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The Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) is a consortium of 18 twin studies from 5 different countries (Sweden, Denmark, Finland, United States, and Australia) established to explore the nature of gene–environment (GE) interplay in functioning across the adult lifespan. Fifteen of the studies are longitudinal, with follow-up as long as 59 years after baseline. The combined data from over 76,000 participants aged 14–103 at intake (including over 10,000 monozygotic and over 17,000 dizygotic twin pairs) support two primary research emphases: (1) investigation of models of GE interplay of early life adversity, and social factors at micro and macro environmental levels and with diverse outcomes, including mortality, physical functioning and psychological functioning; and (2) improved understanding of risk and protective factors for dementia by incorporating unmeasured and measured genetic factors with a wide range of exposures measured in young adulthood, midlife and later life.
There is a general recognition that, notwithstanding recent advances and improvements in the targeting and delivery of ECT, within routine clinical practice there continue to be a significant minority of patients who are either not helped by, or are unable to tolerate, ECT (Scottish Electroconvulsive Therapy Accreditation Network, 2016). Failure to sustain a useful antidepressant effect, even with diligent attention to all available maintenance measures, remains a particular clinical challenge. In the previous edition of The ECT Handbook (Waite & Easton, 2013), emerging evidence to support the use of different brain stimulation therapies was reviewed. With repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) now addressed within a separate chapter (Chapter 15), here we consider the present status of three distinct forms of neurosurgical intervention: vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS) and stereotactic ablative (lesion generation) surgery. Each of these therapeutic approaches are also addressed within the 2017 Royal College of Psychiatrists’ Position Statements on Neurosurgery for Mental Disorders (NMD) (RCPsych CERT 05/17, 2017).
While our fascination with understanding the past is sufficient to warrant an increased focus on synthesis, solutions to important problems facing modern society require understandings based on data that only archaeology can provide. Yet, even as we use public monies to collect ever-greater amounts of data, modes of research that can stimulate emergent understandings of human behavior have lagged behind. Consequently, a substantial amount of archaeological inference remains at the level of the individual project. We can more effectively leverage these data and advance our understandings of the past in ways that contribute to solutions to contemporary problems if we adapt the model pioneered by the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis to foster synthetic collaborative research in archaeology. We propose the creation of the Coalition for Archaeological Synthesis coordinated through a U.S.-based National Center for Archaeological Synthesis. The coalition will be composed of established public and private organizations that provide essential scholarly, cultural heritage, computational, educational, and public engagement infrastructure. The center would seek and administer funding to support collaborative analysis and synthesis projects executed through coalition partners. This innovative structure will enable the discipline to address key challenges facing society through evidentially based, collaborative synthetic research.
Addressing archaeology's most compelling substantive challenges requires synthetic research that exploits the large and rapidly expanding corpus of systematically collected archaeological data. That, in turn, requires a means of combining datasets that employ different systematics in their recording while at the same time preserving the semantics of the data. To that end, we have developed a general procedure that we call query-driven, on-the-fly data integration that is deployed within the Digital Archaeological Record digital repository. The integration procedure employs ontologies that are mapped to the original datasets. Integration of the ontology-based dataset representations is done at the time the query is executed, based on the specific content of the query. In this way, the original data are preserved, and data are aggregated only to the extent necessary to obtain semantic comparability. Our presentation draws examples from the largest application to date: an effort by a research community of Southwest US faunal analysts. Using 24 ontologies developed to cover a broad range of observed faunal variables, we integrate faunal data from 33 sites across the late prehistoric northern Southwest, including about 300,000 individually recorded faunal specimens.
Do increasing, and increasingly diverse, immigration flows lead to declining support for redistributive policy? This concern is pervasive in the literatures on immigration, multiculturalism and redistribution, and in public debate as well. The literature is nevertheless unable to disentangle the degree to which welfare chauvinism is related to (a) immigrant status or (b) ethnic difference. This paper reports on results from a web-based experiment designed to shed light on this issue. Representative samples from the United States, Quebec, and the “Rest-of-Canada” responded to a vignette in which a hypothetical social assistance recipient was presented as some combination of immigrant or not, and Caucasian or not. Results from the randomized manipulation suggest that while ethnic difference matters to welfare attitudes, in these countries it is immigrant status that matters most. These findings are discussed in light of the politics of diversity and recognition, and the capacity of national policies to address inequalities.
Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990–1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.
