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With the recent discovery of a dozen dusty star-forming galaxies and around 30 quasars at z > 5 that are hyper-luminous in the infrared (μ LIR > 1013 L⊙, where μ is a lensing magnification factor), the possibility has opened up for SPICA, the proposed ESA M5 mid-/far-infrared mission, to extend its spectroscopic studies toward the epoch of reionisation and beyond. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and scientific potential of such observations with SPICA’s far-infrared spectrometer SAFARI, which will probe a spectral range (35–230 μm) that will be unexplored by ALMA and JWST. Our simulations show that SAFARI is capable of delivering good-quality spectra for hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z = 5 − 10, allowing us to sample spectral features in the rest-frame mid-infrared and to investigate a host of key scientific issues, such as the relative importance of star formation versus AGN, the hardness of the radiation field, the level of chemical enrichment, and the properties of the molecular gas. From a broader perspective, SAFARI offers the potential to open up a new frontier in the study of the early Universe, providing access to uniquely powerful spectral features for probing first-generation objects, such as the key cooling lines of low-metallicity or metal-free forming galaxies (fine-structure and H2 lines) and emission features of solid compounds freshly synthesised by Population III supernovae. Ultimately, SAFARI’s ability to explore the high-redshift Universe will be determined by the availability of sufficiently bright targets (whether intrinsically luminous or gravitationally lensed). With its launch expected around 2030, SPICA is ideally positioned to take full advantage of upcoming wide-field surveys such as LSST, SKA, Euclid, and WFIRST, which are likely to provide extraordinary targets for SAFARI.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
The mid-infrared range contains many spectral features associated with large molecules and dust grains such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and silicates. These are usually very strong compared to fine-structure gas lines, and thus valuable in studying the spectral properties of faint distant galaxies. In this paper, we evaluate the capability of low-resolution mid-infrared spectroscopic surveys of galaxies that could be performed by SPICA. The surveys are designed to address the question how star formation and black hole accretion activities evolved over cosmic time through spectral diagnostics of the physical conditions of the interstellar/circumnuclear media in galaxies. On the basis of results obtained with Herschel far-infrared photometric surveys of distant galaxies and Spitzer and AKARI near- to mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of nearby galaxies, we estimate the numbers of the galaxies at redshift z > 0.5, which are expected to be detected in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features or dust continuum by a wide (10 deg2) or deep (1 deg2) blind survey, both for a given observation time of 600 h. As by-products of the wide blind survey, we also expect to detect debris disks, through the mid-infrared excess above the photospheric emission of nearby main-sequence stars, and we estimate their number. We demonstrate that the SPICA mid-infrared surveys will efficiently provide us with unprecedentedly large spectral samples, which can be studied further in the far-infrared with SPICA.
IR spectroscopy in the range 12–230 μm with the SPace IR telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will reveal the physical processes governing the formation and evolution of galaxies and black holes through cosmic time, bridging the gap between the James Webb Space Telescope and the upcoming Extremely Large Telescopes at shorter wavelengths and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array at longer wavelengths. The SPICA, with its 2.5-m telescope actively cooled to below 8 K, will obtain the first spectroscopic determination, in the mid-IR rest-frame, of both the star-formation rate and black hole accretion rate histories of galaxies, reaching lookback times of 12 Gyr, for large statistically significant samples. Densities, temperatures, radiation fields, and gas-phase metallicities will be measured in dust-obscured galaxies and active galactic nuclei, sampling a large range in mass and luminosity, from faint local dwarf galaxies to luminous quasars in the distant Universe. Active galactic nuclei and starburst feedback and feeding mechanisms in distant galaxies will be uncovered through detailed measurements of molecular and atomic line profiles. The SPICA’s large-area deep spectrophotometric surveys will provide mid-IR spectra and continuum fluxes for unbiased samples of tens of thousands of galaxies, out to redshifts of z ~ 6.
