To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The current study examined the effects of a 16-week creative expression program on brain activity during a story creating task and resting-state functional network connectivity in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) adults.
Thirty-six MCI adults were allocated to either the creative expression program (CrExp, n = 18) or control group (CG,n = 18). Before and after intervention, all participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during story creating task performance and a resting state. The two-group comparison was calculated between the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes for each cluster to investigate the differences in fMRI activation and functional connectivity (FC) between two groups.
Task activation analyses showed an increase in the right anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), right medial frontal gyrus (MFG), right lentiform nucleus (LN), left hippocampus (HIP), left middle occipital gyrus (MOG), and left cerebellum posterior lobe (CPL) (p < 0.05). Story creating performance improvements were associated with greater activation in the left HIP region. Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between left HIP and certain other brain areas shown a significant interaction of creative expression group versus control group. Moreover, connectivity between the right angular gyrus (ANG), right inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), right superior occipital gyrus (SOG), left ANG, and left MFG were related to improved cognitive performance (p < 0.05).
These data extend current knowledge by indicating that the creative expression program can improve cognitive activation in MCI, and these enhancements may be related to the neurocognitive network plasticity changes induced by creative expression training.
The incidence of scarlet fever has increased dramatically in recent years in Chongqing, China, but there has no effective method to forecast it. This study aimed to develop a forecasting model of the incidence of scarlet fever using a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model. Monthly scarlet fever data between 2011 and 2019 in Chongqing, China were retrieved from the Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System. From 2011 to 2019, a total of 5073 scarlet fever cases were reported in Chongqing, the male-to-female ratio was 1.44:1, children aged 3–9 years old accounted for 81.86% of the cases, while 42.70 and 42.58% of the reported cases were students and kindergarten children, respectively. The data from 2011 to 2018 were used to fit a SARIMA model and data in 2019 were used to validate the model. The normalised Bayesian information criterion (BIC), the coefficient of determination (R2) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the fitted model. The optimal SARIMA model was identified as (3, 1, 3) (3, 1, 0)12. The RMSE and mean absolute per cent error (MAPE) were used to assess the accuracy of the model. The RMSE and MAPE of the predicted values were 19.40 and 0.25 respectively, indicating that the predicted values matched the observed values reasonably well. Taken together, the SARIMA model could be employed to forecast scarlet fever incidence trend, providing support for scarlet fever control and prevention.
Identification of treatment-specific predictors of drug therapies for bipolar disorder (BD) is important because only about half of individuals respond to any specific medication. However, medication response in pediatric BD is variable and not well predicted by clinical characteristics.
A total of 121 youth with early course BD (acute manic/mixed episode) were prospectively recruited and randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with quetiapine (n = 71) or lithium (n = 50). Participants completed structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline before treatment and 1 week after treatment initiation, and brain morphometric features were extracted for each individual based on MRI scans. Positive antimanic treatment response at week 6 was defined as an over 50% reduction of Young Mania Rating Scale scores from baseline. Two-stage deep learning prediction model was established to distinguish responders and non-responders based on different feature sets.
Pre-treatment morphometry and morphometric changes occurring during the first week can both independently predict treatment outcome of quetiapine and lithium with balanced accuracy over 75% (all p < 0.05). Combining brain morphometry at baseline and week 1 allows prediction with the highest balanced accuracy (quetiapine: 83.2% and lithium: 83.5%). Predictions in the quetiapine and lithium group were found to be driven by different morphometric patterns.
These findings demonstrate that pre-treatment morphometric measures and acute brain morphometric changes can serve as medication response predictors in pediatric BD. Brain morphometric features may provide promising biomarkers for developing biologically-informed treatment outcome prediction and patient stratification tools for BD treatment development.
Pandemics and their public health control measures have generally substantially increased the level of loneliness and social isolation in the general population. Because of the circumstances of aging, older adults are more likely to experience social isolation and loneliness during pandemics. However, no systematic review has been conducted or published on the prevalence of loneliness and/or social isolation among the older population. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to provide up-to-date pooled estimates of the prevalence of social isolation and loneliness among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and other pandemics in the last two decades.
EMBASE, PsychoINFO, Medline, and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies from January 1, 2000 to November 31, 2021 published in a variety of languages. Only studies conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic were selected in the review.
