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The construction of halloysite spherical capsules (halloysite aerogels) was reported for the first time in our previous work. The excellent performance of the microcapsule in functional carrying was also found in our further research. In this work, the anti-icing surface was fabricated by using halloysite nanotubes and halloysite spherical microcapsules. The fabrication of the anti-icing coating was investigated, and the ice nucleation behavior of droplet on the coating surface was studied. The modified halloysite nanotubes (F-HNTs) and the modified halloysite microcapsules (F-HAs) were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric, and pore size distribution. The results show that the introduction of F-HNTs and F-HAs have successfully formed a micro-nano structure on the coating surface with superhydrophobicity performance. The icing temperature of the coating has decreased 2.3 °C compared with bare glass, and the ice adhesion strength has decreased 82%. According to the ice dynamic mechanics, the ice nucleation rate on the coating is significantly reduced, thus the halloysite microcapsule coating has good icephobic performance.
The ablation and acceleration of diamond-like high-density carbon foils irradiated by thermal X-ray radiations are investigated with radiation hydrodynamics simulations. The time-dependent front of the ablation wave is given numerically for radiation temperatures in the range of 100–300 eV. The mass ablation rates and ablation pressures can be derived or implied from the coordinates of ablation fronts, which agree well with reported experiment results of high-density carbon with radiation temperatures Trad in the range of 160–260 eV. It is also found that the
scaling law for ablation rates does not apply to Trad above 260 eV. The trajectories of targets and hydrodynamic efficiencies for different target thicknesses can be derived from the coordinates of ablation fronts using a rocket model and the results agree well with simulations. The peak hydrodynamic efficiencies of the acceleration process are investigated for different foil thicknesses and radiation temperatures. Higher radiation temperatures and target thicknesses result in higher hydrodynamic efficiencies. The simulation results are useful for the design of fusion capsules.
Family coaggregation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia have been presented in previous studies. The shared genetic and environmental factors among psychiatric disorders remain elusive.
This nationwide population-based study examined familial coaggregation of major psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of individuals with ASD. Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database was used to identify 26 667 individuals with ASD and 67 998 FDRs of individuals with ASD. The cohort was matched in 1:4 ratio to 271 992 controls. The relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ADHD, ASD, BD, MDD and schizophrenia were assessed among FDRs of individuals with ASD and ASD with intellectual disability (ASD-ID).
FDRs of individuals with ASD have higher RRs of major psychiatric disorders compared with controls: ASD 17.46 (CI 15.50–19.67), ADHD 3.94 (CI 3.72–4.17), schizophrenia 3.05 (CI 2.74–3.40), BD 2.22 (CI 1.98–2.48) and MDD 1.88 (CI 1.76–2.00). Higher RRs of schizophrenia (4.47, CI 3.95–5.06) and ASD (18.54, CI 16.18–21.23) were observed in FDRs of individuals with both ASD-ID, compared with ASD only.
The risk for major psychiatric disorders was consistently elevated across all types of FDRs of individuals with ASD. FDRs of individuals with ASD-ID are at further higher risk for ASD and schizophrenia. Our results provide leads for future investigation of shared etiologic pathways of ASD, ID and major psychiatric disorders and highlight the importance of mental health care delivered to at-risk families for early diagnoses and interventions.
In the preparation of café latte, spectacular layer formation can occur between the espresso shot in a glass of milk and the milk itself. Xue et al. (Nat. Commun., vol. 8, 2017, pp. 1–6) showed that the injection velocity of espresso determines the depth of coffee–milk mixture. After a while, when a stable stratification forms in the mixture, the layering process can be modelled as a double diffusive convection system with a stably stratified coffee–milk mixture cooled from the side. More specifically, we perform (two-dimensional) direct numerical simulations of laterally cooled double diffusive convection for a wide parameter range, where the convective flow is driven by a lateral temperature gradient while stabilized by a vertical concentration gradient. Depending on the strength of stabilization as compared to the thermal driving, the system exhibits different flow regimes. When the thermal driving force dominates over the stabilizing force, the flow behaves like vertical convection in which a large-scale circulation develops. However, with increasing strength of the stabilizing force, a meta-stable layered regime emerges. Initially, several vertically-stacked convection rolls develop, and these well-mixed layers are separated by sharp interfaces with large concentration gradients. The initial thickness of these emerging layers can be estimated by balancing the work exerted by thermal driving and the required potential energy to bring fluid out of its equilibrium position in the stably stratified fluid. In the layered regime, we further observe successive layer merging, and eventually only a single convection roll remains. We elucidate the following merging mechanism: as weakened circulation leads to accumulation of hot fluid adjacent to the hot sidewall, larger buoyancy forces associated with hotter fluid eventually break the layer interface. Then two layers merge into a larger layer, and circulation establishes again within the merged structure.