High dietary energy density (ED) has been associated with weight gain. However, little is known about the long-term effects of ED on weight changes among free-living subjects, particularly in Japanese and other Asian populations. In this study, we assessed dietary habits and weight changes in participants (5778 males and 7440 females, 35–69 years old) of the Takayama study. ED was estimated using a validated FFQ at baseline only. Information on body weight (BW) was obtained by self-administered questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Mean BW difference in 9·8 years was 17 (se 4221) g for men and −210 (se 3889) g for women. In men, ED was positively associated with BW at follow-up after controlling for age, BW, height, physical activity score, alcohol consumption, energy intake, years of education at the baseline and change of smoking status during the follow-up. On average, men in the highest quartile of ED (>5·322 kJ/g (>1·272 kcal/g)) gained 138 (se 111) g, whereas men in the lowest ED (<1·057) lost 22 (se 111) g (Pfor trend=0·01). The association between ED and BW gain was stronger in men with normal weight. In women, the association between ED and weight change was not statistically significant. In conclusion, contrary to some studies that report an association between ED and weight gain in the overweight only, our data suggest that high-ED diets may be associated with weight gain in the lean population as well, at least in male subjects.
Nuclear activities in galaxies, such as nuclear starbursts or AGNs, are supposed to be induced by gas fueling into nuclear regions of galaxies. Non-axisymmetric gravitational potential caused by a stellar bar is a convincing mechanism for triggering gas fueling (Phinney 1994). However, numerical simulations have shown that the bar can not force the gas to accrete toward the galactic center beyond the inner Lindblad resonance (ILR). As a mechanism to overcome the ILR barrier, the double barred structure (Friedli & Martinet 1993), or the self-gravity of gas (Wada & Habe 1992, 1995; Elmegreen 1994) are proposed.
A unified formation mechanism of nuclear starbursts is presented; all the nuclear starbursts are triggered by binary supermassive black holes made in the final phase of galaxy mergers. Minor mergers cause both nuclear starbursts and hot-spot nuclei while major mergers cause (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies. We discuss the case of Arp 220 in detail.
Numerical modeling of the interstellar gas in galaxies is an effective approach to infer galactic gravitational structure. This is because the dynamical behavior of gas is very sensitive to the background gravitational potential. Since the dynamical resonances depend closely on the mass distribution and the pattern speed of the non-axisymmetric component, it is possible to determine these dynamical parameters by comparison of numerical simulations and gas observations.
Starburst regions are frequently located in galactic central regions and CO observations indicate that these regions contain a large amount of molecular gas (e.g. Lo et al. 1987). However, the triggering mechanism for starbursts and the mechanism of the high mass supply rate of gas into a galactic center are still unclear.
It is suggested that tidal encounters of galaxies remove angular momentum of gas and trigger rapid gas accretion and starburst. Noguchi(1988) has shown by computer simulations that galaxy-galaxy interactions induce a stellar bar, and gas loses its angular momentum and accumulates to a galactic center. In his numerical simulation, non-axisymmetric potential of a stellar bar plays an important role in the accretion of gas. However, it is not obvious whether or not gas accretes into a nuclear region within a few hundred pc only by the effects of stellar bar.
Wada and Habe (1992) investigated the dynamics of self-gravitating gas in a barred potential by 2-D numerical simulation, and show that even if the bar is weak, for the initial gas mass ratio to stellar mass grater than 10%, a central elongated gas ring formed at near ILRs becomes unstable and collapses. As a result, a large amount of gas can be supplied to galactic center. They conclude that both the effect of the self-gravity of the gas and the existence of ILRs are necessary to the rapid gas fueling in a weak barred potential.
We have developed and tested a new near infrared camera equipped with a 512 × 512 PtSi CCD and cooled by two independent Stirling Cycle refrigerators. The camera, installed on the 60 cm reflector telescope of the Nishi-Harima Astronomical Observatory (NHAO) since April 2000, has begun regular observations toward infrared objects. Since the reasonable cost and lower maintenance needs of the camera make it more attractive, we introduce it as an alternative to robotic telescopes.
The kinetics of Ge lateral overgrowth on SiO2 with line-shaped Si seeds is examined. The growth process is described by the difference between the growth rates of Ge on (100) planes (GR100) and <311> facets (GR311). The theoretical calculations well reproduce the growth kinetics. It is shown that narrowing the line-seeds helps Ge coalescence and flat film formation.