Historical records, photographs, maps and measurements were used to determine changes in the length, geometry and volume of Rabots Glaciär, Sweden, in response to a ∼1°C warming that occurred early in the 20th century. The glacier’s initial rate of retreat from its 1910 maximum was ~2.0 m a–1. After a sharp increase to ∼11.7 m a–1 between 1933 and 1946, the mean retreat rate decreased to ∼5.5 m a-1 between 1946 and 1959. Thereafter the rate of retreat increased to ∼11.0 m a-1 and has remained relatively constant to the present time. Concomitant decreases in ice volume were estimated to be 77.3 × 106m3 between 1910 and 1959, 51.1 × 106m3 between 1959 and 1980, at least 10.4 × 106m3 between 1980 and 1989, and 14.4 × 106m3 between 1989 and 2003. The total volume change over the last 93 years is estimated at ∼153.2 × 106m3 corresponding to 1.6 × 106m3a–1.. The magnitude of the ongoing changes in length and volume suggests that Rabots Glaciär has not yet completed its response to the earlier climatic warming. In contrast, several nearby glaciers, most notably Storglaciären, have completed their adjustments and established new steady-state profiles as a result of having shorter response times.
Children acquiring sociolinguistic knowledge in transnational migration settings must learn to evaluate multiple languages and dialects in a fluid, multifaceted social landscape. This study examines the sociolinguistic development of local and expatriate children in Singapore and investigates the extent to which they share sociolinguistic knowledge and norms. One hundred fourteen children ages five to nineteen completed a region identification task and an occupation judgment task, focusing on their perception of four regional English varieties: Australian English, Northern-China-accented English, Filipino English, and Singapore English. While all groups performed well on the region identification task, expatriate children outperformed locals within the youngest age group. Singaporean and expatriate children attending local schools showed greater familiarity with local norms than international school students in their occupation ratings. Participants mapped speakers to occupations by general prestige level, suggesting that children rely on indirect knowledge of social status rather than direct experience with speakers in their development of sociolinguistic evaluation. (Children's sociolinguistic development, transnational migration, language attitudes)*
This article reviews the current debate on whether U.S. agricultural productivity growth is slowing. It also assesses recent research on how productivity is related to long-term investment in research and development (R&D). It describes significant changes taking place in the U.S. agricultural research system, including the growing role of private agribusiness as a main developer of new agricultural technologies and what this implies for agricultural science policy. The conclusion has suggestions for future research on these issues.
Electroconvulsive therapy prescribers, practitioners and many patients will be aware of an emerging clinical evidence base for non-ECT brain stimulation treatments. Although the previous edition of The ECT Handbook made no mention of brain stimulation treatments, a review of the status of the three most studied therapies is now relevant. These therapies are:
• repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
• vagus nerve stimulation
• deep brain stimulation.
In this chapter, we consider the use of these therapies in the management of depression and how they might relate to the ECT treatment pathway.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation is a non-invasive technique causing modification of brain activity by focal stimulation of the superficial layers of the cerebral cortex using a train of magnetic pulses via an external wire coil. The impetus for studies of rTMS in psychiatry has arisen from the need for a viable alternative to ECT with a lower burden of adverse effects and greater patient acceptability. A substantial literature, including several systematic reviews and meta-analyses, now exists on the use of rTMS in the management of depression. In 2008 the US Food and Drug Administration approved a TMS system ‘for the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder in adult patients who have failed to achieve satisfactory improvement from one prior antidepressant medication at or above the minimal effective dose and duration in the current episode’.
However, NICE published a technology appraisal in 2007, restating the core recommendations in the 2010 depression guideline update, which is consistent with the absence of convincing evidence of superior efficacy for rTMS over sham treatment and with the paucity of efficacy data extending beyond 4–6 weeks of treatment. The status of the technique is summarised as follows:
‘Current evidence suggests that there are no major safety concerns associated with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for severe depression. There is uncertainty about the procedure's clinical efficacy, which may depend on higher intensity, greater frequency, bilateral application and/or longer treatment durations than have appeared in the evidence to date. TMS should therefore be performed only in research studies designed to investigate these factors.’ (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2007)
In our opinion, on the basis of current evidence, rTMS remains an interesting but experimental therapy which should not be considered a viable alternative to treatment with ECT.
The following list consists of dates for archaeologic and geologic samples mostly measured over the period from January 1980 to June 1981. The dates were obtained by liquid scintillation counting of benzene using the laboratory procedures outlined in previous lists (see, eg, BM VIII, R, 1976, v 18, p 16).
Selected stable carbon isotope measurements published in Radiocarbon over a 12-year period have been abstracted, plotted, and summarized, to give more reliable estimates of the mean value and range of δ13C for five classes of natural material (human bone collagen, non-human animal bone collagen, plant materials, wood, and charcoal), and to provide a firmer base line for stable carbon isotope dietary and environmental studies.