The present study investigated the influence of berberine (BBR) supplementation in normal and high-lipid (HL) diets on lipid metabolism and accumulation in black sea bream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii). BBR was supplemented at 50 mg/kg to control (Con, 11·1 % crude lipid) and high-lipid (HL, 20·2 % crude lipid) diets and named as ConB and HLB, respectively. After the 8-week feeding trial, fish body length and specific growth rate were significantly reduced by HL diets (P < 0·05). Muscle and whole-body crude lipid contents were significantly influenced by both BBR supplementation and dietary lipid level. Fish fed the HLB diet had significantly lower serum TAG, LDL-cholesterol contents and alanine aminotransferase activity compared with the HL group. The HL group presented vast lipid accumulation in the liver, and hypertrophied hepatocytes along with large lipid droplets, and translocation of nuclear to the cell periphery. These abnormalities in black sea bream were alleviated in the HLB group. BBR supplementation in the HL diet significantly down-regulated the hepatic expression levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pparγ, whereas the lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a expression levels were significantly up-regulated. However, the expression levels of these genes showed opposite trends in muscle (except for pparγ). In conclusion, dietary BBR supplementation in the HL diet reduced hepatic lipid accumulation by down-regulating lipogenesis gene expression and up-regulating lipolysis gene expression, and it increased muscle lipid contents with opposite trends of the mechanism observed in the liver.
Isolated congenital tricuspid regurgitation other than Ebstein’s anomaly was rare especially for children. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and to assess the results of tricuspid valvuloplasty for children with isolated tricuspid regurgitation.
From January 2010 to June 2019, 10 consecutive patients with isolated tricuspid regurgitation who were unresponsive to drug therapy underwent tricuspid valvuloplasty in our hospital. Patients’ clinical data were analysed retrospectively.
Mean age at operation was 48.5 ± 31.0 (range: 9–106) months and mean weight at operation was 16.1 ± 6.9 (range: 8.6–33.0) kg. All patients presented severe isolated tricuspid regurgitation. According to pathological lesions, the main causes accounted for chordae tendinea rupture (3/10), leaflet cleft (2/10), mal-connected chordal tendinea to leaflets (2/10), elongated chordae (1/10) and chordae absent (1/10), and severe anterior leaflet dysplasia (1/10). Individualised tricuspid valvuloplasty was adapted to all of them successfully. Post-operative echocardiography showed no tricuspid regurgitation in two patients and mild regurgitation in eight patients. The cardiothoracic ratios on their chest roentgenograms decreased from 0.59 ± 0.05 to 0.54 ± 0.05. At the latest follow-up (50.4 ± 47.2 months), echocardiography showed that mild to moderate tricuspid regurgitation in seven patients, moderate tricuspid regurgitation in three patients, and no patient with severe tricuspid regurgitation. All patients were in NYHA functional class I.
For patients with isolated tricuspid regurgitation who were not well responsive to drug therapy, individualised tricuspid valve repair can achieve an excellent result.
The role of severe respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)–laden aerosols in the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains uncertain. Discordant findings of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air samples were noted in early reports.
Sampling of air close to 6 asymptomatic and symptomatic COVID-19 patients with and without surgical masks was performed with sampling devices using sterile gelatin filters. Frequently touched environmental surfaces near 21 patients were swabbed before daily environmental disinfection. The correlation between the viral loads of patients’ clinical samples and environmental samples was analyzed.