Fundamental electronic modulations in strained wurtzite III-nitride, in particular InxGa1−xN, quantum wells (QWs) were treated to explore the reason why practical InGaN devices emit bright luminescences in spite of the large threading dislocation (TD) density. The emission mechanisms were shown to vary depending on the well thickness L and InN molar fraction x. The electric field across the QW plane, F, which is a sum of the fields due to spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization and the pn junction field, causes the redshift of the ground state resonance energy through the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE). The absorption spectrum is modulated by QCSE, quantum-confined Franz-Keldysh effect (QCFK), and Franz-Keldysh (FK) effect from the barrires when, for the first approximation, potential drop across the well (FL) exceeds the valence band discontinuity, EV. Under large FL, holes are confined in the triangular potential well formed at one side of the well. This produces apparent Stokes-like shift in addition to the in-plane net Stokes shift on the absorption spectrum. The QCFK and FK further modulate the electronic structure of the wells with L greater than the three dimensional (3D) free exciton (FE) Bohr radius, aB. When FL exceeds EC, both electron (e) and hole (h) confined levels drop into the triangular potential wells at opposite sides of the wells, which reduces the wavefunction overlap. Doping of Si in the barriers partially screens the F resulting in a smaller Stokes-like shift, shorter recombination decay time, and higher emission efficiency. Finally, the use of InGaN was found to overcome the field-induced oscillator strength lowering due to the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization. Effective in-plane localization of the QW excitons (confined excitons, or quantized excitons) in quantum disk (Q-disk) size potential minima, which are produced by nonrandom alloy potential fluctuation enhanced by the large bowing parameter and F, produces confined e-h pairs whose wavefunctions are still overlapped when L<aB. Their Coulomb interaction is more pronounced for FL<EV.
In this study, in order to investigate biocompatibility of nitrogen-doped hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:N) film coating segmented polyurethane (SPU) scaffold fiber sheet (a-C:H:N-Scaffold) in in-vitro test, mouse fibroblasts (NIH 3T3) cells were grown on the a-C:H:N-Scaffold. The cell behavior was monitored by time-lapse imaging system. Additionally, the a-C:H:N-Scaffold was implanted at partial aorta descendens of a goat for 35 days. The surface morphology, composition, and wettability of the a-C:H:N-scaffold was estimated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), and contact angle measurement. In in-vitro test, it was observed that a-C:H:N film coating had a facilitatory effect on cell motility and cell growth. In in-vivo test, it was observed that the a-C:H:N-Scaffold surface was uniformly covered by neointima. The a-C:H:N-Scaffold surface had no thrombus formation as an inflammatory reaction and it was shown that the a-C:H:N film coating had a good blood compatibility. These results suggest that a-C:H:N film coating has good cytocompatibility and blood compatibility and it is a promising approach for improvement of biocompatibility of biomaterial surfaces.
Effects of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) with a SiNx encapsulant on molecular beam epitaxial GaAs are studied with deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The RTA was performed at various temperatures form 800°C to 1100°C for 6sec. The electron trap EL2 is produced by the RTA above 850°C The EL2 depth profile produced after the RTA is fitted with a complementary error function. The SiNx cap layer is more effective to prevent the formation of the EL2 than the SiO* cap layer during the RTA, because the critical temperature of the SiNx cap where the EL2 concentration starts to increase is higher than that of the SiOx cap. Slight increase of the oxidized Ga atoms is observed after the RTA near the cap surface. The enhancement of the EL2 trap is discussed considering the outdiffusion of Ga atoms into the cap layer during the RTA.
Vacancy-type defects in 60-keV Be+-implanted GaAs and InP were studied by a monoenergetic positron beam. The depth distributions of vacancy-type defects were obtained from measurements of Doppler broadening profiles of the positron annihilation as a function of incident positron energy. Vacancy-type defects introduced by ion implantation were observed in n-type GaAs. For p-type GaAs, however, this was not the case. This can be attributed to the recombination of vacancy-type defects and pre-existed interstitial-type defects in p-type GaAs. The defects induced by ion implantation in InP were also studied.
In this study, we evaluate the electrical characteristics of the silicon on insulator (SOI) layer made by the wafer bonding method using a photoconductivity modulation method, in other words, noncontact laser beam induced conductivity/current (LBIC) method. The He-Ne laser pulse (λ= 633nm, pulse width=2ms) is used as the carrier-injection light source.
The detected signal intensity decreases at the void area as compared with at the center area of the SOI layer where there are no voids. The positions of the voids revealed by the proposed method are in good agreement with those by X-ray topography. We also measure the lifetime using the photoconductivity decay method using the laser diode. The lifetime at the void area is much shorter than that at the center area. It is considered that the decrease in the detected signal intensity at the void area is due to reduction in the minority carrier lifetime.
