atoms along <100> directions of the Pt-Ni THH NCs. It is determined that the resultant Pt-Ni THH NFs possess an open, stable and high-index preserved nanostructure, in which the outside atomic layers are composed of only Pt atoms with surface strains. Compared to a solution-based etching process, this approach requires less etching time and generates a well-defined structure. The associated thermal annealing operation also releases extra internal stress, making the NFs more stable with fewer surface defects. Such Pt-Ni THH NFs show interesting potentials in the improvement of stability and activity as advanced catalysts.
The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been widely studied. However, for individuals with attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS), it is unclear whether the duration of untreated prodromal symptoms (DUPrS) also has a negative effect on the progression of psychosis. Our aim was to identify demographic and clinical factors contributing to the DUPrS in a large sample of individuals with APS, and to evaluate the association between DUPrS and the conversion to psychosis.
A sample of 391 individuals with APS, who were identified through a structured interview for prodromal syndromes, were included in this study, of whom a total of 334 patients had completed at least a 1-year clinical follow-up. A total of 57 individuals had converted to psychosis.
The average DUPrS was 4.8 months for the whole sample. Individuals with a longer DUPrS were likely to be men, non-local residents, with abnormal thought symptoms, a higher severity level of negative symptoms, the lower severity level of general symptoms, and lower level of general function before the onset of attenuated positive symptoms. A DUPrS of less than 2 months, or more than 6 months, lowered the risk for conversion to psychosis.
Our data suggested that the association between the DUPrS and outcome in individuals with APS were likely to be different, which is either long or short DUPrS was not related to future psychosis onset. Individuals with APS were more likely to have a group of features associated with a longer DUPrS.
The container liner shipping industry has stepped into an era of international strategic alliances. Important to these liner alliances is the sharing and allocation of container slots between its member carriers. This paper optimises planning of container ship capacity sharing and co-allocation under a co-charting agreement. First, we explain the concept of this business agreement and its implications on maritime operations. Then, we identify key influencing factors that may affect the decisions of cooperative slot co-allocation. The slot co-allocation problem is modelled as an Integer Programming problem and solved using data from two routes between the United States and Asia. The model determines the optimal slot co-allocation strategies between shipping alliance carriers along allied shipping routes. Computational results indicate that the proposed method is effective in obtaining optimal, cooperative slot sharing strategies that can maximise the total system revenue.
Using trait activation theory as a framework, this study developed and tested a cross-level model of individual innovative behavior. Data from a sample of 334 employees within 75 work teams were used to examine the hypothesized model. Results showed that employee learning goal orientation was positively related to innovative behavior only when the team structure was more organic. Additionally, the relationship between employee learning goal orientation and innovative behavior would be strongest when both the team structure was more organic and team mean learning goal orientation was higher.
Recently, tremendous progress has been made toward the application of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in full color flat panel displays and other devices. This article reviews and discusses our recent progress in extended development of emissive semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (E-semi-IPNs) and hybrid quantum dots (QDs)–polymer nanocomposites for use in multicolor and multilayer OLED pixels through low-cost solution processing. Our semi-IPNs with high solvent resistance, containing an inert polymer network and conjugated polymers, served in different layers of OLED devices. These semi-IPNs do not require complicated chemical modification to OLED materials; therefore, many state-of-the-arts conjugated polymers can be utilized to achieve red–green–blue and white OLEDs by tuning formulations. Our research findings on hybrid QD–oligomer nanocomposites lead to the successful design and synthesis of QD–polymer hybrid nanocomposites, which were used to build proof-of-the-concept devices showing good promise in providing excellent color purity and stability from QDs and solution processability from hybrid nanocomposites.
Recently, tremendous progress has been made toward application of organic (small molecule/polymer) light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) in full color flat panel displays and other devices. However, with current technologies, OLEDs are still struggling with high manufacturing costs which really limit the size of OLEDs panels and with life time, especially differential aging of colors. To be more cost-effective for fabricating OLEDs, we believe solution-processing would be an attractive path due to its simplicity and highly reduced equipment costs. This proceeding paper discusses our recent progress in development of new polymer systems that are highly solvent-resistant but maintaining their photophysical properties and hybrid quantum-dots (QDs)-polymer nanocomposites for their use in multicolor and multilayer OLEDs pixels through solution-processing. Our new polymer systems are named conductive semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (C-Semi-IPNs) served in different layers of OLEDs devices, containing an inert polymer network and conducting polymer(s) including hole transport and emissive materials. Since these do not require complicated chemical modification or introduction of reactive moieties to OLED materials, many state-of-the-arts emissive polymers can be utilized to achieve RGB and white OLEDs. The research findings on hybrid QDoligomer nanocomposite as a good analogue lead to the successful design and synthesis of QDpolymer nanocomposites which were used to build proof-of-the-concept devices showing a good promise in providing excellent color purity and stability as well as device robustness.