All air samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the 6 patients singly isolated inside airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs) with 12 air changes per hour. Of 377 environmental samples near 21 patients, 19 (5.0%) were positive by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with a median viral load of 9.2 × 102 copies/mL (range, 1.1 × 102 to 9.4 × 104 copies/mL). The contamination rate was highest on patients’ mobile phones (6 of 77, 7.8%), followed by bed rails (4 of 74, 5.4%) and toilet door handles (4 of 76, 5.3%). We detected a significant correlation between viral load ranges in clinical samples and positivity rate of environmental samples (P < .001).
SARS-CoV-2 RNA was not detectable by air samplers, which suggests that the airborne route is not the predominant mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Wearing a surgical mask, appropriate hand hygiene, and thorough environmental disinfection are sufficient infection control measures for COVID-19 patients isolated singly in AIIRs. However, this conclusion may not apply during aerosol-generating procedures or in cohort wards with large numbers of COVID-19 patients.
Antibiotic prescription is a major driver of antibiotic resistance. The majority of antibiotic prescribing occurs in community care settings, often for respiratory infections. A substantial proportion of prescriptions are issued not according to guidelines, particularly for acute respiratory infections which can be self-limiting. Prescribers in these settings need support to prescribe antibiotics more prudently. Patients and the public also need support to manage infections which are self-limiting. This chapter presents a summary of how antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) activities are being used in community settings. Firstly, types of community-level interventions are discussed, including those aimed at clinicians, patients and the public. Next, we assess interventions based on their effectiveness at reducing antibiotic prescriptions or use and their cost-effectiveness. Finally, we discuss directions for future research and consider how the research to date could influence policy.
Several observational studies have investigated the association of insomnia with psychiatric disorders. Such studies yielded mixed results, and whether these associations are causal remains unclear. Thus, we aimed to identify the causal relationships between insomnia and five major psychiatric disorders.
The analysis was implemented with six genome-wide association studies; one for insomnia and five for psychiatric disorders (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder). A heterogeneity in dependent instrument (HEIDI) approach was used to remove the pleiotropic instruments, Mendelian randomization (MR)-Egger regression was adopted to test the validity of the screened instruments, and bidirectional generalized summary data-based MR was performed to estimate the causal relationships between insomnia and these major psychiatric disorders.
We observed significant causal effects of insomnia on the risk of autism spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder, with odds ratios of 1.739 (95% confidence interval: 1.217–2.486, p = 0.002) and 1.786 (95% confidence interval: 1.396–2.285, p = 4.02 × 10−6), respectively. There was no convincing evidence of reverse causality for insomnia with these two disorders (p = 0.945 and 0.546, respectively). When insomnia was considered as either the exposure or outcome variable, causal estimates for the remaining three psychiatric disorders were not significant.
Our results suggest a causal role of insomnia in autism spectrum disorder and bipolar disorder. Future disease models should include insomnia as a factor for these two disorders to develop effective interventions. More detailed mechanism studies may also be inspired by this causal inference.