The following list consists of dates for archaeologic and geologic samples mostly measured from June 1982 to June 1983. The dates were obtained by liquid scintillation counting of benzene using the laboratory procedures outlined in previous lists (see, eg, BM-VIII, R, 1976, v 18, p 16). Dates are expressed in radiocarbon years relative to ad 1950 based on the Libby half-life for 14C of 5570 yr, and are corrected for isotopic fractionation (δ13C values are relative to PDB). No corrections have been made for natural 14C variations. The modern reference standard is NBS oxalic acid (SRM 4990). Errors quoted with dates are based on counting statistics alone and are equivalent to ± 1 standard deviation (± 1σ). Descriptions, comments, and references to publications are based on information supplied by submitters.
The following list consists of dates for archaeologic samples mostly measured from July 1976 to December 1977. The dates were obtained by liquid scintillation counting of benzene using the laboratory procedures outlined in previous lists (see, eg, BM-VIII, R, 1976, v 18, p 16). Dates are expressed in radiocarbon years relative to ad 1950 based on the Libby half-life for 14C of 5570 yr, and are corrected for isotopic fractionation (δ13C values are relative to PDB). No corrections have been made for natural 14C variations (although in some instances approximate calibrated dates taken from the tables of R M Clark (1975) have been given in the comments where this aids interpretation of results). The modern reference standard is NBS oxalic acid (SRM 4990). Errors quoted with the dates are based on counting statistics alone and are equivalent to ± 1 standard deviation (± 1σ), Dates in this and the next list (BM-XIV) reported to submitters or published elsewhere before the introduction of the new guidelines for rounding of computed figures have deliberately been left unrounded. From BM-XV onwards all BM dates will be rounded before publication in conformity with the recently recommended procedures (R, 1977, v 19, p 362). Descriptions, comments, and references to publications are based on information supplied by submitters.
The following list consists of dates for archaeologic and some geologic samples, mostly measured from January 1978 to December 1979. The dates were obtained by liquid scintillation counting of benzene using the laboratory procedures outlined in previous lists (see, eg, BM-VIII, R, 1976, v 18, p 16). The dates are expressed in radiocarbon years relative to ad 1950 based on the Libby half-life for 14C of 5570 yr, and are corrected for isotopic fractionation (δ13C values are relative to PDB). No corrections have been made for natural 14C variations. The modern reference standard is NBS oxalic acid (SRM 4990). Errors quoted with the dates are based on counting statistics alone and are equivalent to ± 1 standard deviation (± 1σ). Dates in this list reported to submitters or published elsewhere before the introduction of the new guidelines for rounding of computed figures have deliberately been left unrounded. From BM-XV onwards all BM dates will be rounded before publication in conformity with the recently recommended procedures (R, 1977, v 19, p 362). Descriptions, comments, and references to publications are based on information supplied by submitters.
The following list consists of dates for archaeologic samples mostly measured from June 1984 to June 1985. The dates were obtained by liquid scintillation counting of benzene using the laboratory procedures outlined in previous lists (see, eg, BM-VIII, R, 1976, v 18, p 16). Dates are expressed as suggested by Stuiver and Polach (1977), ie, in 14C years relative to AD 1950, based on the Libby half-life for 14C of 5570 yr, and corrected for isotopic fractionation (δ13C values are given relative to PDB). No corrections have been made for natural 14C variations. The modern reference standards are the NBS oxalic acids (SRM 4990 and RM 49). Errors quoted are the counting error for the sample, combined with an estimate of the errors contributed by the modern and background samples. This estimate includes both counting and non-counting errors, and is computed from differences in the overall count rates observed among the individual backgrounds and moderns. The overall error is given as ± 1 standard deviation (± 1σ). Descriptions, comments, and references to publications are based on information supplied by submitters.
The following list consists of dates, obtained by liquid scintillation counting of benzene, for archaeologic samples mostly measured between June 1987 and October 1989.
Charcoal and grain samples were pretreated with 1M HCl followed by washing in water and, where considered necessary, with dilute alkali for the removal of humic acids. Wood samples were treated either in the same way, or, where large enough, were reduced to cellulose by the action of chlorine dioxide produced in situ. All antler and bone samples were treated with cold dilute acid. The term ‘collagen’ is used throughout to mean the acid insoluble organic fraction produced by this treatment. Peat samples were treated with dilute acid and alkali to separate the humin and humic acid fractions, which were dated individually.