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Building on Ellis et al.’s theorization for potent dimensions of environmental adversity, the present work sought to evaluate how environmental harshness and unpredictability might function directly and in interaction with child sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) to shape the development of child socioemotional functioning. Participants were 235 young children (Mage = 2.97 at the first measurement occasion) and their parents, who were followed for two consecutive annual measurement occasions. Child SPS was measured through behavioral observation across multiple tasks within the laboratory setting. Greater environmental unpredictability was significantly associated with the development of children’s externalizing problems over a year only for children with high SPS. Follow-up analyses indicated that the unpredictability-x-SPS interaction was consistent with differential susceptibility, such that high SPS children showed greater increases in externalizing problems under high unpredictability, but also lower increases/greater decreases in externalizing problems under low unpredictability. Such association did not apply to children with low SPS.
To evaluate the association of systolic blood pressure percentile, race, and body mass index with left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram and echocardiogram to define populations at risk.
This is a retrospective cross-sectional study design utilising a data analytics tool (Tableau) combining electrocardiogram and echocardiogram databases from 2003 to 2020. Customized queries identified patients aged 2–18 years who had an outpatient electrocardiogram and echocardiogram on the same date with available systolic blood pressure and body measurements. Cases with CHD, cardiomyopathy, or arrhythmia diagnoses were excluded. Echocardiograms with left ventricle mass (indexed to height2.7) were included. The main outcome was left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram defined as Left ventricle mass index greater than the 95th percentile for age.
In a cohort of 13,539 patients, 6.7% of studies had left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram. Systolic blood pressure percentile >90% has a sensitivity of 35% and specificity of 82% for left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram. Left ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiogram was a poor predictor of left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram (9% sensitivity and 92% specificity). African American race (OR 1.31, 95% CI = 1.10, 1.56, p = 0.002), systolic blood pressure percentile >95% (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.34, 1.93, p < 0.001), and higher body mass index (OR = 7.22, 95% CI = 6.23, 8.36, p < 0.001) were independently associated with left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiogram.
African American race, obesity, and hypertension on outpatient blood pressure measurements are independent risk factors for left ventricular hypertrophy in children. Electrocardiogram has little utility in the screening for left ventricular hypertrophy.
Vulnerability to coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 varies due to differences in interferon gamma (IFNγ) immunity. We investigated whether a key modifiable interferon precursor, interleukin-18, was related to COVID-19, overall and by severity, using Mendelian randomisation. We used four established genome-wide significant genetic predictors of interleukin-18 applied to the most recent genome-wide association study of COVID-19 (June 2021) to obtain Mendelian randomisation inverse variance weighted estimates by severity, i.e. any (cases = 112 612, non-cases = 2 474 079), hospitalised (cases = 24 274, non-cases = 2 061 529) and very severe (cases = 8779, non-cases = 1 001 875) COVID-19. To be comprehensive, we also conducted an exploratory analysis for IFNγ and two related cytokines with less well-established genetic predictors, i.e. interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. Genetically predicted interleukin-18 was associated with lower risk of any COVID-19 (odds ratio (OR) 0.96 per standard deviation, 95% confidence interval (0.94–0.99, P-value 0.004)) and of very severe COVID-19 (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78–0.999, P-value 0.048). Sensitivity analysis and a more liberal genetic instrument selection gave largely similar results. Few genome-wide significant genetic predictors were available for IFNγ, interleukin-12 or interleukin-23, and no associations with COVID-19 were evident. Interleukin-18 could be a modifiable target to prevent COVID-19 and should be further explored in an experimental design.
Guided by the evolutionary perspective and specialization hypothesis, this multi-method (behavioral observation, questionnaire) longitudinal study adopted a person-centered approach to explore children’s problem-solving skills within different contexts. Participants were 235 young children (M age = 2.97 years at the first measurement occasion) and their parents assessed in two measurement occasions spaced one year apart. Latent profile analyses revealed four unique problem-solving profiles, capturing variability in children’s performance, and observed engagement in abstract vs. reward-oriented (RO) problem-solving tasks at wave one. The four profiles included: (a) a high-abstract-high-RO, (b) a high-abstract-low-RO, (c) a low-abstract-high-RO, and (d) a low-abstract-low-RO classes. Contextual risks within and outside families during wave one, including greater neighborhood crime, impoverishment, and observed lower maternal sensitivity were linked to the elevated likelihood for children from the two profiles with low-abstract problem-solving, particularly those from the low-abstract-high-RO problem-solving profile. Furthermore, child problem-solving profiles were linked to meaningful differences in their socioemotional functioning one year later. The present finding has important implications in revealing the heterogeneity in child problem-solving within different contexts that responded differently to contextual risks. In addition, this study advanced the understanding of the developmental implications of child problem-solving capacity.