A total of 30 studies including 28,050 participants met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the pooled period prevalence of loneliness among older adults was 28.6% (95% CI: 22.9–35.0%) and 31.2% for social isolation (95% CI: 20.2–44.9%). Prevalence estimates were significantly higher for those studies conducted post 3-month from the start of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to those conducted within the first 3 months of the pandemic.
This review identifies the need for good quality longitudinal studies to examine the long-term impact of pandemics on loneliness and social isolation among older populations. Health policymaking and healthcare systems should proactively address the rising demand for appropriate psychological services among older adults.
Patients on dialysis are at high risk for severe COVID-19 and associated morbidity and mortality. We examined the humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine BNT162b2 in a maintenance dialysis population.
Single-center cohort study.
Setting and participants:
Adult maintenance dialysis patients at 3 outpatient dialysis units of a large academic center.
Participants were vaccinated with 2 doses of BNT162b2, 3 weeks apart. We assessed anti–SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies (anti-S) ∼4–7 weeks after the second dose and evaluated risk factors associated with insufficient response. Definitions of antibody response are as follows: nonresponse (anti-S level, <50 AU/mL), low response (anti-S level, 50–839 AU/mL), and sufficient response (anti-S level, ≥840 AU/mL).
Among the 173 participants who received 2 vaccine doses, the median age was 60 years (range, 28–88), 53.2% were men, 85% were of Black race, 86% were on in-center hemodialysis and 14% were on peritoneal dialysis. Also, 7 participants (4%) had no response, 27 (15.6%) had a low response, and 139 (80.3%) had a sufficient antibody response. In multivariable analysis, factors significantly associated with insufficient antibody response included end-stage renal disease comorbidity index score ≥5 and absence of prior hepatitis B vaccination response.
Although most of our study participants seroconverted after 2 doses of BNT162b2, 20% of our cohort did not achieve sufficient humoral response. Our findings demonstrate the urgent need for a more effective vaccine strategy in this high-risk patient population and highlight the importance of ongoing preventative measures until protective immunity is achieved.
The wheat aphid Sitobion miscanthi (CWA) is an important harmful pest in wheat fields. Insecticide application is the main method to effectively control wheat aphids. However, CWA has developed resistance to some insecticides due to its extensive application, and understanding resistance mechanisms is crucial for the management of CWA. In our study, a new P450 gene, CYP4CJ6, was identified from CWA and showed a positive response to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Transcription of CYP4CJ6 was significantly induced by both imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, and overexpression of CYP4CJ6 in the imidacloprid-resistant strain was also observed. The sensitivity of CWA to these two insecticides was increased after the knockdown of CYP4CJ6. These results indicated that CYP4CJ6 could be associated with CWA resistance to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Subsequently, the posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism was assessed, and miR-316 was confirmed to participate in the posttranscriptional regulation of CYP4CJ6. These results are crucial for clarifying the roles of P450 in the resistance of CWA to insecticides.
Strike-slip earthquakes near major subduction zones have received less attention than thrust or reverse earthquakes in subduction zone areas. The occurrence of the 2018 Palu Mw 7.5 earthquake in eastern Indonesia provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the characteristics of one of these events. The Palu earthquake occurred on the left-lateral, north–south-striking Palu–Koro fault, which is the main plate boundary structure accommodating the convergence between blocks in a triple junction area. It excited a significant tsunami, which unusually is associated with strike-slip earthquakes, and also ruptured at a supershear speed, which is mostly observed on strike-slip faults in continents. Based on our fieldwork, we speculate that the normal slip component of the offshore rupture section in Palu bay on the middle segment probably favours tsunami genesis. Our field investigation has revealed evidence of a simple geometry as well as slip partitioning of dip-slip and strike-slip motion on two subparallel strands on the main segment, both of which may have contributed to the supershear of the rupture propagation. Instead of only a transtensive behaviour of the middle segment, our results also illustrate the transpressional property of the northern and southern rupture segments, which shows more complex behaviour than that of a common continental strike-slip fault.
Schizophrenia is a severely debilitating psychiatric disorder with high heritability and polygenic architecture. A higher polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (SzPRS) has been associated with smaller gray matter volume, lower activation, and decreased functional connectivity (FC). However, the effect of polygenic inheritance on the brain white matter microstructure has only been sparsely reported.