We report new U–Pb isotopic data for detrital zircons from Cambrian–Ordovician strata on the northern margin of the western Yangtze Block, which together with published U–Pb isotopic data for coeval strata in the South China Block, provide critical constraints on the provenance of these sediments and further shed light on the early Palaeozoic position of the South China Block in the context of Gondwana. Detrital zircons in this study yield four major age peaks in the early Palaeoproterozoic, early Neoproterozoic, middle Neoproterozoic and late Neoproterozoic – early Palaeozoic. The dominant age population of 900–700 Ma matches well with magmatic ages from the nearby Panxi–Hannan Belt, which indicates that Cambrian–Ordovician sedimentary rocks in the western Yangtze Block were mainly of local derivation. However, compilations of detrital zircon ages for the Cambrian–Ordovician strata from the Cathaysia Block and the eastern Yangtze Block show that both blocks are dominated by late Mesoproterozoic- and early Neoproterozoic-aged detrital zircons, which suggests a remarkable exotic input with typical Gondwana signatures. According to the integrated detrital zircon age spectra of the Cambrian–Ordovician sedimentary rocks from the entire South China Block and palaeocurrent data, the South China Block should have been linked with North India and Western Australia within East Gondwana. Specifically, the Cathaysia Block was located adjacent to Western Australia, while the Yangtze Block was connected with North India.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of Scutellaria baicalensis extracts (SBE) on intestinal health in terms of morphology, barrier integrity and immune responses in weaned piglets challenged with Escherichia coli K88. A total of seventy-two weaned piglets were assigned into two groups to receive a basal diet without including antibiotic additives or the basal diet supplemented 1000 mg SBE/kg diet for 14 d. On day 15, twelve healthy piglets from each group were selected to expose to oral administration of either 10 ml 1 × 109 colony-forming units of E. coli K88 or the vehicle control. After 48 h of E.coli K88 challenge, blood was sampled, and then all piglets were killed humanely for harvesting jejunal and ileal samples. Dietary supplementation of SBE significantly decreased diarrhoea frequency and improved feed conversion ratio (P < 0·05). SBE supplementation to E.coli K88-challenged piglets improved villous height and villous height/crypt depth (P < 0·05), recovered the protein expression of occludin and zonula occludens-2 in both the jejunum and ileum (P < 0·05), and mitigated the increases in plasma IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IgA and IgG (P < 0·05). Meanwhile, dietary SBE effectively inhibited the stimulation of NF-κB, P38 and TNF-α as well as IL-1β in the small intestine of piglets challenged by E. coli K88 and prevented the activation of NF-κB/P38 signalling pathways (P < 0·05). Collectively, SBE supplementation can potently attenuate diarrhoea in weaning piglets and decrease inflammatory cytokine expressions through inhibiting the NF-κB and P38 signalling pathways.
Concerns over food safety in China not only direct public attention to negative
incidents, but also trigger the government's scrutiny of implicated
firms, particularly MNCs. The question of how to repair legitimacy after media
coverage of negative incidents has become a critical issue for MNCs. Although
the factors for MNCs’ public crises have been identified, how local
contexts and mechanisms shape repair approaches remain unclear. To address this
research gap, we conducted a study of Walmart China's approaches
associated with two negative incidents across two regions. We found that the
negative incidents can be framed differently depending on the local
environment's unfavorability for MNCs. Specifically, the negative
framing gave rise to varying degrees of legitimacy loss and offered different
leeway for MNCs to repair their legitimacy. We also identified the varied
outcomes of different repair approaches. By revealing the linkages among local
context, framing, legitimacy repair, and its outcomes, our study contributes to
research on MNCs’ legitimacy management under institutional
complexity and underscores the China context for legitimacy maintenance. We also
offer insights that advance the institutional approach to legitimacy repair in
this context. Last, we reflect on the techniques for conducting qualitative
research in China.
Small luminescent Y2O3:Eu3+ particles were prepared by a hydrothermal method first, and then, Y2O3:Eu3+/C3N4 nanocomposites were further prepared by a chemisorption method. The luminescent Y2O3:Eu3+/C3N4 nanocomposites are not only a promising down-conversion luminescent material, but also it could be used to improve the efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Especially, the morphology of Y2O3:Eu3+ has great influence on the performance of DSSCs. Compared with Y2O3:Eu3+ nanorods, the introduction of small Y2O3:Eu3+ particles into the cells is conducive to the improvement of cell efficiency. The efficiencies of TiO2-Y2O3:Eu3+–C3N4 composite cells were not only higher than those of pure TiO2 cells but also higher than those of TiO2-Y2O3:Eu3+ or TiO2-C3N4 composite cells, resulting in the enhancement of the average efficiency of the TiO2-Y2O3:Eu3+–C3N4 composite cell from 7.16% to 8.14%, with 14% improvement over the pure TiO2 cell. The enhancement of the efficiency can be attributed to the synergetic effect of small Y2O3:Eu3+ particles and C3N4.