The early identification and prediction of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) play an important role in the disease prevention and control. However, suitable models are different in regions due to the differences in geography, social economy factors. We collected data associated with daily reported HFMD cases and weather factors of Zibo city in 2010~2019 and used the generalised additive model (GAM) to evaluate the effects of weather factors on HFMD cases. Then, GAM, support vectors regression (SVR) and random forest regression (RFR) models are used to compare predictive results. The annual average incidence was 129.72/100 000 from 2010 to 2019. Its distribution showed a unimodal trend, with incidence increasing from March, peaking from May to September. Our study revealed the nonlinear relationship between temperature, rainfall and relative humidity and HFMD cases and based on the predictive result, the performances of three models constructed ranked in descending order are: SVR > GAM> RFR, and SVR has the smallest prediction errors. These findings provide quantitative evidence for the prediction of HFMD for special high-risk regions and can help public health agencies implement prevention and control measures in advance.
The cosmic evolution of the chemical elements from the Big Bang to the present time is driven by nuclear fusion reactions inside stars and stellar explosions. A cycle of matter recurrently re-processes metal-enriched stellar ejecta into the next generation of stars. The study of cosmic nucleosynthesis and this matter cycle requires the understanding of the physics of nuclear reactions, of the conditions at which the nuclear reactions are activated inside the stars and stellar explosions, of the stellar ejection mechanisms through winds and explosions, and of the transport of the ejecta towards the next cycle, from hot plasma to cold, star-forming gas. Due to the long timescales of stellar evolution, and because of the infrequent occurrence of stellar explosions, observational studies are challenging, as they have biases in time and space as well as different sensitivities related to the various astronomical methods. Here, we describe in detail the astrophysical and nuclear-physical processes involved in creating two radioactive isotopes useful in such studies,
. Due to their radioactive lifetime of the order of a million years, these isotopes are suitable to characterise simultaneously the processes of nuclear fusion reactions and of interstellar transport. We describe and discuss the nuclear reactions involved in the production and destruction of
, the key characteristics of the stellar sites of their nucleosynthesis and their interstellar journey after ejection from the nucleosynthesis sites. This allows us to connect the theoretical astrophysical aspects to the variety of astronomical messengers presented here, from stardust and cosmic-ray composition measurements, through observation of
rays produced by radioactivity, to material deposited in deep-sea ocean crusts and to the inferred composition of the first solids that have formed in the Solar System. We show that considering measurements of the isotopic ratio of
eliminate some of the unknowns when interpreting astronomical results, and discuss the lessons learned from these two isotopes on cosmic chemical evolution. This review paper has emerged from an ISSI-BJ Team project in 2017–2019, bringing together nuclear physicists, astronomers, and astrophysicists in this inter-disciplinary discussion.
To describe the cumulative seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among employees of a large pediatric healthcare system.
Design, setting, and participants:
Prospective observational cohort study open to adult employees at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, conducted April 20–December 17, 2020.
Employees were recruited starting with high-risk exposure groups, utilizing e-mails, flyers, and announcements at virtual town hall meetings. At baseline, 1 month, 2 months, and 6 months, participants reported occupational and community exposures and gave a blood sample for SARS-CoV-2 antibody measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A post hoc Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to identify factors associated with increased risk for seropositivity.
In total, 1,740 employees were enrolled. At 6 months, the cumulative seroprevalence was 5.3%, which was below estimated community point seroprevalence. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among employees who provided direct care and was 3.4% among employees who did not perform direct patient care. Most participants who were seropositive at baseline remained positive at follow-up assessments. In a post hoc analysis, direct patient care (hazard ratio [HR], 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–3.68), Black race (HR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.24–5.87), and exposure to a confirmed case in a nonhealthcare setting (HR, 4.32; 95% CI, 2.71–6.88) were associated with statistically significant increased risk for seropositivity.
Employee SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence rates remained below the point-prevalence rates of the surrounding community. Provision of direct patient care, Black race, and exposure to a confirmed case in a nonhealthcare setting conferred increased risk. These data can inform occupational protection measures to maximize protection of employees within the workplace during future COVID-19 waves or other epidemics.