The accurate measurement of trace element concentrations in natural sulphides by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been limited by the lack of matrix-matched calibration standards. The synthesis of a standard, IMER-1, by incorporating four minor and 34 trace elements into a chalcogenide glass matrix Ge28Sb12S60 is reported here. Chemical analysis by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), LA-ICP-MS, solution ICP-MS, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) confirmed the excellent homogeneity of major elements (1-σ relative standard deviation (RSD) <1% for S, Sb and Ge) and acceptable homogeneity of most trace elements (1-σ RSD <10%). The standard was validated by analysing trace-elements concentrations in three geological pyrite specimens using IMER-1 as the calibration standard and comparing the results to previously reported values also determined by LA-ICP-MS but using a different calibration standard. STDGL2b-2. The results suggest that IMER-1 may be an appropriate calibration standard for LA-ICP-MS analysis of trace elements in natural sulphides.
Elimination of degenerate epitaxy in the growth of icosahedral boron arsenide (B12As2, abbreviated as IBA) was achieved on m-plane 15R-SiC substrates and 4H-SiC substrates intentionally misoriented by 7 degrees from (0001) towards [1-100]. Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) revealed that only single orientation IBA was present in the epitaxial layers demonstrating the absence of twin variants which dominantly constitute the effects of degenerate epitaxy. Additionally, low asterism in the IBA diffraction spots compared to those grown on other SiC substrates indicates a superior film quality. Cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) both confirmed the absence of twins in the IBA films and their high quality. The ease of nucleation on the ordered step structures present on these unique substrates overrides symmetry considerations that drive degenerate epitaxy and dominates the nucleation process of the IBA.
The Si3N4 ceramics(91wt%Si3N4+5wt%Y2O3+4wt%Al2O3) of room temperature strength 620--760 MPa and fracture toughness 7 MPa-m½ were prepared by microwave sintering and their microstructure and mechanical properties were studied.The experiment results show that the higher N2 pressure (>4atm) is very necessary for microwave sintering of Si3N4 ceramics; microwave sintering can greatly decrease the sintering temperature to 1500* C, and increase the transformation rate of α to β-Si3N4,and reduce the total sintering time to about 1 hour. The mechanical properties of the Si3N4 ceramics sintered by microwave are better than that by conventional pressureless sintering.
Nanociystalline Z1O2 powders, prepared by plasma-chemical method, were sintered by microwave heating. The experimental results indicated that the thermal runaway and hot spot are two important obstacles to successful microwave sintering of nanocrystalline ZrO2. By controlling ratio of dielectric loss between sintered ZrO2 compact and adjacent thermal insulator, the ZrO2 compact with diameter larger than 30 mm could be microwave-heated rapidly and uniformly from room temperature to 1600 °C in 80 minutes, the mean grain size of ZrCh ( 96% T.D. sintered at 1500°C for 5 minutes) is lower than 20 nm determined by means of quantitative XRD and TEM. The change of ZrO2 grain size may be related to phase transformation (t→m).
B12As2 epitaxial layers grown on (0001) 6H-SiC and (1120) 6H-SiC substrates have been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and investigated with the aid of crystal visualization software. SWBXT showed that B12As2 adopted  growth orientation, parallel to SiC, on c-plane 6H-SiC and adopted  growth orientation, parallel to SiC, on a-plane 6H-SiC. However, SWBXT also revealed the twins in both sets of the B12As2 films, consistent with the SEM observation of the surface morphology. Cross-sectional HRTEM also confirmed the presence of twins in both cases and also revealed the existence of an intermediate layer between the c-plane 6H-SiC and the B12As2 film. By correlating the HRTEM observation and crystal visualization, the atomic configurations across the twin boundaries in both samples as well as those in the intermediate layer in the c-plane sample were proposed.