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Introduction: Emergency Departments are a common point of access for survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), but very little is known about where survivors live and the characteristics of the neighbourhoods. The objective of this study was to use hospital-based data to characterize sexual and domestic assault cases and identify geographic distribution across the Ottawa-Gatineau area. Methods: Data for this study were extracted from the Sexual Assault and Partner Abuse Care Program (SAPACP) case registry (Jan 1-Dec 31, 2015) at The Ottawa Hospital. Spatial analyses were conducted using 6-digit postal codes converted to Canadian Census Tracts to identify potential geographic areas where SGBV cases are clustered. Hot-spots were defined as Census Tracts with seven or more assaults within a single calendar year.Data for this study were extracted from the Sexual Assault and Partner Abuse Care Program (SAPACP) case registry (Jan 1-Dec 31, 2015) at The Ottawa Hospital. Spatial analyses were conducted using 6-digit postal codes converted to Canadian Census Tracts to identify potential geographic areas where SGBV cases are clustered. Hot-spots were defined as Census Tracts with seven or more assaults within a single calendar year. Results: In 2015, there were 406 patients seen at the SAPACP, 348 had valid postal codes from Ottawa-Gatineau and were included in the analyses. Over 90% of patients were female and 152 (43.68%) were below 24 years of age. Eight hot-spots were identified including 3 in the downtown entertainment district, 3 lower income areas, 1 high income neighbourhood, and 1 suburb more than 20km from downtown. Conclusion: This study is of the first to use hospital-based data to examine the geographic distribution of SGBV cases, with key findings including the identification of high-income neighbourhoods and suburbs as SGBV hot-spots. Alongside efforts like the #MeToo movement, this evidence challenges stereotypes of assault survivors and highlights the breadth and widespread nature of SGBV.
Total laryngectomy is considered the primary treatment modality for advanced laryngeal carcinoma. This study assessed the quality of life in patients after total laryngectomy, and ascertained whether quality of life is affected by socioeconomic status.
Forty-seven patients (20 state- and 27 private-sector) who underwent total laryngectomy between 1998 and 2014 responded to the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Voice-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire.
Significant differences were found in socioeconomic status between state- and private-sector patients (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in overall quality of life between groups (p = 0.210). State-sector patients scored significantly higher Voice-Related Quality of Life Questionnaire scores (p = 0.043). Perception of illness did not differ significantly between groups.
Overall quality of life after total laryngectomy appears to be similar in patients from different socioeconomic backgrounds. However, patients from lower socioeconomic circumstances have better voice-related quality of life. The results illustrate the importance of including socioeconomic status when reporting voice outcomes in total laryngectomy patients.
Children with chronic illness often experience difficulties at school, yet little is known about the impact of the child's illness on siblings’ school experiences. This study investigated parents’ perceptions of siblings’ school experiences and school support. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 27 parents of children with a chronic illness who had a sibling or siblings (4–25 years), representing the experiences of 31 siblings. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed using content analysis. Parents believed that 14 of 31 (45.2%) siblings had school difficulties related to the ill child, such as increased anxiety or stress at school, lack of attention from teachers, and changes in behaviour as a result of increased carer responsibilities. Parents identified increased absenteeism due to the ill child's hospitalisation and the impact of parent absences on sibling school functioning. Parents described general and psychological support from the school, and the importance of monitoring the sibling at school and focusing on their unique needs. Overall, our findings suggest the need for a school-based sibling support model that combines psycho-education for siblings and school personnel, individualised sibling psychological support, and shared school and parent responsibility in normalising the sibling experience and providing consistent support.
Colostrum is essential for the newborn lamb as it provides nutrients for energy and heat production and passes on disease immunity in the form of immunoglobulins (IgG). Without colostrum in the first few hours of life the lamb would be at great risk from hypothermia, starvation and septicaemia (Binns et al, 2002). Ewes are sometimes unable to provide their lambs adequate colostrum so there is always a need for substitutes. There are many substitute colostrums available and the aim of this trial was to compare three, hyperimmune bovine colostrum, caprine colostrum and an artificial colostrum as a positive control. CO-LATE Ultra Concentrate whole colostrum supplement for lambs (Net-tex Agricultural Ltd) which is manufactured from whole cow colostrum was selected as the positive control as it was found to be most widely used and of average price. Caprine (goat) colostrum has not been widely researched for use with lambs although it is similar in composition to ewe colostrum which may make it more beneficial than artificial colostrums.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
In this study, thermoelectric properties of bulk and epitaxy GaN with various doping concentration are investigated. Seebeck coefficients decreased with the increase of carrier concentration for both bulk and epitaxial GaN samples, and the Seebeck coefficients of epitaxial GaN samples are found to be larger than that of bulk GaN samples in the similar carrier density due to the higher dislocation scattering. For epitaxial samples, a high power factor of 4.72 × 10-4 W/m-K2 is observed. The power factors of the bulk GaN samples are in the range of from 0.315× 10-4W/m-K2 to 0.354× 10-4W/m-K2 due to the low Seebeck coefficients.