Silicon-on-insulator films fabricated by the wafer bonding technique were studied with capacitance-voltage (c-V) and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements. For our experiments, two kinds of SOI wafers were prepared. Many voids were present in one sample (void sample), but few voids were in the other sample (no void sample). Before annealing, two DLTS peaks (E-0.48 eV and Ec-0.38 eV) were observed in the SOI layer of the void sample. For the no void sample, different two DLTS peaks (Ec-0.16 eV and Ec-0.12 eV) were observed. The trap with an activation energy of 0.48 eV was annealed out after 450 °C annealing for 24 h. On the other hand, other traps were annealed out after 450 °C annealing for several hours. During annealing at 450 °C, thermal donors (TDs) were formed simultaneously. In usual CZ sil icon, a DLTS peak of TD was observed around 60 K. In the no void sample, however, a TD peak was observed at a temperature lower than 30 K. This TD was annihilated by rapid thermal annealing. This suggests that the TD with a shallower level was formed in the no void sample after annealing at 450 °C.
II-VI compound semiconductor ZnO has a potential for high radiation hardness since large threshold displacement energy of constituent atoms can be expected due to the small unit-cell volume and large bandgap energy of 3.37 eV. In order to study the radiation hardness, singlecrystalline c-axis-oriented O-polar ZnO films with and without two-dimensional electron gas, a Zn-polar ZnO bulk crystal, and a Ga-polar GaN bulk crystal for comparison, were irradiated by an 8 MeV proton beam using a tandem-type accelerator. The radiation damage increased the electrical resistance and decreased the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of these samples with the increase of proton fluence over specific threshold values. In agreement with the expectation, ZnO samples were revealed to have superior radiation hardness; the threshold fluences for the deterioration of PL intensity were 3×1013 p/cm2 for the GaN bulk crystal, 2×1014 p/cm2 for the ZnO bulk crystal, and 5×1014 p/cm2 for the two ZnO films, in accordance with the order of the threshold fluences for the electrical resistance increase. The effect of post-irradiation annealing was also studied for these damaged bulk crystals; both electrical and optical properties of the ZnO bulk crystal were almost recovered to the pre-irradiation values, however, only the electrical properties of the GaN bulk crystal were recovered, by the annealing up to 700°C. Such a rapid recovery of the ZnO bulk crystal indicates the easy annihilation of Zn vacancy complexes acting as non-radiative centers by the recombination with interstitial Zn atoms. Since the migration barrier height energy of interstitial Zn atoms is known to be so small that it might occur even at room temperature, we ascribed the superior radiation hardness of ZnO crystals to the restoration of damage-induced defects by a self-annealing effect during irradiation.
In order to realize the magnetic refrigeration system, it is necessary to develop a 100 W class refrigerator with COP > 7.5. This requires us to find new magnetic refrigerant materials, of which cooling capacity is 2.5 times higher than that of Gd. In this paper, first we discuss the cooling capacity of magnetic refrigerant materials to achieve COP = 7.5. Then, we compare the experimental results of MnAsSb, MnFe(PGe) and La(FeCoSi)13 compounds with the calculated cooling capacity. It is suggested that a composite layer material of MnFe(PGe) would show excellent cooling capacity in the temperature span of 20 K.
The tuning of one-dimensional photonic band gap structures based on porous silicon will be presented. The photonic structures are prepared by applying a periodic pulse of current density to form alternating high and low porosity layers. The width and position of the photonic bandgap are determined by the dielectric function of each layer, which depends on porosity, and their thickness. In this work we show that by controlling the oxidation of the porous silicon structures, it is possible to tune the photonic bandgap towards shorter wavelengths. The formation of silicon dioxide during oxidation causes a reduction of the refractive index, which induces the blue shift. The photonic band gap is determined experimentally by taking the total reflection of the structures. In order to understand the tuning of the photonic band gap, we developed a geometrical model using the effective medium approximation to calculate the dielectric function of each of the oxidized porous silicon layers. The two key parameters are the porosity and the parameter β, defined as the ratio between the silicon dioxide thickness and the pore radius before oxidation. Choosing the parameter β, to fit the experimental photonic band gap of the oxidized structures, we extract the fraction of oxide that is present. For example, the measured 240 nm blue shift of a photonic bandgap that was centered at 1.7 microns corresponds to the transformation of 30% of the structure into silicon dioxide. A similar approach can be used for oxidized two-dimensional porous silicon photonic structures.