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With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
In the collapsing phase of a molecular cloud, the molecular gas temperature is a key to understand the evolutionary process from a dense molecular cloud to stars. In order to know this, mapping observations in NH3 lines are required. Therefore, we made them based on the FUGIN (FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with Nobeyama 45m telescope). The 6 maps were observed in NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) and H2O maser lines and obtained temperature maps; some show temperature gradient in a cloud. Additionally 72 cores were observed. These candidates were called as KAGONMA or KAG objects as abbreviation of KAgoshima Galactic Object survey with Nobeyama 45-M telescope in Ammonia lines. We show the results of two regions in W33 and discuss their astrophysical properties.
The mid-infrared range contains many spectral features associated with large molecules and dust grains such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and silicates. These are usually very strong compared to fine-structure gas lines, and thus valuable in studying the spectral properties of faint distant galaxies. In this paper, we evaluate the capability of low-resolution mid-infrared spectroscopic surveys of galaxies that could be performed by SPICA. The surveys are designed to address the question how star formation and black hole accretion activities evolved over cosmic time through spectral diagnostics of the physical conditions of the interstellar/circumnuclear media in galaxies. On the basis of results obtained with Herschel far-infrared photometric surveys of distant galaxies and Spitzer and AKARI near- to mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of nearby galaxies, we estimate the numbers of the galaxies at redshift z > 0.5, which are expected to be detected in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features or dust continuum by a wide (10 deg2) or deep (1 deg2) blind survey, both for a given observation time of 600 h. As by-products of the wide blind survey, we also expect to detect debris disks, through the mid-infrared excess above the photospheric emission of nearby main-sequence stars, and we estimate their number. We demonstrate that the SPICA mid-infrared surveys will efficiently provide us with unprecedentedly large spectral samples, which can be studied further in the far-infrared with SPICA.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
High dietary energy density (ED) has been associated with weight gain. However, little is known about the long-term effects of ED on weight changes among free-living subjects, particularly in Japanese and other Asian populations. In this study, we assessed dietary habits and weight changes in participants (5778 males and 7440 females, 35–69 years old) of the Takayama study. ED was estimated using a validated FFQ at baseline only. Information on body weight (BW) was obtained by self-administered questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Mean BW difference in 9·8 years was 17 (se 4221) g for men and −210 (se 3889) g for women. In men, ED was positively associated with BW at follow-up after controlling for age, BW, height, physical activity score, alcohol consumption, energy intake, years of education at the baseline and change of smoking status during the follow-up. On average, men in the highest quartile of ED (>5·322 kJ/g (>1·272 kcal/g)) gained 138 (se 111) g, whereas men in the lowest ED (<1·057) lost 22 (se 111) g (Pfor trend=0·01). The association between ED and BW gain was stronger in men with normal weight. In women, the association between ED and weight change was not statistically significant. In conclusion, contrary to some studies that report an association between ED and weight gain in the overweight only, our data suggest that high-ED diets may be associated with weight gain in the lean population as well, at least in male subjects.
The kinetics of Ge lateral overgrowth on SiO2 with line-shaped Si seeds is examined. The growth process is described by the difference between the growth rates of Ge on (100) planes (GR100) and <311> facets (GR311). The theoretical calculations well reproduce the growth kinetics. It is shown that narrowing the line-seeds helps Ge coalescence and flat film formation.
In this study, in order to investigate biocompatibility of nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:N) film coating segmented polyurethane (SPU) scaffold fiber sheet (a-C:H:N-Scaffold) in in-vitro test, mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) cells were grown on the a-C:H:N-Scaffold. The cell behavior was monitored by time-lapse imaging system. Additionally, the a-C:H:N-Scaffold was implanted at partial aorta descendens of a goat for 35 days. The surface morphology, composition, and wettability of the a-C:H:N-scaffold was estimated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), and contact angle measurement. In in-vitro test, it was observed that a-C:H:N film coating had a facilitatory effect on cell motility and cell growth. In in-vivo test, it was observed that the a-C:H:N-Scaffold surface was uniformly covered by neointima. The a-C:H:N-Scaffold surface had no thrombus formation as an inflammatory reaction and it was shown that the a-C:H:N film coating had a good blood compatibility. These results suggest that a-C:H:N film coating has good cytocompatibility and blood compatibility and it is a promising approach for improvement of biocompatibility of biomaterial surfaces.
