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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: A major limitation of cardiac stem cell transplantation following myocardial infarction (MI) is poor retention of cells in the ischemic microenvironment. Our study aims to better understand and promote the survival and differentiation of human cardiosphere-derived cells (hCDCs) in anoxia, a feature of infarcted myocardium. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We previously demonstrated that TGFβ1 and heparin-containing hydrogels (TH-hydrogel) can promote murine CDC survival. In this study, hCDCs were incubated in either normoxia or anoxia for 8 hours with and without TH-hydrogel. In addition, hCDCs without TH-hydrogel were assessed in 16 hours of anoxia. Following incubation, hCDCs were assayed for viability using calcein dye and immunostained for CD31, a marker of endothelial differentiation. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: hCDCs incubated for 8 hours in anoxia in both models equally demonstrated increased survival up to 30% when compared with cells incubated in normoxia. However, in contrast to hCDCs alone, hCDCs with TH-hydrogel additionally demonstrated increased differentiation into endothelial cells in both anoxia and normoxia. We found that hCDCs alone were able to upregulate CD31 only when subjected to 16 hours of anoxia. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We demonstrate a new, previously unknown response of hCDCs to anoxia. This induces increased viability and differentiation of hCDCs into endothelial cells. The differentiation in anoxia was time dependent and could be expedited with use of TH-hydrogel. Anoxic preconditioning of hCDCs together with the TH-hydrogel system may improve the therapeutic potential of stem cell transplantation following MI.
In this paper, we give an overview of our research exploring the impact of physical and chemical processing on food proteins. There are three themes, applied to the proteins of wheat, soya, egg and dairy foods. Firstly, the impact of the Maillard reaction on food proteins is discussed, with a particular focus on how the reactions might be harnessed to manipulate food texture. Secondly, the potential of enzymatic protein-protein crosslinking is considered, especially the enzyme transglutaminase. Thirdly, the broader question of how the aggregation of proteins within a food is altered by chemical and physical modification and how, in turn, this might impact on the overall nutritional quality of the food is considered.
If many patients having multiple difficulties are to receive the integral and efficient psychotherapies they require, they need attention from psychiatrists who have specialised training in psychotherapy. This paper sets out the roles to which existing holders of the Certificate of Completion of Training have already moved to, as they work with patients, families, teams and organisations. The General Medical Council has recognised that the understanding of medical psychotherapists is also vital to the future clinical teaching of all psychiatric trainees. This paper summarises key components of the knowledge and roles of future specialists in medical psychotherapy. It recommends that the term ‘medical psychotherapy’ be used widely to clearly differentiate psychiatrists with this training and these responsibilities from non-medical psychotherapists.
The recent expansion of neuroscientific knowledge is changing the nature of psychotherapeutically competent psychiatric practice. For example, components of medical psychotherapy that optimise neuroplasticity and restructure and reinforce synaptic connections can bring about enduring therapeutic changes in patients' personal functioning, experience and behaviour. By renewing their connection to the advancements of neuroscience, psychiatrists in all specialties can build their identities as professionals and their skills as practitioners, making psychotherapeutic interventions more effective for their patients.
Work has been underway at JMU in the Department of Chemistry through an NSF-NUE grant to develop an evolutionary approach to curriculum development across the undergraduate chemistry curriculum. Preliminary assessment data suggests that there exists a profound misunderstanding amongst graduating chemistry majors about basic aspects of nanotechnology as revealed by the NAI. Specifically, there are misconceptions about the sizes of and forces acting on the molecular-scale which is fundamental to any deep understanding of nanometer-scale phenomena. This is particularly alarming since senior-level undergraduate students majoring in chemistry should have a clearer understanding of molecular interactions than other STEM disciplines. A more careful, coordinated and sustained approach to teaching nanometer-scale phenomena must be undertaken in order to address these misconceptions and better prepare students the future workforce in nanoscience and nanotechnology.