Eighty-four patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and ninety-three healthy controls (HC) with genetics, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data were included in our study. We investigated impaired white matter integrity as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) in the FES group, further examined the effect of SzPRS on white matter FA and FC in the regions connected by SzPRS-related white matter tracts.
Decreased FA was observed in FES in many commonly identified regions. Among these regions, we observed that in the FES group, but not the HC group, SzPRS was negatively associated with the mean FA in the genu and body of corpus callosum, right anterior corona radiata, and right superior corona radiata. Higher SzPRS was also associated with lower FCs between the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)–left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG), right IFG–left ITG, right IFG–left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and right IFG–right MFG in the FES group.
Higher polygenic risks are linked with disrupted white matter integrity and FC in patients with schizophrenia. These correlations are strongly driven by the interhemispheric callosal fibers and the connections between frontotemporal regions.
Early-life stressful circumstances (i.e. childhood maltreatment) coupled with stressful events later in life increase the likelihood of subsequent depression. However, very few studies have been conducted to examine the specific and cumulative effects of these stressors in the development of depression. There is also a paucity of research that simultaneously considers the role of biological factors combined with psychosocial stressors in the aetiology of depression. Guided by the biopsychosocial model proposed by Engel, the present study aims to examine to what extent the experience of stressors across the lifespan is associated with depression while taking into account the role of genetic predispositions.
Data analysed were from the Social and Psychiatric Epidemiology Catchment Area of the Southwest of Montreal (ZEPSOM), a large-scale, longitudinal community-based cohort study. A total of 1351 participants with complete information on the lifetime diagnoses of depression over a 10-year follow-up period were included in the study. Stressful events across the lifespan were operationalised as specific, cumulative and latent profiles of stressful experiences. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to explore the clustering of studied stressors including childhood maltreatment, poor parent–child relationship, and stressful life events. A polygenetic risk score was calculated for each participant to provide information on genetic liability. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between specific, cumulative and latent profiles of stressors and subsequent depression.
We found that different subtypes of childhood maltreatment, child–parent bonding and stressful life events predicted subsequent depression. Furthermore, a significant association between combined effects of cumulative stressful experiences and depression was found [odds ratio (OR) = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12–1.28]. Three latent profiles of lifetime stressors were identified in the present study and named as ‘low-level of stress’ (75.1%), ‘moderate-level of stress’ (6.8%) and ‘high-level of stress’ (18.1%). Individuals with a ‘high-level of stress’ had a substantially higher risk of depression (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.08–3.00) than the other two profiles after adjusting for genetic predispositions, socio-demographic characteristics, and health-related factors.
While controlling for genetic predispositions, the present study provides robust evidence to support the independent and cumulative as well as compositional effects of early- and later-on lifetime psychosocial stressors in the subsequent development of depression. Consequently, mental illness prevention and mental health promotion should target the occurrence of stressful events as well as build resilience in people so they can better cope with stress when it inevitably occurs.
We characterized the proteome profile of mid-lactation small-tailed Han (STH) and DairyMeade (DM) ovine milk in order to explore physiological variation and differences in milk traits between the two breeds. Methodology combined a tandem mass tag (TMT) proteomic approach with LC-MS/MS technology. A total of 656 proteins were identified in STH and DM ovine milk, of which 17and 29 proteins were significantly upregulated (P < 0.05) in STH and DM, respectively. Immune-related proteins and disease-related proteins were highly expressed in STH milk, whereas S100A2 and AEBP1 were highly expressed in DM milk, which had beneficial effects on mammary gland development and milk yield. Our results provide a theoretical basis for future breeding of dairy sheep.
Cognitive impairment is common in late-life depression, which may increase Alzheimer disease (AD) risk. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether late-life major depressive disorder (MDD) has worse cognition and increases the characteristic AD neuropathology. Furthermore, we carried out a comparison between treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and non-TRD. We hypothesized that patients with late-life depression and TRD may have increased β-amyloid (Aβ) deposits in brain regions responsible for global cognition.