Employment is associated with health benefits over unemployment, but the psychosocial characteristics of work also influence health. There has, however, been little research contrasting the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among people who are unemployed with those in jobs of differing psychosocial quality.
Analysis of data from the English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) considered the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMDs) among 2603 respondents aged between 21 and 54 years who were either (i) employed or (ii) unemployed and looking for work at the time of interview in 2007. Quality of work was assessed by the number of adverse psychosocial job conditions reported (low control, high demands, insecurity and low job esteem).
The prevalence of CMDs was similar for those respondents who were unemployed and those in the poorest quality jobs. This pattern remained after controlling for relevant demographic and socio-economic covariates.
Although employment is thought to promote mental health and well-being, work of poor psychosocial quality is not associated with any better mental health than unemployment. Policy efforts to improve community mental health should consider psychosocial job quality in conjunction with efforts to increase employment rates.
Epitaixal Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (BST) thin films were grown on SrTiO3 (STO) and DyScO3 substrates by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system using three-step method which involves a relatively low-temperature (573-773 K) growth of a BST interlayer sandwiched between two BST layers deposited at a high substrate temperature of 1068 K. X-ray diffraction measurement showed different strains on the films with interlayers grown at different temperatures. Post-growth thermal treatment reduced film strain to a great extent (the film strain of a tri-layer film with a 773 K grown interlayer is only -0.001). Comparing with the control films grown at high temperature, three-step technique improved the dielectric properties, especially increased dielectric constant by 60% for BST/STO and 31% for BST/DyScO3, respectively. High dielectric constant of 1631.4 and its tuning of 36.7% were achieved on the BST/STO with an interlayer grown on 773 K.
A preliminary study was conducted to determine the presence of spotted fever rickettsiae in two species of British tick (Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus). The 16S rRNA gene of Rickettsia spp. was detected in 39/401 (9·7%) of ticks tested, including 22/338 (6·5%) I. ricinus and 17/63 (27%) D. reticulatus. Some positive I. ricinus samples showed 100% homology with Rickettsia helvetica (10/22), and most positive D. reticulatus showed 100% homology with R. raoultii (13/17). Five other Rickettsia spp. were detected exhibiting 96–99% homology. Ticks positive for rickettsiae were collected from various hosts and from vegetation from eight counties across Great Britain. The distribution of R. helvetica in various engorged and unfed stages of I. ricinus suggests that R. helvetica is widespread. R. raoultii was found in questing adult D. reticulatus in Wales and England. This is the first evidence of potentially pathogenic spotted fever rickettsiae in British ticks.
Tropical wetlands are of great ecological importance and are worthy of widespread and vigorous conservation efforts. They are, however, very susceptible to environmental changes which often result from human activities. Waigani swamp near Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, comprises a number of small, shallow lakes, the largest of which, Waigani Lake, has a surface area of 120 ha. This Lake now has nutrient-rich water with very high phytoplankton populations owing to sewage effluent disposal.
Changes in the macrophyte flora and vegetation of Waigani Lake are documented in aerial photographs taken between 1942 and 1981. From 1942 to 1956 the Lake was dominated by emergent vegetation, and there was very little open water. Between 1956 and 1966 this emergent vegetation was replaced by dense stands of nymphaeids. In 1965, sewage disposal into Waigani Lake began and by 1974 only a few small stands of nymphaeids remained. By 1978 no nymphaeids could be found in Waigani Lake. The decline in the nymphaeid cover of Waigani Lake was accompanied by a regression of the surrounding reed-swamp. Two other lakes near Port Moresby are nutrient-poor and have a dominant and diverse macrophyte flora, being probably more comparable with Waigani Lake prior to its enrichment—apart from a recent takeover by a pestiferous free-floating water-fern.