Following the publication by the National Institute for Mental Health in England (NIMHE) of Personality Disorder: No Longer A Diagnosis of Exclusion (National Institute for Mental Health in England, 2003), it is perhaps surprising that so soon after there have been threats to the survival of some of the small number of existing specialist personality disorder services to which it refers. Indeed, one of the few in-patient units specialising in such disorders (Webb House in Crewe) closed in July 2004. Such closures or threats argue for closer collaboration in planning between the relevant secondary and tertiary services and also between the Department of Health, the NIMHE and local National Health Service commissioners. Not safeguarding existing tertiary specialist services, at a time of increasing awareness of the needs of patients with personality disorders, may be short-sighted.
Clonidine (1·3 μg/kg) was administered to 62 control and 55 depressed patients free of psychoactive drugs for at least 7 days and fasted overnight. Growth hormone (GH), pulse, blood pressure and sedation were measured every 15 min for 1 h before and 2 h after clonidine infusion.
GH response did not differ significantly between control and depressed subjects overall or when divided by sex. The systolic hypotensive and sedative responses were blunted in depressed subjects compared with controls; these effects appeared to be secondary to residual antidepressant drugs since the differences were only significant for those depressed subjects with short drug-free intervals.
No differences between depressed subjects and controls were seen in diastolic hypotensive or bradycardic responses and no differences in GH, cardiovascular or sedative responses were found between endogenous and non-endogenous depressed subjects.
Twenty-seven families, 14 with a history of child physical abuse and 13 with no such history, were studied over the course of intensive in-patient treatment. The families in the former group differed significantly from those in the latter group in terms of current circumstances and background histories. Families where abuse was admitted benefited significantly more from treatment than families where abuse was suspected but not admitted. The ability of mothers to remember good relationships from childhood and to establish good relationships during treatment was an important prognostic factor for successful treatment.
Modifications were made to increase osteogenic cell adhesion to homo and copolymers of lactic and glycolic acid. A synthetic peptide containing the cell attachment signal Arginine-Glycine-Aspartate (RGD) was loaded into the polymers or adsorbed to the polymers' surfaces. Cell attachment was assayed after 24 hours incubation with an osteogenic cell line (ROS 17/2.8). Statistically significant differences in cell adhesion occurred between the polymers with the adsorbed peptides and the other treatment groups. Significant differences were not observed for the peptide loaded polymers and controls. These data indicate that precoating the polymer surface with a RGD-containing peptide prior to exposure to osteogenic cells increased cell attachment. For the current materials tested, the surface modification is preferred to increase osteogenic cell adhesion to degradable polyesters.
3H-imipramine binding in 39 drug-free patients with major depression and 44 healthy controls did not differ significantly between the two groups, in male or female subjects or in subgroups of depressed patients divided by endogenicity or dexamethasone suppression test result. 3H-imipramine binding in depressed patients drug-free for less than three weeks did not differ from those drug-free for longer intervals or from controls. A significant seasonal variation of 3H-imipramine Bmax was found, with lower values in summer and autumn. Treatment of depressed patients with imipramine or lofepramine for six weeks increased KD and Bmax. Methodological modification (in preparation and storage of platelets) does not explain the major differences in results between this study (using frozen platelets), a previous one (using freshly prepared platelets) and others in general, although it might contribute to the range of values reported.
Polttical Conflicts between Bolivia and its peasantry over the production and distribution of the coca leaf during the 1980s is the focus of this essay. The first section describes several of Bolivia's comparative disadvantages (among Andean producer nations) for waging effective coca leaf control programs. Following is an analysis of the interplay and results of specific statepeasant conflicts during the 1982-1988 period of civilian democratic rule. To give a Bolivian contextual backdrop to these conflicts, aspects of the national political culture which shape the terms and conditions of the struggle over controversial drug-related issues are explained. A final section presents a brief analysis of the Chapare region's prospects for a successful coca leaf eradication program.
Explanations for the Bolivian government's ineffectual campaign against the coca leaf and cocaine industry range from its status as a weak state to its fragile and deteriorating economy (Healy, 1986). Bolivia's political system holds the world record for changes in government by way of the coup d'etat.
I have just spent 18 months searching for a job to continue higher psychiatric training in the London area. In connection with this quest, I wrote many letters, made numerous telephone calls, spoke with more than 50 consultant psychiatrists in 11 teaching hospital settings, investigated and considered 23 advertised posts, applied for 16, was shortlisted for 12, withdrew from one and was interviewed for 12, before finally being offered a job which I was happy to accept.