II-VI compound semiconductor ZnO has a potential for high radiation hardness since large threshold displacement energy of constituent atoms can be expected due to the small unit-cell volume and large bandgap energy of 3.37 eV. In order to study the radiation hardness, singlecrystalline c-axis-oriented O-polar ZnO films with and without two-dimensional electron gas, a Zn-polar ZnO bulk crystal, and a Ga-polar GaN bulk crystal for comparison, were irradiated by an 8 MeV proton beam using a tandem-type accelerator. The radiation damage increased the electrical resistance and decreased the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of these samples with the increase of proton fluence over specific threshold values. In agreement with the expectation, ZnO samples were revealed to have superior radiation hardness; the threshold fluences for the deterioration of PL intensity were 3×1013 p/cm2 for the GaN bulk crystal, 2×1014 p/cm2 for the ZnO bulk crystal, and 5×1014 p/cm2 for the two ZnO films, in accordance with the order of the threshold fluences for the electrical resistance increase. The effect of post-irradiation annealing was also studied for these damaged bulk crystals; both electrical and optical properties of the ZnO bulk crystal were almost recovered to the pre-irradiation values, however, only the electrical properties of the GaN bulk crystal were recovered, by the annealing up to 700°C. Such a rapid recovery of the ZnO bulk crystal indicates the easy annihilation of Zn vacancy complexes acting as non-radiative centers by the recombination with interstitial Zn atoms. Since the migration barrier height energy of interstitial Zn atoms is known to be so small that it might occur even at room temperature, we ascribed the superior radiation hardness of ZnO crystals to the restoration of damage-induced defects by a self-annealing effect during irradiation.
In order to realize the magnetic refrigeration system, it is necessary to develop a 100 W class refrigerator with COP > 7.5. This requires us to find new magnetic refrigerant materials, of which cooling capacity is 2.5 times higher than that of Gd. In this paper, first we discuss the cooling capacity of magnetic refrigerant materials to achieve COP = 7.5. Then, we compare the experimental results of MnAsSb, MnFe(PGe) and La(FeCoSi)13 compounds with the calculated cooling capacity. It is suggested that a composite layer material of MnFe(PGe) would show excellent cooling capacity in the temperature span of 20 K.
Crystallinity of area-selective Ge layer with a (0 0 1) surface grown on Si substrate has been investigated by means of diffractometry using a parallel X-ray microbeam. The measured lattice parameters of 〈0 0 1〉 direction were about 0.17% smaller than that of bulk Ge crystal. This tensile strain value was almost the same as the simulated ones that used the finite-element method.
To investigate two clusters of diarrhoea cases observed in our geriatric hospital wards, the faecal specimens were analysed. Reversed passive latex agglutination assay revealed that 63·2% and 41·7% of the faecal specimens from each cluster were positive for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. PCR assay revealed that 71·4% and 68·8% of C. perfringens isolates from each cluster were positive for the enterotoxin gene (cpe). These observations suggested that both the clusters were outbreaks caused by enterotoxigenic C. perfringens. Subsequent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the two outbreaks were caused by different C. perfringens isolates. However, these outbreak isolates as well as other sporadic diarrhoea isolates shared a 75-kb plasmid on which the cpe gene and the tcp locus were located. The 75-kb plasmid had horizontally spread to various C. perfringens isolates and had caused outbreaks and sporadic infections. However, the site and time of the plasmid transfer are unclear.
Because of its applicability to biological specimens (nonconductors),
a single-molecule-imaging technique, atomic force microscopy (AFM), has
been particularly powerful for visualizing and analyzing complex
biological processes. Comparative analyses based on AFM observation
revealed that the bacterial nucleoids and human chromatin were constituted
by a detergent/salt-resistant 30–40-nm fiber that turned into
thicker fibers with beads of 70–80 nm diameter. AFM observations of
the 14-kbp plasmid and 110-kbp F plasmid purified from Escherichia
coli demonstrated that the 70–80-nm fiber did not contain a
eukaryotic nucleosome-like “beads-on-a-string” structure.
Chloroplast nucleoid (that lacks bacterial-type nucleoid proteins and
eukaryotic histones) also exhibited the 70–80-nm structural units.
Interestingly, naked DNA appeared when the nucleoids from E. coli
and chloroplast were treated with RNase, whereas only 30-nm chromatin
fiber was released from the human nucleus with the same treatment. These
observations suggest that the 30–40-nm nucleoid fiber is formed with
a help of nucleoid proteins and RNA in E. coli and chroloplast,
and that the eukaryotic 30-nm chromatin fiber is formed without RNA. On
the other hand, the 70–80-nm beaded structures in both E.
coli and human are dependent on RNA.