We report on experimental observation of non-laminar proton acceleration modulated by a strong magnetic field in laser irradiating micrometer aluminum targets. The results illustrate the coexistence of ring-like and filamentation structures. We implement the knife edge method into the radiochromic film detector to map the accelerated beams, measuring a source size of 30–110 μm for protons of more than 5 MeV. The diagnosis reveals that the ring-like profile originates from low-energy protons far off the axis whereas the filamentation is from the near-axis high-energy protons, exhibiting non-laminar features. Particle-in-cell simulations reproduced the experimental results, showing that the short-term magnetic turbulence via Weibel instability and the long-term quasi-static annular magnetic field by the streaming electric current account for the measured beam profile. Our work provides direct mapping of laser-driven proton sources in the space-energy domain and reveals the non-laminar beam evolution at featured time scales.
We study the effects of interfacial kinetics on the electro-hydrodynamics of ion transport near an ion-selective surface using a combination of linear stability analysis and numerical simulation. The finite kinetics of the electrolyte–electrode interface affects the ion transfer and electroconvection in many ways. On a surface of fixed topography, such as a metal surface of slow and stable ion deposition or covered by a polymer membrane, the finite kinetics reduces the current in one-dimensional ion diffusion/migration, increases the critical voltage for the onset of the electroconvective instability, changes the dynamics of the electroconvection and the overlimiting current, and enhances the lateral ion diffusion within the interfacial layer. The first three effects are indirectly caused by the reaction kinetics and can be characterized by an effective voltage difference across the liquid electrolyte. In comparison, the last effect is controlled by a direct interplay between kinetics and nonlinear electroconvection. Scaling laws for ion transport and features of electroconvection are proposed. We also analyse the linear stability of a surface which evolves under ion deposition and find that the finite kinetics decreases the growth rate of both electroconvective and morphological instabilities and therefore modifies the wavenumber of the most unstable mode.
Background: Antithrombotic medications are used in the primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. Previous studies have identified that up to 5.2% of ischemic strokes are associated with antithrombotic interruption, leading to significant mortality and healthcare burden. Our study aims to identify the prevalence of ischemic strokes presenting to a regional stroke centre associated with antithrombotic interruption, and to understand common reasons for medication interruption. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed, which included 193 patients with ischemic stroke presenting to Greater Niagara General Hospital from January 2018-December 2019. Baseline demographics were recorded and patient medical records were reviewed for evidence of antithrombotic interruptions. Results: Table 1. Conclusions: Our cohort identified a significant proportion (8.3%) of ischemic strokes with documented antithrombotic interruption. Most common reasons for interruption were non-adherence and discontinuation due to previous adverse event. The results identify possible areas for improvement within patient education and safe re-initiation of antithrombotics following adverse events.
Background: Standardized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidelines published in 2015 by the Europoean MAGNIMS group and in 2016 by the CMSC are important for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and for the appropriate use of MRI in routine clinical practice. Methods: Two panels of experts convened to update existing guidelines for a standardized MRI protocol. The MAGNIMS panel convened in Graz, Austria in April 2019. The CMSC NAIMS panel met separately and independently in Newark, USA in October 2019. Subsequently, the MAGNIMS, NAIMS, and CMSC working groups combined their efforts to reach an international consensus Results: The revised guidelines on MRI in MS merges recommendations from MAGNIMS, CMSC, and NAIMS to improve the use of MRI for diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of individuals with MS. 3D acquisitions are emphasized for optimal comparison over time. Core brain sequences include a 3D-T2wFLAIR for lesion identification and monitoring treatment effectiveness. Gadolinium-based contrast is recommended for diagnostic studies and judicious use for routine monitoring of MS patients. DWI sequences are recommended for PML safety monitoring. Conclusions: The international consensus guidelines strive for global acceptance of a useful and usable standard of care for patients with MS.
Background: The goal of the study was to assess responder rates at various times after initiating atogepant treatment. Methods: A 12-week phase 3 trial evaluated the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of atogepant for preventive treatment of migraine (ADVANCE; NCT03777059) in adult participants with a ≥1-year history of migraine, experiencing 4-14 migraine days/month. Participants were randomized to atogepant 10, 30, or 60mg, or placebo once daily. These analyses evaluated ≥25%, ≥50%, ≥75%, and 100% reductions in mean monthly migraine days (MMDs) across 12 weeks and each 4-week interval. Adverse events (AEs) in ≥5% of participants are reported. Results: The efficacy analysis population included 873 participants: placebo: n=214; atogepant: 10mg: n=214; 30mg: n=223; 60mg: n=222. Atogepant-treated participants were more likely to experience a ≥50% reduction in the 3-month mean MMDs (56-61% vs 29% with placebo; P<0.0001). The proportions of participants experiencing ≥25%, ≥50%, ≥75%, and 100% reductions in mean MMDs significantly increased during each 4-week interval (≥50% reduction: 48-71% vs 27-47% with placebo). The most common AEs for atogepant were constipation (6.9-7.7%) and nausea (4.4-6.1%). Conclusions: Once-daily atogepant 10, 30, and 60mg significantly increased responder rates at all thresholds with approximately 60% achieving a ≥50% reduction in mean MMDs at 12 weeks.