We recruited 81 subjects, including 54 MDD patients (27 TRD and 27 non-TRD) and 27 matched healthy controls (HCs). Neurocognitive tasks were examined, including Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment to detect global cognitive functions. PET with Pittsburgh compound-B and fluorodeoxyglucose were used to capture brain Aβ pathology and glucose use, respectively, in some patients.
MDD patients performed worse in Montreal Cognitive Assessment (p = 0.003) and had more Aβ deposits than HCs across the brain (family-wise error-corrected p < 0.001), with the most significant finding in the left middle frontal gyrus. Significant negative correlations between global cognition and prefrontal Aβ deposits existed in MDD patients, whereas positive correlations were noted in HCs. TRD patients had significantly more deposits in the left-sided brain regions (corrected p < 0.001). The findings were not explained by APOE genotypes. No between-group fluorodeoxyglucose difference was detected.
Late-life depression, particularly TRD, had increased brain Aβ deposits and showed vulnerability to Aβ deposits. A detrimental role of Aβ deposits in global cognition in patients with late-onset or non-late-onset MDD supported the theory that late-life MDD could be a risk factor for AD.
Little is known about the impact of modifiable risk factors on blood pressure (BP) trajectories and their associations with hypertension (HTN). We aimed to identify BP trajectories in normotensive Chinese adults and explore their influencing factors and associations with HTN. We used data from 3436 adults with at least four BP measurements between 1989 and 2018 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey, an ongoing cohort study. We measured BP using mercury sphygmomanometers with appropriate cuff sizes in all surveys. We used group-based trajectory modelling to identify BP trajectories between 1989 and 2009 and multiple logistic and Cox regression models to analyse their influencing factors and associations with HTN in 2011–2018. We identified five systolic blood pressure (SBP) trajectories, ‘Low-increasing (LI)’, ‘Low–stable (LS)’, ‘Moderate-increasing (MI)’, ‘High-stable (HS)’ and ‘Moderate-decreasing (MD)’, and four diastolic blood pressure (DBP) trajectories classified as ‘Low-increasing (LI)’, ‘Moderate–stable (MS)’, ‘Low-stable (LS)’ and ‘High-increasing (HI)’. People with higher physical activity (PA) levels and lower waist circumferences (WC) were less likely to be in the SBP LI, MI, HS and MD groups (P < 0·05). People with higher fruit and vegetable intakes, lower WCs and salt intakes and higher PA levels were less likely to be in the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (P < 0·05). Participants in the SBP HS group (hazard ratio (HR) 2·01) or the DBP LI, MS and HI groups (HR 1·38, 1·40, 1·71, respectively) had higher risks of HTN (P < 0·05). This study suggests that BP monitoring is necessary to prevent HTN in the Chinese population.
Inflammation is a central mechanism in metabolic disorders associated with morbidity and mortality and dietary factors can modulate inflammation. We aimed to prospectively investigate the association between an empirically developed, food-based dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) score and the risk of overall and cause-specific mortality, using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2014. EDIP score was derived by entering thirty-nine predefined commonly consumed food groups into the reduced rank regression models followed by stepwise linear regression, which was most predictive of two plasma inflammation biomarkers including C-reactive protein and leucocyte count among 25 500 US adults. This score was further validated in a testing set of 9466 adults. Deaths from baseline until 31 December 2015 were identified through record linkage to the National Death Index. During a median follow-up of 7·8 years among 40 074 participants, we documented 4904 deaths. Compared with participants in the lowest quintile of EDIP score, those in the highest quintile had a higher risk of overall death (hazard ratio (HR) = 1·19, 95 % CI 1·08, 1·32, Ptrend = 0·002), and deaths from cancer (HR = 1·41, 95 % CI 1·14, 1·74, Ptrend = 0·017) and CVD (HR = 1·22, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·53, Ptrend = 0·211). When stratified by age, the association of EDIP with overall mortality was stronger among individuals under 65 years of age (Pinteraction = 0·001). Diets with a higher inflammatory potential were associated with increased risk of overall and cancer-specific mortality. Interventions to reduce the adverse effect of pro-inflammatory diets may potentially promote health and longevity.
Schizophrenia is a severe and complex psychiatric disorder that needs treatment based on extensive experience. Antipsychotic drugs have already become the cornerstone of the treatment for schizophrenia; however, the therapeutic effect is of significant variability among patients, and only around a third of patients with schizophrenia show good efficacy. Meanwhile, drug-induced metabolic syndrome and other side-effects significantly affect treatment adherence and prognosis. Therefore, strategies for drug selection are desperately needed. In this study, we will perform pharmacogenomics research and set up an individualised preferred treatment prediction model.