The linear polarisation of luminescence light allows conclusions on the symmetry of defects in semiconductors with non-cubic symmetry, like chalcopyrites, for which three shallow acceptors have been identified by photoluminescence. The polarisation dependent photoluminescence allows to determine the symmetry of the defects relative to the c-axis of the crystal. A simple geometrical model implies that chalcogen sites show a predominant direction perpendicular to the c-axis, while metal sites show a predominant direction parallel to the c-axis. Since all three shallow acceptors show polarization parallel to the c-axis, it can be concluded that they are situated on a metal site
Conductive tin-oxide (SnO2) film is doped by group V or VII elements. Of all possible dopants, fluorine provides n-type SnO2 with the best electronic and optical properties. However, the commonly used fluorine dopant, bromotrifluoromethane (CBrF3), is a greenhouse gas. Thus, an alternative fluorine source is needed. In this work, we compared CIF3 as a fluorine dopant to CBrF3. With CBrF3 dopant, optimized carrier concentration and electron mobility values can reach to mid 1020 cm-3 and over 40 cm2/V-s, respectively. After carrier concentration saturates, the electronic mobility continues to improve with an increase of CBrF3 dopant concentration. As a comparison, to achieve similar carrier concentration, far less CIF3 dopant is required. However, the electron mobility is lower (<30 cm2/V-s) and does not improve with an increase of dopant concentration. The low electron mobility increases the optical absorption, especially of long wavelengthes. Considering CdTe/CdS solar cell efficiency, the device with a CIF3-doped SnO2 window layer provides the lower photocurrent.
We report photovoltaic cell structures on SnO2:F (TCO) coated glass substrates. Thin films of CdS, SnS, and CuS or PbS were deposited sequentially from chemical baths to produce the solar cell structures: SnO2:F-CdS- SnS (A)-CuS-Ag; SnO2:F-CdS- SnS (A)-PbS-Ag; and SnO2:F-CdS- SnS (B)-PbS-Ag. Heating SnS-CuS films results in the formation of Cu2SnS3, and sequential depositions of SnS and PbS to obtain solar cells produce stratified layers as required for solar cells. The photovoltaic characteristics, Voc 340 mV and Jsc 6 mA/cm2 in these structures suggest that absorber thin films based on tin sulfide are worth investigating as a relatively abundant and non-toxic material for solar cells.
Unlike other photoactive layers (e.g. Si) polycrystalline chalcopyrite layers achieve higher efficiency than monocrystalline ones. Although grain boundaries may play an important role for this phenomenon, there is currently no commonly accepted model for the electronic structure of grain boundaries. First experimental results on CuGaSe2 absorbers indicated a small neutral barrier for majority carriers (20-40meV) at sigma 3 grain boundaries, which is the predominant grain boundary in polycrystalline chalcopyrite absorbers . These results are in discrepancy with theory, which predicts a 10 times higher barrier; we suspect that the copper excess might reduce the barrier height.
Here we present a study using Hall-effect and Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy (KPFM) measurements to investigate the composition dependence of the barrier height of epitaxially grown CuGaSe2 layers containing a sigma 3 grain boundary as a function of the Cu/Ga ratio. First results show that the barrier height is independent of the copper content. In addition, we present initial results on sigma 9 grain boundaries which are observed to occur in high efficiency absorbers.
In electron-backscatter diffraction, crystalline orientation maps are formed while the electron beam of an SEM scans the sample surface. EBSD requires a flat sample to avoid shadowing of the electrons from the detector by surface features. In this work, we investigate the preparation of CdTe samples deposited by close-spaced sublimation for EBSD analysis. Untreated samples were rough, resulting in areas with no EBSD signal. We processed the samples by polishing and ion-beam milling. Polishing produced flat samples, but low-quality EBDS data, because the top surface of the samples had poor crystallinity. In contrast, ion-beam milling proved to be suitable for producing flat samples with minimal surface damage, yielding good EBSD data. We also analyzed the samples with atomic force microscopy, and correlated the quality of the EBSD data with sample roughness. The EBSD data showed that the CdTe films were randomly oriented and had columnar growth and a high density of <111> twin boundaries.
We have grown device-grade Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films using a RF-cracked Se-radical beam source. A unique combination of film properties: smooth surface, large grain size and high photovoltaic performance are shown. A competitive energy conversion efficiency of 17 % has been demonstrated from a solar cell fabricated using a CIGS absorber grown with a Se-radical source. In addition to the unique combination of film properties and high photovoltaic performance, a significant improvement in the use of Se source material in comparison with the conventional Se-evaporative sources has been demonstrated.