We hypothesize that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) may play a role in disturbing the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on the striatal connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
We performed a longitudinal observation by combining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and biochemical analyses to identify the abnormal striatal connectivity in MDD patients, and to evaluate the effect of TNF-α level on these abnormal connectivities during SSRI treatment. Eighty-five rs-fMRI scans were collected from 25 MDD patients and 35 healthy controls, and the scans were repeated for all the patients before and after a 6-week SSRI treatment. Whole-brain voxel-wise functional connectivity (FC) was calculated by correlating the rs-fMRI time courses between each voxel and the striatal seeds (i.e. spherical regions placed at the striatums). The level of TNF-α in serum was evaluated by Milliplex assay. Factorial analysis was performed to assess the interaction effects of ‘TNF-α × treatment’ in the regions with between-group FC difference.
Compared with controls, MDD patients showed significantly higher striatal FC in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and bilateral middle/superior temporal cortices before SSRI treatment (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Moreover, a significant interaction effect of ‘TNF-α × treatment’ was found in MPFC-striatum FC in MDD patients (p = 0.002), and the significance remained after adjusted for age, gender, head motion, and episode of disease.
These findings provide evidence that treatment-related brain connectivity change is dependent on the TNF-α level in MDD patients, and the MPFC-striatum connectivities possibly serve as an important target in the brain.
The overuse of antibiotics and the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance prompted the launch of an antimicrobial stewardship programme in 2011. This study aimed to investigate the trends and correlations between antibiotic consumption and resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary hospital of northwest China from 2010 to 2016. Trends were analysed by linear regression, and correlations were assessed by an autoregressive integrated moving average model. The total consumption of antibiotics halved during the 7-year study period, while the rates of resistance of S. aureus decreased significantly or remained stable; methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) declined markedly, from 73.3% at the beginning of the study to 41.4% by the end. This latter decrease was significantly correlated with the consumption of several classes of antibiotics. In conclusion, reduction in antibiotic use impacted significantly on resistance rates and contributed to a decline in MRSA prevalence.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), an effective antidepressive treatment, is frequently accompanied by cognitive impairment (predominantly memory), usually transient and self-limited. The hippocampus is a key region involved in memory and emotion processing, and in particular, the anterior-posterior hippocampal subregions has been shown to be associated with emotion and memory. However, less is known about the relationship between hippocampal-subregion alterations following ECT and antidepressant effects or cognitive impairments.
Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) based on the seeds of hippocampal subregions were investigated in 45 pre- and post-ECT depressed patients. Structural connectivity between hippocampal subregions and corresponding functionally abnormal regions was also conducted using probabilistic tractography. Antidepressant effects and cognitive impairments were measured by the Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Category Verbal Fluency Test (CVFT), respectively. Their relationships with hippocampal-subregions alterations were examined.
After ECT, patients showed increased RSFC in the hippocampal emotional subregion (HIPe) with the left middle occipital gyrus (LMOG) and right medial temporal gyrus (RMTG). Decreased HDRS was associated with increased HIPe-RMTG RSFC (r = −0.316, p = 0.035) significantly and increased HIPe-LMOG RSFC at trend level (r = −0.283, p = 0.060). In contrast, the hippocampal cognitive subregion showed decreased RSFC with the bilateral angular gyrus, and was correlated with decreased CVFT (r = 0.418, p = 0.015 for left; r = 0.356, p = 0.042 for right). No significant changes were found in structural connectivity.
The hippocampal-subregions functional alterations may be specially associated with the antidepressant and cognitive effects of ECT.
High-precision underwater positioning must eliminate the influence of refraction artefacts. Since a Time Of Arrival - Global Navigation Satellite System Intelligent Buoys (TOA-GIB) system does not measure incident beam angles, common refraction correction methods cannot be directly used for refraction artefacts. An Equivalent Sound Speed (ESS) iteration method is proposed and is based on the transformation relations between depth, the ESS gradient and the incident beam angle. On this basis, a TOA/AOA-GIB system without a real-time Sound Speed Profile (SSP) is proposed to estimate the target position and the ESS gradient as unknown parameters. The results from a simulation experiment show that the positioning accuracy of a TOA/AOA-GIB system is better than 0·07% of water depth when the accuracy of the incident beam angle is 0·1°.