We aim to create a standard clinical cohort, with multidimensional index assessment of antipsychotic treatment for patients with schizophrenia.
This trial is designed as a randomised clinical trial comparing treatment with different kinds of antipsychotics. A total sample of 2000 patients with schizophrenia will be recruited from in-patient units from five clinical research centres. Using a computer-generated program, the participants will be randomly assigned to four treatment groups: aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone. The primary outcomes will be measured as changes in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale of schizophrenia, which reflects the efficacy. Secondary outcomes include the measure of side-effects, such as metabolic syndromes. The efficacy evaluation and side-effects assessment will be performed at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 3 months.
This trial will assess the efficacy and side effects of antipsychotics and create a standard clinical cohort with a multi-dimensional index assessment of antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia patients.
This study aims to set up an individualized preferred treatment prediction model through the genetic analysis of patients using different kinds of antipsychotics.
The coexistence of underweight (UW) and overweight (OW)/obese (OB) at the population level is known to affect iron deficiency (ID) anaemia (IDA), but how the weight status affects erythropoiesis during pregnancy is less clear at a population scale. This study investigated associations between the pre-pregnancy BMI (pBMI) and erythropoiesis-related nutritional deficiencies.
Anthropometry, blood biochemistry and 24-h dietary recall data were collected during prenatal care visits. The weight status was defined based on the pBMI. Mild nutrition deficiency-related erythropoiesis was defined if individuals had an ID, folate depletion or a vitamin B12 deficiency.
The Nationwide Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (Pregnant NAHSIT 2017–2019).
We included 1456 women aged 20 to 45 years with singleton pregnancies.
Among these pregnant women, 9·6 % were UW, and 29·2 % were either OW (15·8 %) or OB (13·4 %). A U-shaped association between the pBMI and IDA was observed, with decreased odds (OR; 95 % CI) for OW subjects (0·6; 95 % CI (0·4, 0·9)) but increased odds for UW (1·2; 95 % CI (0·8, 2·0)) and OB subjects (1·2; 95 % CI (0·8, 1·8)). The pBMI was positively correlated with the prevalence of a mild nutritional deficiency. Compared to normal weight, OB pregnant women had 3·4-fold (3·4; 95 % CI (1·4, 8·1)) higher odds for multiple mild nutritional deficiencies, while UW individuals had lowest odds (0·3; 95 % CI (0·1, 1·2)). A dietary analysis showed negative relationships of pBMI with energy, carbohydrates, protein, Fe and folate intakes, but positive relationship with fat intakes.
The pre-pregnancy weight status can possibly serve as a good nutritional screening tool for preventing IDA during pregnancy.
The thermal conductivity of a molecular gas consists of the translational and internal parts. Although in continuum flows the total thermal conductivity itself is adequate to describe the heat transfer, in rarefied gas flows they need to be modelled separately, according to the relaxation rates of translational and internal heat fluxes in an homogeneous system. This paper is dedicated to quantifying how these relaxation rates affect rarefied gas dynamics. The kinetic model of Wu et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 763, 2015, pp. 24–50) is adapted to recover the relaxation of heat fluxes, which is validated by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Then the model of Wu et al., which has the freedom to adjust the relaxation rates, is used to investigate the rate effects of thermal relaxation in problems such as the normal shock wave, creep flow driven by Maxwell's demon and thermal transpiration. It is found that the relaxation rates of heat flux affect rarefied gas flows significantly, even when the total thermal conductivity is fixed.
We have previously bred Chinese local dairy sheep through grading up with local Small-Tailed Han (STH) sheep as female parent and DairyMeade (DM) sheep as male parent. In this research communication we characterize the whey protein profile of STH sheep and their offspring (F1, F2) to reveal physiological differences and variation in milk traits. A total of 1032 whey proteins were identified through tandem mass tag labeling (TMT) proteome profiling. Three proteins were significantly differentially abundant between F1 and STH milk, six between F2 and STH milk and five between F1 and F2 milk. In terms of differential changes between generations, WASHC4 and CUTA of F1 and Ig-like domain-containing protein of F2 milk were dominant whey proteins. Overall, the results showed that the whey protein profiles of different generations varied little. The crossbreeds of STH and DM sheep would be suitable for the development of the Chinese local sheep milk industry, and the F2 may be a better population for sheep milk production.