Across Eurasia, horse transport transformed ancient societies. Although evidence for chariotry is well dated, the origins of horse riding are less clear. Techniques to distinguish chariotry from riding in archaeological samples rely on elements not typically recovered from many steppe contexts. Here, the authors examine horse remains of Mongolia's Deer Stone-Khirigsuur (DSK) Complex, comparing them with ancient and modern East Asian horses used for both types of transport. DSK horses demonstrate unique dentition damage that could result from steppe chariotry, but may also indicate riding with a shallow rein angle at a fast gait. A key role for chariots in Late Bronze Age Mongolia helps explain the trajectory of horse use in early East Asia.
Heterogeneity in the number of secondary tuberculosis (TB) cases per source case, the effective reproductive number, R, is important in modelling prevention strategies' impact on incidence.
We estimated mean R (Rm) and calculate the dispersion parameter of this distribution, k, using surveillance and genotyping data for U.S. cases during 2009–2018. We modelled transmission assuming cases in a cluster have matching genotypes and share characteristics related to geography, temporal proximity (i.e. serial interval) and time since U.S. arrival among non-U.S.-born persons.
Complete data were available for 55 330/85 958 cases. Varying the serial interval and geographic proximity used to derive clusters, we consistently estimated Rm<1.0 and k < 0.08; the low value of k indicates a small number of source cases produce a disproportionate number of secondary cases.
U.S. TB reproductive number has a highly skewed distribution, indicating a minority of source cases disproportionately contribute to transmission.
The extent of the reduction of maize (Zea mays L.) kernel moisture content through drying is closely related to field temperature (or accumulated temperature; AT) following maturation. In 2017 and 2018, we selected eight maize hybrids that are widely planted in Northeastern China to construct kernel drying prediction models for each hybrid based on kernel drying dynamics. In the traditional harvest scenario using the optimal sowing date (OSD), maize kernels underwent drying from 4th September to 5th October, with variation coefficients of 1.0–1.9. However, with a latest sowing date (LSD), drying occurred from 14th September to 31st October, with variation coefficients of 1.3–3.0. In the changed harvest scenario, the drying time of maize sown on the OSD condition was from 12th September to 9th November with variation coefficients of 1.3–3.0, while maize sown on the LSD had drying dates of 26th September to 28th October with variation coefficients of 1.5–3.6. In the future harvest scenario, the Fengken 139 (FK139) and Jingnongke 728 (JNK728) hybrids finished drying on 20th October and 8th November, respectively, when sown on the OSD and had variation coefficients of 2.7–2.8. Therefore, the maize kernel drying time was gradually delayed and was associated with an increased demand for AT ⩾ 0°C late in the growing season. Furthermore, we observed variation among different growing seasons likely due to differences in weather patterns, and that sowing dates impact variations in drying times to a greater extent than harvest scenarios.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Pneumatic launch systems for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), including mechanical and pneumatic systems, are complex and non-linear. They are subjected to system parameters during launch, which leads to difficulty in engineering research analysis. For example, the mismatch between the UAV parameters and the parameter design indices of the launch system as well as the unclear design indices of the launching speed and overload of UAVs have a great impact on launch safety. Considering this situation, some studies are presented in this paper. Taking the pneumatic launch system as a research object, a pneumatic launcher dynamic simulation model is built based on co-simulation considering the coupling characteristics of the mechanical structure and transmission system. Its accuracy was verified by laboratory test results. Based on this model, the paper shows the effects of the key parameters, including the mass of the UAV, cylinder volume, pressure and moment of inertia of the pulley block, on the performance of the dynamic characteristics of the launch process. Then, a method for matching the parameter characteristics between the UAV and launch system based on batch simulation is proposed. The set of matching parameter values of the UAV and launch system that satisfy the launch take-off safety criteria are calculated. Finally, the influence of the system parameters of the launch process on the launch performance was analysed in detail, and the design optimised. Meaningful conclusions were obtained. The analysis method and its results can provide a reference for engineering and theoretical research and development of pneumatic launch systems.