To establish optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in Chinese pregnant women by Chinese-specific BMI categories and compare the new recommendations with the Institute of Medicine (IOM) 2009 guidelines.
Multicentre, prospective cohort study. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the OR, 95 % CI and the predicted probabilities of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The optimal GWG range was defined as the range that did not exceed a 1 % increase from the lowest predicted probability in each pre-pregnancy BMI group.
From nine cities in mainland China.
A total of 3731 women with singleton pregnancy were recruited from April 2013 to December 2014.
The optimal GWG (ranges) by Chinese-specific BMI was 15·0 (12·8–17·1), 14·2 (12·1–16·4) and 12·6 (10·4–14·9) kg for underweight, normal weight and overweight pregnant women, respectively. Inappropriate GWG was associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Compared with women gaining weight within our proposed recommendations, women with excessive GWG had higher risk for macrosomia, large for gestational age and caesarean section, whereas those with inadequate GWG had higher risk for low birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm delivery. The comparison between our proposed recommendations and IOM 2009 guidelines showed that our recommendations were comparable with the IOM 2009 guidelines and could well predict the risk of several adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Inappropriate GWG was associated with higher risk of several adverse pregnancy outcomes. Optimal GWG recommendations proposed in the present study could be applied to Chinese pregnant women.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Cardi-O-Fix plug used for the treatment of muscular ventricular septal defects.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of five patients with muscular ventricular septal defects who underwent transcatheter closure using the Cardi-O-Fix Plug, from November 2017 to August 2019. The median age was 5.1 years (range: 3.2–6.5). Their median body weight was 18.1 kg (range: 13.4–21.8). All the patients underwent detailed two-dimensional Doppler and colour flow imaging by transthoracic echocardiography. The left ventricular median defect size of the muscular ventricular septal defects was 5.6 mm (range: 5.3–7.0). The right ventricular median defect size of the muscular ventricular septal defects was 3.9 mm (range: 3.3–4.7). All the procedures were performed on beating hearts.
All the patients underwent successful device implantation with no displacement or detachment, they have complete echocardiographic closure at the 1-year follow-up. There were no occluder-related arrhythmia, chordae tendineae rupture, tricuspid insufficiency, aortic regurgitation, haemolysis, or embolisation.
Application of the Cardi-O-Fix plug appears to be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment option for patients with muscular ventricular septal defects. Longer follow-up periods are warranted to prove the conclusion for long-term outcomes.
Recent imaging studies of large datasets suggested that psychiatric disorders have common biological substrates. This study aimed to identify all the common neural substrates with connectomic abnormalities across four major psychiatric disorders by using the data-driven connectome-wide association method of multivariate distance matrix regression (MDMR).
This study analyzed a resting functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset of 100 patients with schizophrenia, 100 patients with bipolar I disorder, 100 patients with bipolar II disorder, 100 patients with major depressive disorder, and 100 healthy controls (HCs). We calculated a voxel-wise 4,330 × 4,330 matrix of whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) with 8-mm isotropic resolution for each participant and then performed MDMR to identify structures where the overall multivariate pattern of FC was significantly different between each patient group and the HC group. A conjunction analysis was performed to identify common neural regions with FC abnormalities across these four psychiatric disorders.
The conjunction of the MDMR maps revealed that the four groups of patients shared connectomic abnormalities in distributed cortical and subcortical structures, which included bilateral thalamus, cerebellum, frontal pole, supramarginal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, lingual gyrus, lateral occipital cortex, and parahippocampus. The follow-up analysis based on pair-wise FC of these regions demonstrated that these psychiatric disorders also shared similar patterns of FC abnormalities characterized by sensory/subcortical hyperconnectivity, association/subcortical hypoconnectivity, and sensory/association hyperconnectivity.
These findings suggest that major psychiatric disorders share common connectomic abnormalities in distributed cortical and subcortical regions and provide crucial support for the common network hypothesis of major psychiatric disorders.